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** Additive fuzzy density fragmentation AFDF) scheme **

** Group additivity schemes by Benson **

Additivity schemes allow the calculation of important molecular properties. [Pg.398]

Additivity schemes for estimating molecular properties play an important role in chemical engineering. [Pg.398]

A two-laver additive scheme can alwavs be written in the canonical form [Pg.619]

A locally one-dlinensional scheme (LOS) for the heat conduction equation in an arbitrary domain. The method of summarized approximation can find a wide range of application in designing economical additive schemes for parabolic equations in the domains of rather complicated configurations and shapes. More a detailed exploration is devoted to a locally one-dimensional problem for the heat conduction equation in a complex domain G = G -f F of the dimension p. Let x — (sj, 2,..., a- p) be a point in the Euclidean space R. [Pg.604]

By definition, the additive scheme (42) provides a summarized approximation on a function u(t) G Hq if [Pg.619]

Any one of these additivity schemes can be used for the estimation of a variety of thermochemical molecular data, most prominently for heats of formation, with high accuracy [13]. A variety of compilations of thermochemical data are available [14-16]. A computer program based on Allen s scheme has been developed [17, 18] and is included in the PETRA package of programs [19]. [Pg.325]

Methods for the convergence rates of additive schemes. So far we have established many times that approximation and stability of a difference scheme provide its convergence. For additive schemes we shall need stability with respect to the right-hand side so that it follows from the condition of summarized approximation [Pg.620]

The accuracy of an additivity scheme can be increased by going from atomic contributions through bond contributions to group contributions. [Pg.398]

Thus, the attainable summarized approximation of the additive scheme (8) owes a debt to the simultaneous usual approximations and a summarized approximation. In accordance with what has been said above, equations (5) are approximated by the chain of the difference equations (6)-(7) in a summarized sense and every scheme (8) with the number a approximates the corresponding equation involved in collection (6) in the usual sense. [Pg.600]

A basic assumption in such additivity schemes is that the interactions between the atoms of a molecule are of a rather short-range nature. This fact can be expressed in a more precise manner The law of additivity can be expressed in a chemical equation [1]. Let us consider the atoms (or groups) X and Y attached to a common skeleton, S, and also the redistribution of these atoms on that skeleton as ejqjressed by Eq. (1). [Pg.320]

The difference equations (8) constitute what is called an additive scheme. Indeed, let be the residuals of the same scheme [Pg.598]

The temperature-independent parachor [P] may be calculated by the additive scheme proposed by Quale.The atomic group contributions for this method, with contributions for silicon, boron, and aluminum from Myers,are shown in Table 2-402. At low pressures, where Pi. pc, the vapor density term may be neglected. Errors using Eq. (2-168) are normally less than 5 to 10 percent. [Pg.416]

Enthalpic increments for a group additivity scheme in thermochemistry of pyridine, quinoline, and their substitution products 99PAC1257. [Pg.257]

Until now, we have discussed the use of additivity schemes to estimate global properties of a molecule such as its mean molecular polarizability, its heat of formation, or its average binding energy to a protein receptor. [Pg.327]

To be able to calculate molecular properties by additivity schemes based on contributions by structural subunits [Pg.319]

C to the thermodynamically more stable exo adduct through a retro Diels-Alder reaction followed by re-addition (Scheme 1.10). [Pg.15]

With few exceptions, radicals are observed to add preferentially to the less highly substituted end of unsymmetrically substituted olefins (i.e. give predominantly tail addition - Scheme l.l). [Pg.16]

Rings can either stabilize or destabilize molecules beyond what is to be expected from a simple additivity scheme. Stabilization comes from aromatic ring systems [Pg.325]

If the operator La includes the derivatives with respect to only one variable x, we call it a one-dimensional operator and the equations Va Vf a) 0 refer,correspondingly, to equations of one variable. The additive scheme (8) is termed a locally one-dimensional scheme (LOS). [Pg.600]

On the basis of all these results and his own investigations on chloro- and bromo-de-diazoniations (Galli, 1981), Galli proposed in 1988 that iodo-de-diazoniation, after formation of the aryl radical in the initiation reaction (Scheme 10-22) follows three coupled iodination chain reactions based on the formation of the I2 molecule and the If anion in the step shown in Scheme 10-23, namely iodine atom (I ) addition (Scheme 10-24), and iodine abstraction from I2 and If in Schemes 10-25 and 10-26 respectively. Aryl radicals and iodine molecules are regenerated as indicated in Scheme 10-27. The addition of iodide ion to aryl radicals forming the radical anion [Arl] -, as in Scheme 10-28, is considered an unlikely pathway, as that reaction has been found to be reversible (Lawless and Hawley, 1969 Andrieux et al. 1979). [Pg.236]

Kang and Jhon [9] showed that mean molecular polarizabiHties, a, can be estimated om atomic hybrid polarizabihties, by a simple additivity scheme summing over all N atoms (Eq. (6)). [Pg.322]

There have been few mechanistic studies of Lewis acid-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions with carbonyl compounds. Danishefsky et ah, for example, concluded that the reaction of benzaldehyde 1 with trans-l-methoxy-3-(trimethylsilyloxy)-l,3-di-methyl-1,3-butadiene (Danishefsky s diene) 2 in the presence of BF3 as the catalyst proceeds via a stepwise mechanism, whereas a concerted reaction occurs when ZnCl2 or lanthanides are used as catalysts (Scheme 4.3) [7]. The evidence of a change in the diastereochemistry of the reaction is that trans-3 is the major cycloaddition product in the Bp3-catalyzed reaction, whereas cis-3 is the major product in, for example, the ZnCl2-catalyzed reaction - the latter resulting from exo addition (Scheme 4.3). [Pg.154]

Heats of reaction Heats of reaction can be obtained as differences between the beats of formation of the products and those of the starting materials of a reaction. In EROS, heats of reaction arc calculated on the basis of an additivity scheme as presented in Section 7.1. With such an evaluation, reactions under thermodynamic control can be selected preferentially (Figure 10.3-10). [Pg.552]

The importance of FMO theory hes in the fact that good results may be obtained even if the frontier molecular orbitals are calculated by rather simple, approximate quantum mechanical methods such as perturbation theory. Even simple additivity schemes have been developed for estimating the energies and the orbital coefficients of frontier molecular orbitals [6]. [Pg.179]

** Additive fuzzy density fragmentation AFDF) scheme **

** Group additivity schemes by Benson **

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