H = Hydraulic Hoses P = Power Cables S = Signal Cables  [c.271]

A unique benefit of the laser probe is its ability to profile or gauge surfaces that are compliant. Unlike stylus-based surface profilers, a laser-optical triangulation system does not physically touch the surface. Therefore, it can be used to profile surfaces that would be altered by the process of profiling with a contact gauge. This feature has been especially useful when attempting to measure the profile of surfaces, which due to their materials or manufacturing processes, are compliant (e.g., rubber and plastic hoses) as well as those for which the process under investigation has resulted in a compliant surface such as the buildup of sludge or biofouling materials.  [c.1063]

Hose applications Hoses  [c.483]

Oxyfuel—Gas Welding. This process, commonly called gas welding, uses the heat of combusting gases to melt and coalesce base metals. Although several different fuel gases, eg, propylene, hydrogen, MAPP, or methane, can be added to the oxygen, the oxyacetylene flame is the most widely used because its high (3100°C) flame temperature is needed to weld steel. The essential features of the process are shown in Figure 2b. The heat of the inner cone of the flame melts both the base and the filler metal. The overall system is simple it consists of gas regulators, hoses, the welding torch, a high pressure oxygen tank, and the acetylene tank, which contains Hquid acetone into which the acetylene is dissolved. Gas welding, once the most widely used welding method, has been supplanted by arc processes in commercial manufacture. However, it is still used in small welding shops, for repairs, and by the home craftsman.  [c.343]

Nitrile mbber finds broad application in industry because of its excellent resistance to oil and chemicals, its good flexibility at low temperatures, high abrasion and heat resistance (up to 120°C), and good mechanical properties. Nitrile mbber consists of butadiene—acrylonitrile copolymers with an acrylonitrile content ranging from 15 to 45% (see Elastomers, SYNTHETIC, NITRILE RUBBER). In addition to the traditional applications of nitrile mbber for hoses, gaskets, seals, and oil well equipment, new applications have emerged with the development of nitrile mbber blends with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). These blends combine the chemical resistance and low temperature flexibility characteristics of nitrile mbber with the stability and ozone resistance of PVC. This has greatly expanded the use of nitrile mbber in outdoor applications for hoses, belts, and cable jackets, where ozone resistance is necessary.  [c.186]

High molecular weight polyester is commonly used to make high strength industrial fibers. Typical yam bundle sizes of 111—222 tex (1000—2000 den) and single filament sizes of 0.55—1.11 tex per filament (5—10 dpf) are available with tenacities on the order of 0.7—1.0 N/tex (8—10 gf/den). These fibers are commonly used in appHcations requiring high strength and stabiHty, including tire cord, seat belts, industrial belts and hoses, ropes, cords, and sailcloth.  [c.334]

PVA fiber is best fit for reinforcement of oil brake hoses for cars that require high reUabiUty, because of excellent mechanical properties and good chemical resistance to pressure—transmission Hquid contained in the hose.  [c.342]

Because gravity is too weak to be used for removal of cakes in a gravity side filter (2), continuously operated gravity side filters are not practicable but an intermittent flow system is feasible in this arrangement the cake is first formed in a conventional way and the feed is then stopped to allow gravity removal of the cake. A system of pressure filtration of particles from 2.5 to 5 p.m in size, in neutralized acid mine drainage water, has been described (21). The filtration was in vertical permeable hoses, and a pressure shock associated with relaxing the hose pressure was used to aid the cake removal.  [c.409]

Results of an iavestigation iato the thickening of ka olin clay ia woven fiber polyester hoses was pubHshed (38). The results achieved production rates from 0.5 to 1.7 m/h and found temperature and slurry velocity to be the primary variables affecting the filtration velocity. The filtration velocity was proportional to the circulation velocity. Sewage filtration ia permeable hose pipes (precoated with filter aid), ceramic tubes, carbon tubes, various porous metal, and plastic screens with activated carbon added has been reported (39). A minimum filtration velocity of 0.17 m/h was suggested as a limit of economic viabiUty. The slurry velocities required for particle transport have been studied (40) and the separation of particles usiag porous stainless steel tubes examined. The relationship between filtration velocity and the slurry velocity was found to be linear, for magnesium carbonate ia this case, but not going through the origin. The two constants ia the linear equation were found to depend on particle size. Reference 40 also suggests the use of precoating techniques for cross-flow filtration ia tubes.  [c.412]

Tubing is made in a wide range of sizes and is used as sHp-on electrical insulation, instmment tubing, and for hoses. Small tubing, called spaghetti tubing, can be produced by a free-extmsion technique, whereas hose-size tubing is produced by conventional forming-box techniques FEP also is  [c.361]

