Electrochemical macrokinetics deals with the combined effects of polarization characteristics and of ohmic and diffusion factors on the current distribution and overall rate of electrochemical reactions in systems with distributed parameters. The term macrokinetics is used (mainly in Russian scientific publications) to distinguish these effects conveniently from effects arising at the molecular level. [Pg.334]

Porous electrodes are systems with distributed parameters, and any loss of efficiency is dne to the fact that different points within the electrode are not equally accessible to the electrode reaction. Concentration gradients and ohmic potential drops are possible in the electrolyte present in the pores. Hence, the local current density, i (referred to the unit of true surface area), is different at different depths x of the porous electrode. It is largest close to the outer surface (x = 0) and falls with increasing depth inside the electrode. [Pg.338]

Surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD), 474 Symmetric electrolytes, 4 Synergetic catalytic effects, 522, 549 Systems with distributed parameters, 334 [Pg.721]

This, more physical model that visualizes failure to result from random "shocks," was specialized from the more general model of Marshall and Olkin (1967) by Vesely (1977) for sparse data for the ATWS problem. It treats these shocks as binomially distributed with parameters m and p (equation 2.4-9). The BFR model like the MGL and BPM models distinguish the number of multiple unit failures in a system with more than two units, from the Beta Factor model, [Pg.128]

In the maximum-likelihood method used here, the "true" value of each measured variable is also found in the course of parameter estimation. The differences between these "true" values and the corresponding experimentally measured values are the residuals (also called deviations). When there are many data points, the residuals can be analyzed by standard statistical methods (Draper and Smith, 1966). If, however, there are only a few data points, examination of the residuals for trends, when plotted versus other system variables, may provide valuable information. Often these plots can indicate at a glance excessive experimental error, systematic error, or "lack of fit." Data points which are obviously bad can also be readily detected. If the model is suitable and if there are no systematic errors, such a plot shows the residuals randomly distributed with zero means. This behavior is shown in Figure 3 for the ethyl-acetate-n-propanol data of Murti and Van Winkle (1958), fitted with the van Laar equation. [Pg.105]

The quality of bonding is related direcdy to the size and distribution of solidified melt pockets along the interface, especially for dissimilar metal systems that form intermetaUic compounds. The pockets of solidified melt are brittle and contain localized defects which do not affect the composite properties. Explosion-bonding parameters for dissimilar metal systems normally are chosen to minimize the pockets of melt associated with the interface. [Pg.147]

Scale- Up of Electrochemical Reactors. The intermediate scale of the pilot plant is frequendy used in the scale-up of an electrochemical reactor or process to full scale. Dimensional analysis (qv) has been used in chemical engineering scale-up to simplify and generalize a multivariant system, and may be appHed to electrochemical systems, but has shown limitations. It is best used in conjunction with mathematical models. Scale-up often involves seeking a few critical parameters. Eor electrochemical cells, these parameters are generally current distribution and cell resistance. The characteristics of electrolytic process scale-up have been described (63—65). [Pg.90]

Application of NMR spectroscopy to heterocyclic chemistry has developed very rapidly during the past 15 years, and the technique is now used almost as routinely as H NMR spectroscopy. There are four main areas of application of interest to the heterocyclic chemist (i) elucidation of structure, where the method can be particularly valuable for complex natural products such as alkaloids and carbohydrate antibiotics (ii) stereochemical studies, especially conformational analysis of saturated heterocyclic systems (iii) the correlation of various theoretical aspects of structure and electronic distribution with chemical shifts, coupling constants and other NMR derived parameters and (iv) the unravelling of biosynthetic pathways to natural products, where, in contrast to related studies with " C-labelled precursors, stepwise degradation of the secondary metabolite is usually unnecessary. [Pg.11]

The assumption of harmonic vibrations and a Gaussian distribution of neighbors is not always valid. Anharmonic vibrations can lead to an incorrect determination of distance, with an apparent mean distance that is shorter than the real value. Measurements should preferably be carried out at low temperatures, and ideally at a range of temperatures, to check for anharmonicity. Model compounds should be measured at the same temperature as the unknown system. It is possible to obtain the real, non-Gaussian, distribution of neighbors from EXAFS, but a model for the distribution is needed and inevitably more parameters are introduced. [Pg.235]

The complex distribution system that results from the frontal analysis of a multicomponent solvent mixture on a thin layer plate makes the theoretical treatment of the TLC process exceedingly difficult. Although specific expressions for the important parameters can be obtained for a simple, particular, application, a general set of expressions that can help with all types of TLC analyses has not yet been developed. One advantage of the frontal analysis of the solvent, however, is to produce a concentration effect that improves the overall sensitivity of the technique. [Pg.453]

About 1902, J. W. Gibbs (1839-1903) introduced statistical mechanics with which he demonstrated how average values of the properties of a system could be predicted from an analysis of the most probable values of these properties found from a large number of identical systems (called an ensemble). Again, in the statistical mechanical interpretation of thermodynamics, the key parameter is identified with a temperature, which can be directly linked to the thermodynamic temperature, with the temperature of Maxwell s distribution, and with the perfect gas law. [Pg.3]

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