The activity coefficient y relates the liquid-phase fugacity [Pg.14]

Figure 4-11. Activity coefficients for noncondensable solutes at infinite dilution. |

When we speak of the normalization of activity coefficients, we mean a specification of the state wherein the activity coef- [Pg.17]

Figure 4-7. Vapor-liquid equilibria and activity coefficients in a binary system showing a weak minimum in the activity coefficient of methanol. |

When no experimental data at all are available, activity coefficients can sometimes be estimated using the UNIFAC method (Fredenslund et al., 1977a, b). However, for many real engineering problems it is often necessary to obtain new experimental data. [Pg.43]

Equation (16) is a differential equation and applies equally to activity coefficients normalized by the symmetric or unsymme-tric convention. It is only in the integrated form of the Gibbs-Duhem equation that the type of normalization enters as a boundary condition. [Pg.20]

The molar excess enthalpy h is related to the derivatives of the activity coefficients with respect to temperature according to [Pg.87]

Chapter 3 discusses calculation of fugacity coefficient < ). Chapter 4 discusses calculation of adjusted activity coefficient Y fugacity of the pure liquid f9 [Equation (24)], and Henry s constant H. [Pg.24]

Detailed and extensive information on the UNIFAC method for estimating activity coefficients with application to vapor-liquid equilibria at moderate pressures. [Pg.8]

When the pressure is low and mixture conditions are far from critical, activity coefficients are essentially independent of pressure. For such conditions it is common practice to set P = P in Equations (18) and (19). Coupled with the assumption that v = v, substitution gives the familiar equation [Pg.22]

Henry s constant is the standard-state fugacity for any component i whose activity coefficient is normalised by Equation (14). [Pg.19]

It is important to be consistent in the use of fugacity coefficients. When reducing experimental data to obtain activity coefficients, a particular method for calculating fugacity coefficients must be adopted. That same method must be employed when activity-coefficient correlations are used to generate vapor-liquid equilibria. [Pg.27]

Figure 4-9. Vapor-liquid equilibria for a binary system where one component dimerizes in the vapor phase. Activity coefficients show only small deviations from liquid-phase ideality. |

Null (1970) discusses some alternate models for the excess Gibbs energy which appear to be well suited for systems whose activity coefficients show extrema. [Pg.55]

Liquid-liquid equilibria are much more sensitive than vapor-liquid equilibria to small changes in the effect of composition on activity coefficients. Therefore, calculations for liquid-liquid equilibria should be based, whenever possible, at least in part, on experimental liquid-liquid data. [Pg.63]

The standard-state fugacity of any component must be evaluated at the same temperature as that of the solution, regardless of whether the symmetric or unsymmetric convention is used for activity-coefficient normalization. But what about the pressure At low pressures, the effect of pressure on the thermodynamic properties of condensed phases is negligible and under such con- [Pg.19]

In a binary liquid solution containing one noncondensable and one condensable component, it is customary to refer to the first as the solute and to the second as the solvent. Equation (13) is used for the normalization of the solvent s activity coefficient but Equation (14) is used for the solute. Since the normalizations for the two components are not the same, they are said to follow the unsymmetric convention. The standard-state fugacity of the solvent is the fugacity of the pure liquid. The standard-state fugacity of the solute is Henry s constant. [Pg.19]

Since we make the simplifying assumption that the partial molar volumes are functions only of temperature, we assume that, for our purposes, pressure has no effect on liquid-liquid equilibria. Therefore, in Equation (23), pressure is not a variable. The activity coefficients depend only on temperature and composition. As for vapor-liquid equilibria, the activity coefficients used here are given by the UNIQUAC equation. Equation (15). [Pg.63]

If we vary the composition of a liquid mixture over all possible composition values at constant temperature, the equilibrium pressure does not remain constant. Therefore, if integrated forms of the Gibbs-Duhem equation [Equation (16)] are used to correlate isothermal activity coefficient data, it is necessary that all activity coefficients be evaluated at the same pressure. Unfortunately, however, experimentally obtained isothermal activity coefficients are not all at the same pressure and therefore they must be corrected from the experimental total pressure P to the same (arbitrary) reference pressure designated P. This may be done by the rigorous thermodynamic relation at constant temperature and composition [Pg.20]

Moderate errors in the total pressure calculations occur for the systems chloroform-ethanol-n-heptane and chloroform-acetone-methanol. Here strong hydrogen bonding between chloroform and alcohol creates unusual deviations from ideality for both alcohol-chloroform systems, the activity coefficients show [Pg.53]

In some cases, the temperature of the system may be larger than the critical temperature of one (or more) of the components, i.e., system temperature T may exceed T. . In that event, component i is a supercritical component, one that cannot exist as a pure liquid at temperature T. For this component, it is still possible to use symmetric normalization of the activity coefficient (y - 1 as x - 1) provided that some method of extrapolation is used to evaluate the standard-state fugacity which, in this case, is the fugacity of pure liquid i at system temperature T. For highly supercritical components (T Tj,.), such extrapolation is extremely arbitrary as a result, we have no assurance that when experimental data are reduced, the activity coefficient tends to obey the necessary boundary condition 1 [Pg.58]

Table 3 shows results obtained from a five-component, isothermal flash calculation. In this system there are two condensable components (acetone and benzene) and three noncondensable components (hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane). Henry s constants for each of the noncondensables were obtained from Equations (18-22) the simplifying assumption for dilute solutions [Equation (17)] was also used for each of the noncondensables. Activity coefficients for both condensable components were calculated with the UNIQUAC equation. For that calculation, all liquid-phase composition variables are on a solute-free basis the only required binary parameters are those for the acetone-benzene system. While no experimental data are available for comparison, the calculated results are probably reliable because all simplifying assumptions are reasonable the [Pg.61]

For such components, as the composition of the solution approaches that of the pure liquid, the fugacity becomes equal to the mole fraction multiplied by the standard-state fugacity. In this case,the standard-state fugacity for component i is the fugacity of pure liquid i at system temperature T. In many cases all the components in a liquid mixture are condensable and Equation (13) is therefore used for all components in this case, since all components are treated alike, the normalization of activity coefficients is said to follow the symmetric convention. [Pg.18]

Equations (2) and (3) are physically meaningful only in the temperature range bounded by the triple-point temperature and the critical temperature. Nevertheless, it is often useful to extrapolate these equations either to lower or, more often, to higher temperatures. In this monograph we have extrapolated the function F [Equation (3)] to a reduced temperature of nearly 2. We do not recommend further extrapolation. For highly supercritical components it is better to use the unsymmetric normalization for activity coefficients as indicated in Chapter 2 and as discussed further in a later section of this chapter. [Pg.40]

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