This expression results from forcing the transport equations for the first N moments of (f>a, denoted by to agree with the composition PDF transport equation (Fox, 2003). For example, with N —2 the linear system in Eq. (89) can be written in matrix form as [Pg.270]

In a transported PDF simulation, the chemical source term, (6.249), is integrated over and over again with each new set of initial conditions. For fixed inlet flow conditions, it is often the case that, for most of the time, the initial conditions that occur in a particular simulation occupy only a small sub-volume of composition space. This is especially true with fast chemical kinetics, where many of the reactions attain a quasi-steady state within the small time step At. Since solving the stiff ODE system is computationally expensive, this observation suggests that it would be more efficient first to solve the chemical source term for a set of representative initial conditions in composition space,156 and then to store the results in a pre-computed chemical lookup table. This operation can be described mathematically by a non-linear reaction map [Pg.329]

In summary, due to the linear nature of the derivative operator, it is possible to express the expected value of a convected derivative of Q in terms of temporal and spatial derivatives of the one-point joint velocity, composition PDF. Two-point information about the random fields U and

expected value and derivative operators commute, and does not appear in the final expression (i.e., (6.9)). [Pg.265]

However, care must be taken to avoid the singularity that occurs when C is not full rank. In general, the rank of C will be equal to the number of random variables needed to define the joint PDF. Likewise, its rank deficiency will be equal to the number of random variables that can be expressed as linear functions of other random variables. Thus, the covariance matrix can be used to decompose the composition vector into its linearly independent and linearly dependent components. The joint PDF of the linearly independent components can then be approximated by (5.332). [Pg.239]

An example of a smart tabulation method is the intrinsic, low-dimensional manifold (ILDM) approach (Maas and Pope 1992). This method attempts to reduce the number of dimensions that must be tabulated by projecting the composition vectors onto the nonlinear manifold defined by the slowest chemical time scales.162 In combusting systems far from extinction, the number of slow chemical time scales is typically very small (i.e, one to three). Thus the resulting non-linear slow manifold ILDM will be low-dimensional (see Fig. 6.7), and can be accurately tabulated. However, because the ILDM is non-linear, it is usually difficult to find and to parameterize for a detailed kinetic scheme (especially if the number of slow dimensions is greater than three ). In addition, the shape, location in composition space, and dimension of the ILDM will depend on the inlet flow conditions (i.e., temperature, pressure, species concentrations, etc.). Since the time and computational effort required to construct an ILDM is relatively large, the ILDM approach has yet to find widespread use in transported PDF simulations outside combustion. [Pg.331]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.264 , Pg.266 , Pg.267 ]

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