Heat and oil resistance coupled with its low swell have led automotive apphcations into laminated tubing and hoses (11) with this material. This resistance to the effects of ASTM No. 3 oil at service temperatures of 200°C makes it competitive with fluorocarbons and with the tetrafluoroethylene—propylene copolymer. Fluorosihcones are used to make exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) diaphragms for some passenger cars.  [c.401]

Composites. Various composite materials have evolved over the years as a significant class of high performance textile products. The prototype composite is carbon fiber with an epoxy resin matrix for stmctural akcraft components and other aerospace and military appHcations. Carbon fiber composites ate also used in various leisure and spotting items such as golf clubs, tennis rackets, and lightweight bicycle frames. However, other types of appHcations and composites ate also entering the marketplace. For example, short ceUulose fiber/mbbet composites ate used for hoses, belting, and pneumatic tire components.  [c.71]

Rubber Compounding. Hydrocarbon resins are used in the production of various types of mbber-based products, including tires, shoe soles and heels, hoses, industrial belting, mats, electrical wire insulation, and roU coverings. Coumarone—indene and aromatic resins reinforce mineral-loaded SBR stock and increase tensile strength, elongation, and resistance to flex cracking. The aHphatic- and terpene-based resins are used as tackifiers for NR and NR/SBR combinations in the formulation of tires and molded goods. Aromatic modified aHphatic or functionally modified aromatic resins can act as both tackifying and reinforcing resins. Normally a range of 5—15 parts of resin per 100 parts of elastomer is used in mbber compounding.  [c.358]

Chemical Cleaning. Removal of deposits from inside vessels and pipes is often done using acids, caustics, or strong solvents, the handling of which can cause a number of hazards. Transfers and mixing of small quantities is usually done manually from dmms or tank tmcks. AppHcation involves pumping materials through hoses or temporary piping. Sometimes strong cleaners are appHed as a pressure spray or jet with consequent spattering. The reaction of the chemical with the deposit materials and the metal of the pipe or vessel can produce dangerous gaseous air contaminants. Even when cleaning is done in situ, removal and disposal of the cleaner and flushing fluid can cause exposure. Because these operations are infrequent, installed control equipment is rarely used. In most cases workers rely on personal protection equipment plus detailed handling precautions.  [c.106]

Typical chemical stmctures and representative sources of different classes of synthetics are given in Table 6. Properties and uses of representative synthetics foUow in Table 7. In addition to considering thek physical properties, selection is needed of appropriate paints, seals, hoses, plastics, and electrical insulation to avoid problems with the pronounced solvency and plasticizing action of many of these synthetic oils.  [c.243]

To alleviate these problems, the continuous side bar is spHt, as shown in Figure 16c. Each sidewall segment is large enough to be individually water-cooled. In comparison to the single side bar design, the segmented bar requires a larger number of water hoses and penetrations of the pressure vessel, but far fewer than the peg wall design.  [c.431]

Mechanical and Thermal Design. The main objectives of channel mechanical and thermal design are to maintain stmctural and sealing integrity, to provide adequate cooling of gas-side surface elements, and to use efficiendy the magnet bore volume, ie, to maximize the ratio of channel flow cross-section area to the magnet bore cross-section area. This last requirement affects not only the channel mechanical design but also the packaging of channel electrical wires, cooling hoses, and manifolds. In broad terms, MHD channels built to date have fallen into one of three types of constmction categories plastic box constmction window frame constmction or reinforced window frame constmction.  [c.431]

Plastic box constmction has several advantages it is readily scalable to large commercial sizes readily separable walls make assembly, disassembly, and refurbishing of the walls relatively simple, fast, and inexpensive noncurrent carrying sidewalls can be used, which permits the use of local current controls gas sealing and interelectrode insulator functions are separated, thus minimizing the risk of plasma leakage in the event of interelectrode breakdown and arcing and there are only four main gas seals, along the corners of the box, further minimizing the risk of plasma leakage. The main disadvantage is the large number of cooled elements that either carry current or must be electrically insulated from each other, and the associated large number of water hoses and electrical wires that are required.  [c.431]

Further work is also required in the area of mechanical design and constmction of large MHD channels, especially with respect to constmction features which are scalable to commercial size channels. The mechanical design of channels is aimed first, at achieving electrical and stmctural integrity of the channel, and second, at achieving the most efficient use of the magnet bore in order to minimize the required volume of magnetic field, and hence, the magnet cost. This is done by compact packaging of channel stmcture, electrical wiring, water manifolds, hoses, etc. Additional important considerations are channel installation, maintenance, and repair.  [c.433]

Commercial-grade nitroparaftins are shipped and stored ia ordinary carbon steel. However, wet nitroparaftins containing more than 0.1—0.2% water may become discolored when stored ia steel for long periods, even though corrosion is not excessive. Aluminum and stainless steel are completely resistant to corrosion by wet nitroparaftins. Storage ia contact with lead (qv), copper, or alloys containing these metals should be avoided. Polymeric materials for gaskets, hoses, and connections should be tested for thek suitabiHty before exposure to nitroparaftins.  [c.102]

