In order to describe a system we need four fundamental features [Pg.3]

The choice of particles puts limitations on what we are ultimately able to describe. If we choose atomic nuclei and electrons as our building blocks, we can describe atoms and molecules, but not the internal structure of the atomic nucleus. If we choose atoms as the building blocks, we can describe molecular structures, but not the details of the electron distribution. If we choose amino acids as the building blocks, we maybe able to describe the overall structure of a protein, but not the details of atomic movements. [Pg.3]

The choice of starting conditions effectively determines what we are trying to describe. The complete phase space (i.e. aU possible values of positions and velocities for aU particles) is huge, and we will only be able to describe a small part of it. Our choice of starting conditions determines which part of the phase space we sample, for example which (structural or conformational) isomer or chemical reaction we can describe. There are many structural isomers with the molecular formula CeH, but if we want to study benzene, we should place the nuclei in a hexagonal pattern, and start them with relatively low velocities. [Pg.3]

The interaction between particles in combination with the dynamical equation determines how the system evolves in time. At the fundamental level, the only important force at the atomic level is the electromagnetic interaction. Depending on the choice of system description (particles), however, this may result in different effective forces. [Pg.3]

Equation (A3.3.57) must be supplied with appropriate initial conditions describing the system prior to the onset of phase separation. The initial post-quench state is characterized by the order parameter fluctuations characteristic of the pre-quench initial temperature T.. The role of these fluctuations has been described in detail m [23]. Flowever, again using the renomialization group arguments, any initial short-range correlations should be irrelevant, and one can take the initial conditions to represent a completely disordered state at J = xj. For example, one can choose the white noise fomi (i /(,t,0)v (,t, 0)) = q8(.t -. ), where ( ) represents an... [Pg.739]

An even coarser description is attempted in Ginzburg-Landau-type models. These continuum models describe the system configuration in temis of one or several, continuous order parameter fields. These fields are thought to describe the spatial variation of the composition. Similar to spin models, the amphiphilic properties are incorporated into the Flamiltonian by construction. The Flamiltonians are motivated by fiindamental synnnetry and stability criteria and offer a unified view on the general features of self-assembly. The universal, generic behaviour—tlie possible morphologies and effects of fluctuations, for instance—rather than the description of a specific material is the subject of these models. [Pg.2380]

These should be con describe the same reaction, s but at the limit of fine Physically the interesting f appearance of the pressure p ablej with the consequence describe the system at the at the limit of fine pores, true that the pressure wit ni sense that percentage variat of the pressure variations i permeability, so convective permeability and pressure gr the origin of the two terms... [Pg.168]

The Schrodinger equation is a differential equation depending on time and on all of the spatial coordinates necessary to describe the system at hand (thirty-nine for the H2O example cited above). It is usually written... [Pg.10]

The Onsager model describes the system as a molecule with a multipole moment inside of a spherical cavity surrounded by a continuum dielectric. In some programs, only a dipole moment is used so the calculation fails for molecules with a zero dipole moment. Results with the Onsager model and HF calculations are usually qualitatively correct. The accuracy increases significantly with the use of MP2 or hybrid DFT functionals. This is not the most accurate method available, but it is stable and fast. This makes the Onsager model a viable alternative when PCM calculations fail. [Pg.209]

Colloidal State. The principal outcome of many of the composition studies has been the delineation of the asphalt system as a colloidal system at ambient or normal service conditions. This particular concept was proposed in 1924 and described the system as an oil medium in which the asphaltene fraction was dispersed. The transition from a coUoid to a Newtonian Hquid is dependent on temperature, hardness, shear rate, chemical nature, etc. At normal service temperatures asphalt is viscoelastic, and viscous at higher temperatures. The disperse phase is a micelle composed of the molecular species that make up the asphaltenes and the higher molecular weight aromatic components of the petrolenes or the maltenes (ie, the nonasphaltene components). Complete peptization of the micelle seems probable if the system contains sufficient aromatic constituents, in relation to the concentration of asphaltenes, to allow the asphaltenes to remain in the dispersed phase. [Pg.367]

The transformed variables describe the system composition with or without reaction and sum to unity as do Xi and yi. The condition for azeotropy becomes X, = Y,. Barbosa and Doherty have shown that phase and distillation diagrams constructed using the transformed composition coordinates have the same properties as phase and distillation region diagrams for nonreactive systems and similarly can be used to assist in design feasibility and operability studies [Chem Eng Sci, 43, 529, 1523, and 2377 (1988a,b,c)]. A residue curve map in transformed coordinates for the reactive system methanol-acetic acid-methyl acetate-water is shown in Fig. 13-76. Note that the nonreactive azeotrope between water and methyl acetate has disappeared, while the methyl acetate-methanol azeotrope remains intact. Only... [Pg.1320]

