The energies for the bonds broken are calculated. These are endothermic processes and A// is positive. [Pg.65]

Cyclobutanes disubstituted in the 1,2-positions should favor strucmre-type C or a related distonic structure with one broken C—C bond. Calculations [QCISD-(T)/ 6-31G //UMP2/6-31G ] suggest a trapezoidal structure for frawi-1,2-dimethyl-cyclobutane radical cation.This expectation is born out by experimental results such as the ET induced cis-trans-isomerization of 1,2-diaryloxycyclobutane (Ar = aryl), leading to IS " ", and likely involving the distonic radical cation (14 +) formed via a type C ion. [Pg.225]

However, it has been pointed out that if SbFs abstracted H, an SbFsH ion would be formed involving an Sb-H bond, which is extremely weak compared with the strong C-H bond to be broken. Thermodynamic calculations also show that the direct oxidation of alkanes by SbFs is not feasible. Hydrogen is also realized to be partially consumed in the reduction of one of the superacid components [Eqs, (6,11) and (6,12)], [Pg.304]

The representation of an essentially infinite framework by a finite SCF treated cluster of atoms, (with or without point-ions), inevitably leads to the problem of how to truncate the model-molecule . Previous attempts at this have included using hydrogen atoms l and ghost atoms . Other possibilities include leaving the electron from the broken bond in an open shell, or closing this shell to form an ionic cluster. A series of calculations were performed to test which was the host physically realistic, and computationally viable, solution to this problem for this system. [Pg.72]

The application of isotope effects studies of reaction mechanism includes comparison of experimental values of isotope effects and predicted isotope effects computed for alternative reaction pathways. On the basis of such analysis some of the pathways may be excluded. Theoretical KIEs are calculated using the method of Bigeleisen and Mayer.1 55 KIEs are a function of transition state and substrate vibrational frequencies. Equilibrium isotope effects are calculated from substrate and product data. Different functionals and data sets are used in these calculations. Implementation of a one-dimensional tunnelling correction into conventional transition-state theory significantly improved the prediction of heavy-atom isotope effects.56 Uncertainty of predicted isotope effect can be assessed from the relationship between KIEs and the distances of formed or broken bonds in the transition states, calculated for different optimized structures.57 Calculations of isotope effects from sets of frequencies for optimized structures of reactants and transition states are facilitated by adequate software QUIVER58 and ISOEFF.59 [Pg.159]

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