Nearly 10 years after Zwanzig published his perturbation method, Benjamin Widom [6] formulated the potential distribution theorem (PDF). He further suggested an elegant application of PDF to estimate the excess chemical potential -i.e., the chemical potential of a system in excess of that of an ideal, noninteracting system at the same density - on the basis of the random insertion of a test particle. In essence, the particle insertion method proposed by Widom may be viewed as a special case of the perturbative theory, in which the addition of a single particle is handled as a one-step perturbation of the liquid. [Pg.3]

A conceptually complementary approach to describe hydrophobic effects has been introduced by Pratt and colleagues (78, 96). Their iifformation theory (IT) model is based on an application of Widom s potential distribution theorem (97) combined with the perception that the solvation free energy of a small hard sphere, which is essentially governed by the probability to find an empty sphere, can be expressed as a limit of the distribution of water molecules in a cavity of the size [Pg.1918]

We present a molecular theory of hydration that now makes possible a unification of these diverse views of the role of water in protein stabilization. The central element in our development is the potential distribution theorem. We discuss both its physical basis and statistical thermodynamic framework with applications to protein solution thermodynamics and protein folding in mind. To this end, we also derive an extension of the potential distribution theorem, the quasi-chemical theory, and propose its implementation to the hydration of folded and unfolded proteins. Our perspective and current optimism are justified by the understanding we have gained from successful applications of the potential distribution theorem to the hydration of simple solutes. A few examples are given to illustrate this point. [Pg.307]

It is helpful to contrast the view we adopt in this book with the perspective of Hill (1986). In that case, the normative example is some separable system such as the polyatomic ideal gas. Evaluation of a partition function for a small system is then the essential task of application of the model theory. Series expansions, such as a virial expansion, are exploited to evaluate corrections when necessary. Examples of that type fill out the concepts. In the present book, we establish and then exploit the potential distribution theorem. Evaluation of the same partition functions will still be required. But we won t stop with an assumption of separability. On the basis of the potential distribution theorem, we then formulate additional simplified low-dimensional partition function models to describe many-body effects. Quasi-chemical treatments are prototypes for those subsequent approximate models. Though the design of the subsequent calculation is often heuristic, the more basic development here focuses on theories for discovery of those model partition functions. These deeper theoretical tools are known in more esoteric settings, but haven t been used to fill out the picture we present here. [Pg.240]

Most free energy and phase-equilibrium calculations by simulation up to the late 1980s were performed with the Widom test particle method [7]. The method is still appealing in its simplicity and generality - for example, it can be applied directly to MD calculations without disturbing the time evolution of a system. The potential distribution theorem on which the test particle method is based as well as its applications are discussed in Chap. 9. [Pg.355]

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