The reaction kinetics approximation is mechanistically correct for systems where the reaction step at pore surfaces or other fluid-solid interfaces is controlling. This may occur in the case of chemisorption on porous catalysts and in affinity adsorbents that involve veiy slow binding steps. In these cases, the mass-transfer parameter k is replaced by a second-order reaction rate constant k. The driving force is written for a constant separation fac tor isotherm (column 4 in Table 16-12). When diffusion steps control the process, it is still possible to describe the system hy its apparent second-order kinetic behavior, since it usually provides a good approximation to a more complex exact form for single transition systems (see Fixed Bed Transitions ). [Pg.1514]

Proprietary alloys are assigned numbers by the AA, AISI, CDA, ASTM, and SAE, which maintains master listings at their headquarters. Handbooks describing the system are available. (Cf. ASTM publication DS-56AC.)... [Pg.2448]

Substitution (see Seetion 1.02.9.1.1) is the formal proeedure most widely applied in modifying parent names. Indeed, the general term substitutive nomenclature is often used to describe the system of nomenclature in which substitution is the main operation. A fundamental concept of this system is that of the principal characteristic group . [Pg.38]

Eq. (1) would correspond to a constant energy, constant volume, or micro-canonical simulation scheme. There are various approaches to extend this to a canonical (constant temperature), or other thermodynamic ensembles. (A discussion of these approaches is beyond the scope of the present review.) However, in order to perform such a simulation there are several difficulties to overcome. First, the interactions have to be determined properly, which means that one needs a potential function which describes the system correctly. Second, one needs good initial conditions for the velocities and the positions of the individual particles since, as shown in Sec. II, simulations on this detailed level can only cover a fairly short period of time. Moreover, the overall conformation of the system should be in equilibrium. [Pg.485]

The basic idea of a Ginzburg-Landau theory is to describe the system by a set of spatially varying order parameter fields, typically combinations of densities. One famous example is the one-order-parameter model of Gompper and Schick [173], which uses as the only variable 0, the density difference between oil and water, distributed according to the free energy functional... [Pg.666]

The reason is that thermodynamics describes the system in equihbrium as a state, i.e., the question of the initial conditions for the trajectories of all shared particles is unimportant. This means an enormous simphfication for the theory To be precise we do not need the system to be in equihbrium, but small parts of the system (each one containing a few atoms) should be describable by at least some local equihbrium, so that we can speak of a local temperature, for example. [Pg.855]

The parameterization of MNDO/AM1/PM3 is performed by adjusting the constants involved in the different methods so that the results of HF calculations fit experimental data as closely as possible. This is in a sense wrong. We know that the HF method cannot give the correct result, even in the limit of an infinite basis set and without approximations. The HF results lack electron correlation, as will be discussed in Chapter 4, but the experimental data of course include such effects. This may be viewed as an advantage, the electron correlation effects are implicitly taken into account in the parameterization, and we need not perform complicated calculations to improve deficiencies in fhe HF procedure. However, it becomes problematic when the HF wave function cannot describe the system even qualitatively correctly, as for example with biradicals and excited states. Additional flexibility can be introduced in the trial wave function by adding more Slater determinants, for example by means of a Cl procedure (see Chapter 4 for details). But electron cori elation is then taken into account twice, once in the parameterization at the HF level, and once explicitly by the Cl calculation. [Pg.95]

Making approximations in the Hamiltonian describing the system, e.g. semi-empirical electronic structure methods. [Pg.401]

In all cases it is important to describe the system, its requirements, control and method of operation in the specifications. The manufacturer needs complete data concerning the motive steam (air or water) and the condensable and non-condensable vapors. [Pg.373]

Operational model, devised and published by James Black and Paul Leff (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Biol. 220,141-162, 1983), this model uses experimental observation to describe the production of a physiological response by an agonist in general terms. It defines affinity and the ability of a drug to induce a response as a value of x, which is a term describing the system (receptor density and efficiency of the cell to convert an activated receptor stimulus into a response) and the agonist (efficacy). It has provided a major advance in the description of functional effects of drugs see Chapter 3.6 for further discussion. [Pg.281]

