Figure 1.7 Atomic orbitals hybrid sp orbitals, (a) Cross-section and approximate shape of a single orbital. It is strongly directed along one axis. (b) Representation as a sphere, with the small back lobe omitted, (c) Three orbitals, with the axes directed toward the comers of an equilateral triangle. |

Figure 1.9 Atomic orbitals hybrid sp orbitals, (a) Cross-section and approximate sh (f a single ohbital. It is strongly directed along one axis. |

Hybrid- ization sp3 atomic orbitals Hybrid- ization [Pg.5]

There are molecular orbitals constructed from atomic orbitals, hybrid in general, belonging to certain atoms of a tridimensional rigid framework, and from orbitals of one or many metallic atoms. [Pg.29]

Hybrid orbital Atomic orbitals hybridized Number of hybrid orbitals Angle of hybrid s orbital Example [Pg.7]

When molecules are farmed, s and p atomic orbitals hybridize to form new shapes and energy levels. [Pg.13]

Coordination number Arrangement of donor atoms Orbitals hybridized Hybrid orbital description Example [Pg.556]

Hybridization is the mixing of at least two nonequivalent atomic orbitals, for example, s and p orbitals. Therefore, a hybrid orbital is not a pure atomic orbital. Hybrid orbitals and pure atomic orbitals have very different shapes. [Pg.388]

Hybridization is not limited to s and p orbitals, but may, in general, involve the mixing of all types of atomic orbitals. Hybrids involving d orbitals [Pg.92]

Hybrid orbital (Section 1.6) An orbital derived from a combination of atomic orbitals. Hybrid orbitals, such as the sp3, s/J2, and sp hybrids of carbon, are strongly directed and form stronger bonds than atomic orbitals do. [Pg.1243]

Hybrid orbitals are named by indicating the number and kind of atomic orbitals hybridized. Hybridization of one s orbital and onep orbital gives two sp hybrid orbitals. We shall see presently that hybridization of one s and two p orbitals gives three sp hybrid orbitals hybridization of one s orbital and three p orbitals gives four sp hybrids, and so on (see Table 8-2). [Pg.316]

Valence bond theory (Section 2.3) Theory of chemical bonding based on overlap of half-hlled atomic orbitals between two atoms. Orbital hybridization is an important element of valence bond theory. [Pg.1296]

Forming sp hybrid orbitals is just one way that 2s and 2p orbitals can hybridize. In fact, three common modes of hybridization are seen in organic molecules. The number of orbitals is always conserved in hybridization that is, a given number of atomic orbitals hybridize to form an equivalent number of hybrid orbitals. [Pg.35]

Complexes of d- and /-block metals can be described in terms of hybridization schemes, each associated with a particular shape. Bearing in mind that the number of atomic orbitals hybridized must be the same as the number of hybrid orbitals produced, match the hybrid orbitals sp1d, sp fd , and sp d3f to the following shapes (a) pentagonal bipyramidal [Pg.257]

Methods for evaluating energy directedness of atom orbital hybridization and calculating the energy of chemical bonds in simple and complex structures are proposed based on the application of spatial-energy parameter (P-parameter) concept. The appropriate calculations and comparisons for 68 compounds were made. The results of calculations are coordinated with experimental data. [Pg.13]

It should be noted that quantum chemical calculations are used to determine electronegativity of pure s-, p- and d-states. Then, to obtain the atom s electronegativity, they are summarized according to the degree of atom orbital hybridization [Pg.13]

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