The membrane and diffusion-media modeling equations apply to the same variables in the same phase in the catalyst layer. The rate of evaporation or condensation, eq 39, relates the water concentration in the gas and liquid phases. For the water content and chemical potential in the membrane, various approaches can be used, as discussed in section 4.2. If liquid water exists, a supersaturated isotherm can be used, or the liquid pressure can be assumed to be either continuous or related through a mass-transfer coefficient. If there is only water vapor, an isotherm is used. To relate the reactant and product concentrations, potentials, and currents in the phases within the catalyst layer, kinetic expressions (eqs 12 and 13) are used along with zero values for the divergence of the total current (eq 27). [Pg.463]

The next more complicated treatment of liquid water is to have a way in which to model also its transport without going to a two-phase model. The models of this sort assume that the liquid water exists as droplets that are carried along in the gas stream. - - Thus, while evaporation and condensation occur, a separate liquid phase does not have to be modeled. Instead, the liquid is assumed to be a component of the gas, and usually one that has a negligible effect on the gas-phase flow and velocity. There is a change in the gas-phase volume fraction due to the water, however. This type of model allows for the existence and location of liquid water to be noted, and to a limited extent the change in the water pressure or concentration. [Pg.458]

Vapour phase enthalpies were calculated using ideal gas heat capacity values and the liquid phase enthalpies were calculated by subtracting heat of vaporisation from the vapour enthalpies. The input data required to evaluate these thermodynamic properties were taken from Reid et al. (1977). Initialisation of the plate and condenser compositions (differential variables) was done using the fresh feed composition according to the policy described in section 4.1.1.(a). The simulation results are presented in Table 4.8. It shows that the product composition obtained by both ideal and nonideal phase equilibrium models are very close those obtained experimentally. However, the computation times for the two cases are considerably different. As can be seen from Table 4.8 about 67% time saving (compared to nonideal case) is possible when ideal equilibrium is used. [Pg.77]

Lehtonen et al. (1998) considered polyesterification of maleic acid with propylene glycol in an experimental batch reactive distillation system. There were two side reactions in addition to the main esterification reaction. The equipment consists of a 4000 ml batch reactor with a one theoretical plate distillation column and a condenser. The reactions took place in the liquid phase of the reactor. By removing the water by distillation, the reaction equilibrium was shifted to the production of more esters. The reaction temperatures were 150-190° C and the catalyst concentrations were varied between 0.01 and 0.1 mol%. The kinetic and mass transfer parameters were estimated via the experiments. These were then used to develop a full-scale dynamic process model for the system. [Pg.272]

The process we have followed is identical with the one we used previously for the uranium/oxygen (U/0) system (1-2) and is summarized by the procedure that is shown in Figure 1 Thermodynamic functions for the gas-phase molecules were obtained previously ( ) from experimental spectroscopic data and estimates of molecular parameters. The functions for the condensed phase have been calculated from an assessment of the available data, including the heat capacity as a function of temperature ( ). The oxygen potential is found from extension into the liquid phase of a model that was derived for the solid phase. Thus, we have all the information needed to apply the procedure outlined in Figure 1. [Pg.124]

The traditional apparatus of statistical physics employed to construct models of physico-chemical processes is the method of calculating the partition function [17,19,26]. The alternative method of correlation functions or distribution functions [75] is more flexible. It is now the main method in the theory of the condensed state both for solid and liquid phases [76,77]. This method has also found an application for lattice systems [78,79]. A new variant of the method of correlation functions - the cluster approach was treated in the book [80]. The cluster approach provides a procedure for the self-consistent calculation of the complete set of probabilities of particle configurations on a cluster being considered. This makes it possible to take account of the local inhomogeneities of a lattice in the equilibrium and non-equilibrium states of a system of interacting particles. In this section the kinetic equations for wide atomic-molecular processes within the gas-solid systems were constructed. [Pg.370]

Formulation of the mathematical model here adopts the usual assumptions of equimolar overflow, constant relative volatility, total condenser, and partial reboiler. Binary variables denote the existence of trays in the column, and their sum is the number of trays N. Continuous variables represent the liquid flow rates Li and compositions xj, vapor flow rates Vi and compositions yi, the reflux Ri and vapor boilup VBi, and the column diameter Di. The equations governing the model include material and component balances around each tray, thermodynamic relations between vapor and liquid phase compositions, and the column diameter calculation based on vapor flow rate. Additional logical constraints ensure that reflux and vapor boilup enter only on one tray and that the trays are arranged sequentially (so trays cannot be skipped). Also included are the product specifications. Under the assumptions made in this example, neither the temperature nor the pressure is an explicit variable, although they could easily be included if energy balances are required. A minimum and maximum number of trays can also be imposed on the problem. [Pg.6]

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