Consider the following reactions which are sufficient to describe the system ... [Pg.41]

If only one type of particle is present, mx = m2 however, the expressions relating the velocities before and after collision do not simplify to any great extent. If several types of particles are present, then there results one Boltzmann equation for the distribution function for each type of particle in each equation, integrals will appear for collisions with each type of particle. That is, if there are P types of particles, numbered i = 1,2,- , P, there are P distribution functions, ft /(r,vt, ), describing the system ftdrdvt is the number of particles of type i in the differential phase space volume around (r,v(). The set of Boltzmann equations for the system would then be ... [Pg.16]

In concluding this section we note that the hamiltonian describing the system of noninteracting charged spin 0 particles, Eq. (9-199), can be expressed in terms of the configuration space operators <(>(x) and

When more experience is gained on microwave electrochemical phenomena, they could, for example, be used to characterize electrochemical systems in a contact-free way. The PMC signal alone could describe the system sufficiently for understanding its behavior. An interesting application would then be fast electrochemical sensors that, while implanted or separated by a glass diaphragm, could be scanned and evaluated without electrical contacts. [Pg.520]

System (A8.2)-(A8.4) defines completely the time variation of orientation and angular velocity for every path X(t). One can easily see that (A8.2)-(A8.4) describe the system with parametrical modulation, as the X(t) variation is an input noise and does not depend on behaviour of the solution of (Q(t), co(r). In other words, the back reaction of the rotator to the collective motion of the closest neighbourhood is neglected. Since the spectrum of fluctuations X(t) does not possess a carrying frequency, in principle, for the rotator the conditions of parametrical resonance and excitation (unrestricted heating of rotational degrees of freedom) are always fulfilled. In reality the thermal equilibrium is provided by dissipation of rotational energy from the rotator to the environment and... [Pg.273]

Pharmaceutical sites will usually create a dedicated team of validation specialists to coordinate all validation activities. They should operate according to a validation master plan that has been developed using risk analysis to identify the most critical systems requiring validation/re-validation. Before validating a system or process, a written protocol should be prepared that describes the system, the critical aspects, the objectives, the test methods and the acceptance criteria that will be applied. A validation report should be prepared on completion of each protocol. [Pg.224]

We can describe the system of fruit with the amount (percentage)of the space which is not filled with material. There are pores, canals and holes between the fruits. This is called porosity. [Pg.209]

We will pursue the discussion of additive schemes further with regard to problem (61)-(62) capable of describing the system of hyperbolic equations... [Pg.641]

An important question is, how can we quantify the fx pattern so that it can be numerically compared with temperature One way is to consider the ensemble of fx values as information describing the system. By design, = 1.00 holds for this set of values and so the fx values should be converted to fractions of 1.00. The information content, H, is a value that is... [Pg.68]

The properties that describe a system and its transformations can be grouped in two broad categories. Some properties depend only on the conditions that describe the system. These properties are called state functions. Other properties depend on how the change occurs. Properties that depend on how a change takes place are called path functions. [Pg.368]

The function that provides a quantitative measure of dispersal is called entropy and is symbolized S. In 1877, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann derived Equation, which defines the entropy of a substance in terms of W, the number of ways of describing the system. [Pg.980]

The details of the derivation are complicated, but the essence of this equation is that the more possible descriptions the system has, the greater is its entropy. The equation states that entropy increases in proportion to the natural logarithm of W, the proportionality being given by the Boltzmann constant, k — 1.3 806 x lO V/r. Equation also establishes a starting point for entropy. If there is only one way to describe the system, it is fully constrained and W — 1. Because ln(l)=0,S = 0 when W — 1. [Pg.980]

To reach W = 1 and S = 0, we must remove as much of this vibrational motion as possible. Recall that temperature is a measure of the amount of thermal energy in a sample, which for a solid is the energy of the atoms or molecules vibrating in their cages. Thermal energy reaches a minimum when T = 0 K. At this temperature, there is only one way to describe the system, so — 1 and — 0. This is formulated as the third law of thermodynamics, which states that a pure, perfect crystal at 0 K has zero entropy. We can state the third law as an equation, Equation perfect crystal T=0 K) 0... [Pg.989]

The problem asks for a qualitative analysis of a chemical equilibrium. We must visualize what takes place at the molecular level, describe the system in words, draw pictures that summarize the reactions, and then use the ideas developed for the NO2 /N2 O4 reaction to write an expression for the equilibrium constant. [Pg.1138]

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