The fundamental control on the chemical contribution of the ocean to climate is the rate of gas exchange across the air-sea interface. The flux, F, of a gas across this interface, into the ocean, is often written as [Pg.15]

PARAMETER USED TO CALCULATE PART OF CHEMICAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE SECOND VIRIAL COEFFICIENT. CALCULATED ONE OF TWO WAYS DEPENDING ON THE VALUE OF ETA(IJ). [Pg.262]

DERIVATIVE OF NETASTABLE, BOUND AND CHEMICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO VIRIAL [Pg.307]

Simple similar action (simple joint action or concentration/dose addition) is a noninteractive process in which the chemicals in the mixture do not affect the toxicity of one another. All the chemicals of concern in the mixture act on the same biological site, by the same mechanism of action, and differ only in their potencies. The correlation of tolerances is completely positive (r=+l) and each chemical contributes to the toxicity of the mixture in proportion to its dose, expressed as the percentage of the dose of that chemical alone that would be required to obtain the given effect of the mixture. Thus, the individual components of the mixture act as if they were dilutions of the same toxic compound and their relative potencies are assumed to be constant throughout all dose levels. An important implication is that, in principle, no threshold exists for dose additivity. [Pg.373]

Following Lambert (11) we separate the second virial coefficient B into a physical B° and a chemical contribution [Pg.439]

Equilibrium constants,, for all possible dimerization reactions are calculated from the metastable, bound, and chemical contributions to the second virial coefficients, B , as given by Equations (6) and (7). The equilibrium constants, K calculated using Equation (3-15). [Pg.133]

Boeije GM, Vanrolleghem P, Matthies M (1997) A georeferenced aquatic exposure prediction methodology for down-the-drain chemicals. Contribution to GREAT-ER 3. Water Sci Technol 36 251-258 [Pg.70]

Plant physiologists and other biological scientists also have their important role to play in allelopathy. They must devise suitable bioassays to detect the suspected allelopathic compounds, follow the biological activity of the individual and associated chemicals, develop activity profiles for identified chemicals, and determine the conditions (dose/response) for chemicals to arrive at the threshold levels. They must also determine which chemicals contribute [Pg.50]

The effect is to write the adsorption free energy or, approximately, the energy of adsoiption Q as a sum of electrostatic and chemical contributions. A review is provided by Ref. 156. [Pg.412]

If the above hypothesis is correct, the basic assumption of the extrather-modynamic treatment, namely, that there is exact cancellation of chemical contributions in the quantity 8AH, no longer holds. Reduction of the contribution to the activation enthalpy from steric compression (AH sc) should be accounted for by introducing an appropriate 0A//+sc-term besides a0AH° into (62), giving (68). Now, if we make the reasonable assumptions that the [Pg.92]

A somewhat different approach to the problem was derived by Ruzicka and Hansen [22]. More recently. Panton and Mottola [44, 45] have studied the chemical contribution to dispersion. [Pg.62]

IF BINARY SYSTEM CONTAINS NO ORGANIC ACIDS. THE SECOND VIRTAL coefficients ARE USED IN A VOLUME EXPLICIT EQUATION OF STATE TO CALCULATE THE FUGACITY COEFFICIENTS. FOR ORGANIC ACIDS FUGACITY COEFFICIENTS ARE PREDICTED FROM THE CHEMICAL THEORY FOR NQN-IOEALITY WITH EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS OBTAINED from METASTABLE. BOUND. ANO CHEMICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SECOND VIRIAL COEFFICIENTS. [Pg.266]

The results of stress-strain measurements can be summarized as follows (1) the reduced stress S (A- A ) (Ais the extension ratio) is practically independent of strain so that the Mooney-Rivlin constant C2 is practically zero for dry as well as swollen samples (C2/C1=0 0.05) (2) the values of G are practically the same whether obtained on dry or swollen samples (3) assuming that Gee=0, the data are compatible with the chemical contribution and A 1 (4) the difference between the phantom network dependence with the value of A given by Eq.(4) and the experimental moduli fits well the theoretical dependence of G e in Eq.(2) or (3). The proportionality constant in G for series of networks with s equal to 0, 0.2, 0.33, and 0. Ewas practically the same -(8.2, 6.3, 8.8, and 8.5)x10-4 mol/cm with the average value 7.95x10 mol/cm. Results (1) and (2) suggest that phantom network behavior has been reached, but the result(3) is contrary to that. Either the constraints do survive also in the swollen and stressed states, or we have to consider an extra contribution due to the incrossability of "phantom" chains. The latter explanation is somewhat supported by the constancy of in Eq.(2) for a series of samples of different composition. [Pg.408]

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