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** Effects of Operating Variables **

** Operational model function for variable slope **

** Process Variables and Sensors in Bioprocess Operations **

** System and operating variables **

** System and operating variables factors affecting product size **

The basic conservation laws, as well as the transport models, are applied to a system (sometimes called a control volume ). The system is not actually the volume itself but the material within a defined region. For flow problems, there may be one or more streams entering and/or leaving the system, each of which carries the conserved quantity (e.g., Q ) into and out of the system at a defined rate (Fig. 1-2). Q may also be transported into or out of the system through the system boundaries by other means in addition to being carried by the in and out streams. Thus, the conservation law for a flow problem with respect to any conserved quantity Q can be written as follows [Pg.9]

The general transport models for the turbulent convective transport of heat and mass can be expressed as follows [Pg.10]

The situation with regard to convective (turbulent) momentum transport is somewhat more complex because of the tensor (dyadic) character of momentum flux. As we have seen, Newton s second law provides a correspondence between a force in the x direction, Fx, and the rate of transport of x-momentum. For continuous steady flow in the x direction at a bulk [Pg.10]

The corresponding flux of x-momentum in the x direction is Fx/Ax = pVx. This x-momentum is also the driving force for convective transport of x-momentum in the — y direction (toward the wall), i.e., Tyx=Fx/Ay. Therefore, the convective flux of x-momentum from the fluid to the wall (or the stress exerted by the fluid on the wall) can be expressed as [Pg.11]

Granulation Rate Processes and Effect of Operating Variables. 20-75 [Pg.1820]

J. R. Murphy and Y. L. Cheng, "The Interaction of Heat Balance and Operating Variables in ZeoUtic Catalyst Operations," presented at Katalistiks 5th Annual FCC Symposium, Vieima, Austria, May 1984. [Pg.220]

In the references cited previously, the authors discuss the influence of operating variables upon the performance of plate towers when large heat effects are involved. Some general observations are as follows [Pg.1359]

The evidence is that the coefficients kc and ko and the interfacial area depend differently upon operating variables. For purposes of design, therefore, it is ultimately necessary to have separate information on the quantities kc, ko, and a, .. The role of an additional surface resistance is emphasized by the studies of Kishinevsld and Moehalova [Zh. Prikl Khim.,. 3.3, 2049 (I960)]. [Pg.1466]

AU processed material is screened to return the coarse fraction for a second pass through the system. Process feed rates are matched to operating variables such as rpm speed and internal clearances, thus minimizing the level of excess fines (—200 mesh (<0.075 mm mm)). At one installation (3) the foUowing product size gradation of total smaller than mesh size (cumulative minus) was obtained [Pg.569]

Results of diying tests can be correlated empirically in terms of overall heat-transfer coefficient or length of a transfer unit as a function of operating variables. The former is generally apphcable to all types of dryers, while the latter applies only in the case of continuous diyers. The relationship between these quantities is as follows. [Pg.1184]

Constrained Optimization When constraints exist and cannot be eliminated in an optimization problem, more general methods must be employed than those described above, since the unconstrained optimum may correspond to unrealistic values of the operating variables. The general form of a nonhuear programming problem allows for a nonlinear objec tive function and nonlinear constraints, or [Pg.744]

Data for the several flame methods assume an acetylene-nitrous oxide flame residing on a 5- or 10-cm slot burner. The sample is nebulized into a spray chamber placed immediately ahead of the burner. Detection limits are quite dependent on instrument and operating variables, particularly the detector, the fuel and oxidant gases, the slit width, and the method used for background correction and data smoothing. [Pg.727]

Primarily because of the lack of adequate experimental techniques (particularly, the produc tion of appropriate monodisperse aerosols), there has been no comprehensive experimental test of any of the venturi-scrubber models over wide ranges of design and operating variables. The models for other types of scrubbers appear to be essentially untested. [Pg.1591]

See also in sourсe #XX -- [ Pg.122 , Pg.132 , Pg.170 , Pg.171 , Pg.497 ]

** Effects of Operating Variables **

** Operational model function for variable slope **

** Process Variables and Sensors in Bioprocess Operations **

** System and operating variables **

** System and operating variables factors affecting product size **

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