Force field calculations often truncate the non bonded potential energy of a molecular system at some finite distance. Truncation (nonbonded cutoff) saves computing resources. Also, periodic boxes and boundary conditions require it. However, this approximation is too crude for some calculations. For example, a molecular dynamic simulation with an abruptly truncated potential produces anomalous and nonphysical behavior. One symptom is that the solute (for example, a protein) cools and the solvent (water) heats rapidly. The temperatures of system components then slowly converge until the system appears to be in equilibrium, but it is not. [Pg.29]

Using an m = 6, n = 15 potential, it can be calculated that the modulus will be <4x 10 Nm . This is low compared with experiment, and it appears that some bond rotation must be involved to account for the observed value ofYoung s modulus which is of the order of 3-4 x 10 Nm for a rigid amorphous glassy polymer, as already mentioned (see Fig. 2). [Pg.261]

For the molecular ion XY+, the energy required to break the X-Y bond (Dx.y) can be calculated from the ionization and appearance potentials it is simply the difference between the two (Equation 4.3) [Pg.142]

The indirect method was put forward by Stevenson in it the appearance potentials of the same ion produced from two different but related molecules are measured, and their difference is combined with thermochemical data to give the required dissociation energ) It is thus possible to calculate bond dissociation energies from appearance potentials and thermochemical data without a knowledge of ionization potentials. The essence of the method is to produce as the non-ionized partner in a dissociative ionization process of the type [Pg.91]

It has been studied by IR spectroscopy (when trapped in a low-temperature matrix) and by mass spectrometric studies on the vapor. Isotopic studies ( Cl/ Cl and 0/ 0) allow the 0-P-Cl bond angle to be calculated from the IR spectra at ca. 105° (i.e. close to the bond angle of CH2PCI). From the observed appearance potential (20.9 eV) of P+ [AP(P+)j in the mass spectrum of OPCl, it is possible to estimate the enthalpy of atomization of OPCl(g) via the Bom Haber cycle (Scheme 6). Hence, since the standard enthalpies of formation of P(g), 0(g), and Cl(g) are all known, the standard enthalpy of formation of OPCl(g) [A // 9g(OPCl)] may be estimated as -250.7 kJmol . [Pg.4396]

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