Fourier Transform Rheometry with an Updated Closed Cavity Torsional Rheometer. 823... [Pg.817]

Over the twentieth century, the mbber industry has developed special rheometers, essentially factory floor instmments either for checking process regularity or for quality control purposes, for instance, the well-known Mooney rheometer (1931), the oscillating disk rheometer (1962), and the rotorless rheometer (1976). All those instmments basically perform simple drag flow measurements but they share a common feature During the test, the sample is maintained in a closed cavity, under pressure, a practice intuitively considered essential for avoiding any wall slip effects. Indeed it has... [Pg.818]

When compared to standard (open cavity) cone-plate or parallel disks rheometers, closed cavity torsional rheometers such as the RPA or the PPA have unique high-strain capabilities, which prompted us to modify the instmment in order to investigate the promises of FT rheometry, as outlined a few years ago by the pioneering works of Wilhelm. The technique consists of capturing strain and torque signals and in using FT calculation algorithms to resolve it into their harmonic components, as detailed below. [Pg.820]

FOURIER TRANSFORM RHEOMETRY WITH AN UPDATED CLOSED CAVITY TORSIONAL RHEOMETER... [Pg.823]

FIGURE 30.6 Updating a closed cavity torsional dynamic tester for Fourier transform (FT) rheometry. [Pg.826]

We then consider a model problem of bouyancy recirculation in a closed cavity, using the same mesh of the previous example. Here the vertical boundaries are held at fixed temperatures, the left hotter than the right, while the horizontal boundaries are left unconstrained. A linear temperature gradient is thus set up between the left and right boundaries. The cooler and denser fluid at the right will tend to move down and displace the warm fluid at the left, setting up a clockwise circulation as seen in the streamline contour plot of Figure 6. [Pg.276]

The PAS phenomenon involves the selective absorption of modulated IR radiation by the sample. The selectively absorbed frequencies of IR radiation correspond to the fundamental vibrational frequencies of the sample of interest. Once absorbed, the IR radiation is converted to heat and subsequently escapes from the solid sample and heats a boundary layer of gas. Typically, this conversion from modulated IR radiation to heat involves a small temperature increase at the sample surface ( 10 6oC). Since the sample is placed into a closed cavity cell that is filled with a coupling gas (usually helium), the increase in temperature produces pressure changes in the surrounding gas (sound waves). Since the IR radiation is modulated, the pressure changes in the coupling gas occur at the frequency of the modulated light, and so does the acoustic wave. This acoustical wave is detected by a very sensitive microphone, and the subsequent electrical signal is Fourier processed and a spectrum produced. [Pg.71]

The ink-jet process relies on using a piezoelectric printhead that can create deformation on a closed cavity through the application of an electric field. This causes the fluid in the cavity to be ejected through the nozzle whose volume is determined by the applied voltage, nozzle diameter, and ink viscosity. The final width of the drop of the substrate is a result of the volume of fluid expelled and the thickness of the droplet on the surface. In addition, the drop placement is critical to the ultimate resolution of the display. Typical volumes expelled from a printhead are 10 to 40 pi, resulting in a subpixel width between 65 and 100 pm. Drop accuracies of +15 pm have been reported such that resolutions better than 130 ppi are achievable however, because the solvent to polymer ratio is so high, the drops must be contained during the evaporation process to obtain the desired resolution and film thickness. This containment can be a patterned photoresist layer that has been chemically modified so that the EL polymer ink does not stick to it. [Pg.574]

When a radiation source is placed inside a closed cavity, its radiation energy is distributed among all of the modes following Equations (2.1) and (2.2), once the system has reached equilibrium. As we have seen in Example 2.1, in spite of the large number of modes in such a closed cavity, the mean number of photons per mode corresponding to the optical region is very small. Specifically, it is very small compared to unity. This is the ultimate reason why, in thermal radiation fields, the spontaneous emission per mode by far exceeds the stimulated emission. (Remember that the stimulated emission process requires the presence of photons to induce the transition, opposite to the case of the spontaneous emission process.)... [Pg.52]

