B1.6.2.4 THE BETHE SURFACE BINARY VERSUS DIPOLE COLLISIONS [Pg.1318]

Boltzman s H-Theorem Let us consider a binary elastic collision of two hard-spheres in more detail. Using the same notation as above, so that v, V2 represent the velocities of the incoming spheres and v, V2 represent the velocities of the outgoing spheres, we have from momentum and energy conservation that [Pg.479]

Now let us add the possibility of collisions. Before we proceed, we make the following two assumptions (1) only binary collisions occur, i.e. we rule out situations in which three or more hard-spheres simultaneously come together (which is a physically reasonable assumption provided that the gas is sufficiently dilute), and (2) Boltzman s Stosszahlansatz, or his molecular chaos assumption that the motion of the hard-spheres is effectively pairwise uncorrelated i.e. that the pair-distribution function is the product of individual distribution functions [Pg.476]

The number of molecules reacting per unit time is smaller than the number of binary collisions between A and B. Also, temperature is known to have a much greater effect on the reaction rate than one would expect from For binary collisions between A and B to result in a reaction, the collision must involve energies of translation and vibration that are in excess of energy E, known as the activation [Pg.12]

We again assume that there is a time interval 5/which is long compared with the duration of a binary collision but is too short for particles to cross a cell of size 5r. Then the change in the number of particles in 8r8v in time 8/ can be written as [Pg.676]

The dynamics of ion surface scattering at energies exceeding several hundred electronvolts can be described by a series of binary collision approximations (BCAs) in which only the interaction of one energetic particle with a solid atom is considered at a time [25]. This model is reasonable because the interaction time for the collision is short compared witii the period of phonon frequencies in solids, and the interaction distance is shorter tlian the interatomic distances in solids. The BCA simplifies the many-body interactions between a projectile and solid atoms to a series of two-body collisions of the projectile and individual solid atoms. This can be described with results from the well known two-body central force problem [26]. [Pg.1801]

For themial unimolecular reactions with bimolecular collisional activation steps and for bimolecular reactions, more specifically one takes the limit of tire time evolution operator for - co and t —> + co to describe isolated binary collision events. The corresponding matrix representation of f)is called the scattering matrix or S-matrix with matrix elements [Pg.773]

Notice that each collision is counted twice, once for the particle with velocity v and once for the particle with velocity v We also note that we have assumed that the distribution fiinctions/do not vary over distances which are the lengths of the collision cylinders, as the interval 6t approaches some small value, but still large compared with the duration of a binary collision. [Pg.670]

Let fp x,t) be the probability that a particle moving into the direction cp is at the site positioned at x and time t, and consider, first of all, only two-particle collisions. A particle may scatter into the direction cp only if it comes from a binary collision involving [Pg.495]

ISS has the greatest surface sensitivity in terms of depth sampled (but not in terms of lowest limits of detection. SIMS is much superior here.) Though the impinging He+ ions can penetrate the lattice, the single-collision binary events occur entirely with atoms from the top-most atomic layer so the ISS spectrum is restricted to that layer. The detection limit is of the order of 10 2-10 3 monolayers. [Pg.24]

In secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a beam of energetic primary ions is focused onto the surface of a solid. Some of the ions are reflected but most of the energy of the primary ions is dissipated in the surface by binary collisions that cause neutrals, excited neutrals, and ions (positive and negative) to be ejected or sputtered from the surface. The secondary ions can be analyzed by a mass spectrometer to provide information about the surface composition of the solid. [Pg.295]

The first observation consists merely of an alternative but natural interpretation of the presence or absence of balls the movement of balls is equated with the communication of binary signals. Once this interpretation is made, the second observation also becomes a natural one wherever balls collide, either among themselves or with some collection of rigid mirrors, the effect of the collision may be viewed as a Boolean logic gate. [Pg.318]

In the discussion so far we have considered the typical LEIS experiment only, i.e. large angles of incidence of exit relative to the surface plane. Under these conditions, in general, quantitative composition analysis is possible, because the ion-target interaction can be considered as a binary collision, because of the absence of matrix effects (see below). [Pg.154]

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