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** Computational cost of integral generation **

** Computer methods cost estimation **

** Conventional computational costs **

** Cost Estimate Computer Programs **

Despite all the effort to reduce both the frequency of Coulomb solves (periodic or not) and the computational complexity of each call when required, the long-range force evaluation remains the dominant computational cost of MD simulations. [Pg.468]

The family of hierarchical elements are specifically designed to minimize the computational cost of repeated computations in the p-version of the finite element method (Zienkiewicz and Taylor, 1994). Successive approximations based on hierarchical elements utilize the derivations of a lower step to generate the solution for a higher-order approximation. This can significantly reduce the... [Pg.40]

Note that in equation system (2.64) the coefficients matrix is symmetric, sparse (i.e. a significant number of its members are zero) and banded. The symmetry of the coefficients matrix in the global finite element equations is not guaranteed for all applications (in particular, in most fluid flow problems this matrix will not be symmetric). However, the finite element method always yields sparse and banded sets of equations. This property should be utilized to minimize computing costs in complex problems. [Pg.48]

Using different types of time-stepping techniques Zienkiewicz and Wu (1991) showed that equation set (3.5) generates naturally stable schemes for incompressible flows. This resolves the problem of mixed interpolation in the U-V-P formulations and schemes that utilise equal order shape functions for pressure and velocity components can be developed. Steady-state solutions are also obtainable from this scheme using iteration cycles. This may, however, increase computational cost of the solutions in comparison to direct simulation of steady-state problems. [Pg.74]

This matrix is usually diagonalized using a simple mass lumping technique (Pittman and Nakazawa, 1984) to minimize the computational cost of pressure calculations in this method. [Pg.77]

In conjunction with the discrete penalty schemes elements belonging to the Crouzeix-Raviart group arc usually used. As explained in Chapter 2, these elements generate discontinuous pressure variation across the inter-element boundaries in a mesh and, hence, the required matrix inversion in the working equations of this seheme can be carried out at the elemental level with minimum computational cost. [Pg.125]

Correlation can be added as a perturbation from the Hartree-Fock wave function. This is called Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. In mapping the HF wave function onto a perturbation theory formulation, HF becomes a hrst-order perturbation. Thus, a minimal amount of correlation is added by using the second-order MP2 method. Third-order (MP3) and fourth-order (MP4) calculations are also common. The accuracy of an MP4 calculation is roughly equivalent to the accuracy of a CISD calculation. MP5 and higher calculations are seldom done due to the high computational cost (A time complexity or worse). [Pg.22]

In order to obtain this savings in the computational cost, orbitals are symmetry-adapted. As various positive and negative combinations of orbitals are used, there are a number of ways to break down the total wave function. These various orbital functions will obey different sets of symmetry constraints, such as having positive or negative values across a mirror plane of the molecule. These various symmetry sets are called irreducible representations. [Pg.125]

The DIIS method is not without cost. A history of Fock matrices must be maintained and appropriate memory allocated. In addition, the computational cost of generating anew Fock matrix is significant. Also, in very rare cases, the solution found by this method is very different from that found in other ways. [Pg.230]

Computational accuracy can be dramatically improved by dynamically adding elements where they minimize the error. For example, more elements ean be added in the neighborhood of a strong gradient in the velocity to help resolve shocks and vortex sheets. Elements may be removed from regions of smooth flow to minimize the computational cost without degrading the overall accuracy. The concept is shown in Fig. 9.6 where a finer mesh overlays the original mesh. This mesh refinement can be carried out to as many levels as necessary [15], [16], [17]. [Pg.329]

Regardless of which algorithm is used for fast calculation of Ewald sums, the computational cost is now competitive with the cost of cutoff calculations, and there is no longer a need to employ cutoffs for purposes of efficiency. Since Ewald summation is the natural expression of Coulomb s law in periodic boundary conditions, it is the recommended approach if periodic boundary conditions are to be used in a simulation. [Pg.112]

Essentially, the RISM and extended RISM theories can provide infonnation equivalent to that obtained from simulation techniques, namely, thermodynamic properties, microscopic liquid structure, and so on. But it is noteworthy that the computational cost is dramatically reduced by this analytical treatment, which can be combined with the computationally expensive ab initio MO theory. Another aspect of such treatment is the transparent logic that enables phenomena to be understood in terms of statistical mechanics. Many applications have been based on the RISM and extended RISM theories [10,11]. [Pg.420]

** Computational cost of integral generation **

** Computer methods cost estimation **

** Conventional computational costs **

** Cost Estimate Computer Programs **

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