Ligands containing closed cavities may form inclusion complexes of the cryptate type [34). This is clearly the case for ligands D (bidimensional cavity) and G, I, J (tridimensional cavities) which effect respectively a bidimensional and a tridimensional discrimination towards cations. [Pg.13]

Consider a system in which matter and radiation are in equilibrium in a closed cavity at temperature T. (This equilibrium situation does not generally hold in spectroscopy, but the transition probabilities are fundamental properties of the interaction between radiation and matter and cannot be affected by the presence or absence of equilibrium.) As before, let be greater than (0). The probability of absorption from state n to state m is proportional to the number of photons with frequency near vmn the number of photons is proportional to the radiation density u(vmn). Hence the rate of absorption is given by Bn t,mNnu(i mn)t where Nn is the number of molecules in state n and Bn m is a proportionality constant called the Einstein coefficient for absorption. From the discussion following (3.46) and from (3.47), it follows that... [Pg.315]

The editing activity is induced by the addition of tRNAIle to the IleRS Val-AMP complex. Model building suggests that one of the domains in the insert rotates on the addition of the tRNA, so that it and the two active sites form a closed cavity in which the aminoacylation and editing clefts face each other. [Pg.532]

A number of plastimeters of this type have been used for rubbers, often for research purposes, but one instrument, the Mooney viscometer, gained virtually universal acceptance and has been extensively used for routine quality control purposes for several decades. The principle of the Mooney is shown in Figure 6.4 together with several other possible geometries for a rotational instrument. The rotor turns at a constant rate inside a closed cavity containing the test piece so that a shearing action takes place between the flat surfaces of the rotor and the walls of the chamber. The torque required to rotate the rotor is monitored by a suitable transducer. [Pg.72]

We have described the effects of black body radiation in free space. In a closed cavity the radiation is confined to the allowed modes of the cavity. In essence all the thermal radiation is forced into the cavity modes, raising the intensity at the... [Pg.61]

Simulation of cavity flow with a Reynolds number of 100. The closed cavity flow is a classical problem used to validate the accuracy of the solution of the equation of motion for a Newtonian fluid flow with inertia effetcs. Here, we present the solution of this problem as presented by Estrada [4], The geometry and conditions simulated by Estrada are schematically depicted in Fig. 11.8. [Pg.580]

The next crucial observation came from a thermodynamic study of the radiation which is emitted through an aperture in the wall of a heated and otherwise closed oven. Once more, it was the intensity distribution of the radiation emitted at different wavelengths that defied analysis. Presented in graphical form the observed distribution is Figure 2.5 The intensity dis- as shown in the Figure 2.5. The distribu-tribution of radiation trapped tion predicted by the laws of thermodynam-in a closed cavity. ics is shown as the Raleigh-Jeans curve. It... [Pg.22]

Planck s constant was discovered as part of the solution to a nineteenth century conundrum in physics, known as the black-body problem. The challenge was to model the wavelength distribution of radiation emitted through the aperture in a closed cavity at various temperatures6. The standard equations of statistical thermodynamics failed to produce the observed spectrum, unless it was assumed that the energy of radiation with frequency v was an integral multiple of an elementary energy quantum hv. [Pg.275]

The major selling point of standard cosmology is the observed isotropic microwave background radiation, with black-body spectrum. In a closed universe it needs no explanation. Radiation, which accumulates in any closed cavity, tends, by definition, to an equilibrium wavelength distribution according to Planck s formula (Figure 2.5). [Pg.291]

Batchelor, G.K., Heat Transfer by Free Convection Across a Closed Cavity between Vertical Boundaries at Different Temperatures , / AppL Math, Vol. 12, pp. 209-233, 1954. [Pg.422]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.263 ]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.241 ]

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