Actually, the PV behavior predicted in this region by proper cubic equations of state is not wholly fictitious. When the pressure is decreased on saturated liquid devoid of vapor-nucleation sites in a carefully controlled experiment, vaporization does not occur, and the liquid phase persists alone to pressures well below its vapor pressure. Similarly, raising the pressure on a saturated vapor in a suitable experiment does not cause condensation, and the vapor persists alone to pressures well above the vapor pressure. These nonequilibrium or metastable states of superheated liquid and subcooled vapor are approximated by those portions of the PV isotherm which lie in the two-phase region adjacent to the saturated-liquid and saturated-vapor states. [Pg.49]

Liquids and solids can also be described by equations of state. However, unlike equations of state for gases, condensed-phase equations of state have constants that are unique to each substance. That is, there is no ideal liquid law constant or ideal solid law constant analogous to the ideal gas law constant In much, but not all, of the cases to be considered here, we will be considering equations of state for a gas. [Pg.8]

For detailed references and a brief general discussion of other equations of state used in condensed-phase detonation problems, see S. J. Jacobs, ARS (Am. Rocket Soc. J.) 30, 151 (1960). [Pg.1]

The inclusion of both three and four-particle correlations in nuclear matter allows not only to describe the abundances oft, h, a but also their influence on the equation of state and phase transitions. In contrast to the mean-field treatment of the superfluid phase, also higher-order correlations will arise in the quantum condensate. [Pg.90]

V.M. Boyle et al, "Determination of Shock Hugoniots for Several Condensed-Phase Explosives , 4thONRSympDeton (1965), 241-47 (12 refs) 6) N.L. Cole-burn T.P. Liddiard Jr, "Hugoniot Equations of State of Several Unreacted Explosives , JChemPhys 44, 1929(1966) [Pg.518]

Fickett in "Detonation Properties of Condensed Explosives Calculated with an Equation of State Based on Intermolecular Potentials , Los Alamos Scientific Lab Rept LA-2712 (1962), pp 34-38, discusses perturbation theories as applied to a system of deton products consisting of two phases one, solid carbon in some form, and the other, a fluid mixt of the remaining product species. He divides these theories into two classes conformal solution theory, and what he chooses to call n-fluid theory. Both theories stem from a common approach, namely, perturbation from a pure fluid whose props are assumed known. They differ mainly in the choice of expansion variables. The conformal solution method begins with the assumption that all of the intermolecular interaction potentials have the same functional form. To obtain the equation of state of the mixt, some reference fluid obeying a common reduced equation of state is chosen, and the mixt partition function is expanded about that of the reference fluid [Pg.470]

In Chapter 3, we will see how the difference in CP and Cv can generally be obtained from the equation of state. For condensed phases, (3V/3T)P is very small, but (3U/3V)T is very large, and substantial differences between CP and Cr can result. [Pg.70]

The fugacity of a pure liquid or solid can be defined by applying Eq. si.4 to the vapor in equilibrium with the substance in either condensed phase. Usually, the volume of the vapor will follow the ideal gas equation of state very closely, and the fugacity of the vapor may be set equal to the equilibrium vapor pressure. The thermodynamic basis of associating the fugacity of a condensed [Pg.26]

The Clapeyron equation can be simplified to some extent for the case in which a condensed phase (liquid or solid) is in equilibrium with a gas phase. At temperatures removed from the critical temperature, the molar volume of the gas phase is very much larger than the molar volume of the condensed phase. In such cases the molar volume of the condensed phase may be neglected. An equation of state is then used to express the molar volume of the gas as a function of the temperature and pressure. When the virial equation of state (accurate to the second virial coefficient) is used, [Pg.234]

When a pyrolant is composed of metallic particles and an oxidizer component, both gaseous molecules and metal oxides are formed as combustion products. Since the metal oxides are produced in the form of condensed-phase particles, the equation of state shown in Eq. (10.1) is no longer valid to evaluate the pressure in the cham- [Pg.274]

When a pyrolant is burned in a closed chamber, both gaseous and condensed-phase products are formed, and the pressure in the chamber is increased due to the increased number of molecules and the raised temperature. The pressure in the chamber is represented by the equation of state [Pg.274]

Prediction 2, that such big molecules ought to be supercritical gases under ambient conditions, is supported by a more contentious argument based on their equation of state. The liquid state, and condensed phases in general, exist because of the short-range attractive forces between molecules. The simplest of all equations of state, Boyle s Law, PV = RT, makes no provision for attractive forces and does not predict condensed phases. The next approximation is Van der Waals equation [Pg.13]

The first goal of this article is to determine the conditions under which the transition from a liquid-expanded (LE) to a liquid-condensed (LC) phase is horizontal or inclined, A simple criterion involving the ranges of attractive and repulsive interactions is suggested, which can explain qualitatively the nature of the transition. Then, a thermodynamic approach for. systems that exhibit inclined transitions is presented, followed by the derivation on the basis of statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional equation of state for the surface pressure against the surface area per molecule. [Pg.296]

We may, with appropriate attention to the reference state, develop the relations in terms of components between the intensive variables pertinent to multiphase systems that contain species other than the components. Such relations would be rather complex, because no account would be taken of the effect of the chemical reactions that occur in the system. All deviations from ideality would appear either in the activity coefficients for substances in condensed phases or in the coefficients used in some equations of state for the gas phase. Simpler relations are obtained when the conditions of phase equilibrium are based on species rather than components, once the species have been identified. [Pg.322]

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