Pipe and Tubing. The same quaUties that make LLDPE attractive for blow mol ding appHcations also play a cmcial role in its being adapted for pipe manufacture, an area that accounts for about 1% of the LLDPE market. LLDPE pipes provide not only necessary flexibiUty, high burst strength, and high environmental stress-cracking resistance, but also higher heat-distortion temperature than LDPE and some other HDPE grades. LLDPE tubing is used for drip piping, swimming pool tubing, household hoses, etc. On account of their high purity, transparency, and flexibiUty, compositionaHy uniform LLDPE and VLDPE resins have started to replace plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in such specialty markets as medical tubing appHcations (88).  [c.405]

Uses. Essentially all polymer-grade terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate are used to make saturated polyesters, the great majority being poly(ethylene terephthalate). Poly(ethylene terephthalate) is employed to make fiber and is the largest-volume synthetic fiber in the world. Fiber use makes up 73% of worldwide poly(ethylene terephthalate) production (92). It is used for woven and knitted fabrics for clothing, draperies, upholstery, and carpeting. In clothing appHcations, it is usually blended with other fibers, primarily cotton (qv). AppHcations for high strength polyester continuous fibers are reinforcing cord for tires, V-belts, conveyor belts, and hoses (see Fibers, polyester).  [c.492]

AH steel huildings and outdoor stmctures and aH tanks, dmms, open-end hoses, tank cars, tmcks, and chemical equipment associated with the handling or use of flammable Hquids or gases or ia areas where these are handled should be grounded according to the NEC (67). Flexible grounds should be connected to large water pipes or driven grounds but never to electrical conduits, branch sprinkler lines, or gas, steam, or process piping. These grounds should be properly maintained and the electrical resistance to ground should be measured periodicaHy. Lightning protection is achieved through the use of large grounding conductors.  [c.98]

Safety Showers. Safety showers and eyewash fountains or hoses should be installed where corrosive or toxic materials are handled. A large-volume, low velocity discharge from directly overhead should effect continuous drenching, ie, a minimum flow of 20 L/min (50 gal /min). Water to outside showers may be heated to a maximum temperature of 27°C by an electric heating cable. The valves for all safety showers should be at the same height and relative position to the shower head, and they should operate in the same way and direction. The shower station should be identified by paint of a bright, contrasting color. In areas where chemicals harmful to the eyes may be encountered, an eyewash fountain or spray should be available in case of splash accidents.  [c.99]

More than 60% of nylon is used in injection-molding appHcations. About 55% of this use is in the transportation industries, and most of this use is concerned with automobile production. Nylons are used throughout automobiles and the amount used is continually increasing as a result of the drive to reduce weight. Some exterior appHcations are wheel covers, door mirrors, handles, lamp housings, gas tank filler covers, and decorative louvers. In the interior, appHcations include parts of the window, chair and seat belt mechanisms, handles, light housings, cable ties and gears in the speedometer, and windshield wipers. One of the fastest growing areas of automotive use is underhood appHcations, including radiator end tanks, filter housings, valve covers, fuse blocks, fuel hoses, and fuel rails and air inlet manifolds for injection engines. Table 8 shows the spHt of appHcations for which nylon was used in the United States and Canada in 1993.  [c.276]

Drag Reduction. The addition of 0.03% of high molecular weight PEO (greater than four million) to aqueous solutions has resulted in a 100% increase in the flow rate at fixed pump pressures (152). The significant reduction in friction as a result of the addition of PEO has been attributed to supermolecular stmcture formation of PEO (153) and to expansion and orientation of the polymer in rotation-free draining flow (154). Drag reduction properties have been demonstrated by trials using fire hoses, which show that water travels 50% further due to the addition of small quantities of PEO (63). Investigations on the effect of Reynold s number, orifice size of the pumping device, and polymer blends have led to a better understanding for suitable drag-reducing systems that may use PEO (152—163). Degradation of PEO and point of addition of the polymer appear to play a significant role in successful manipulation of this property in end uses. Some references also suggest the use of this property in reducing arterial pressure in medical appHcations (162).  [c.344]

Clarification. Clarification is the term used to describe separation of bauxite residue soHds from the supersaturated green Hquor near its boiling point. Coarse particles, called sand because of the high siHca content, are usually removed by cycloning foUowed by washing on sand classifiers prior to disposal. In most plants, the fine fraction of residue is settied in raking thickeners with the addition of flocculants to improve the clarity of thickener overflow. The concentrated thickener underflow is washed before disposal in countercurrent decantation washers (similar to the raking thickeners) or on vacuum dmm-type filters, or a combination of both. Thickener overflow is filtered to remove the final traces of soHds and ensure product purity. KeUy-type pressure filters are most widely used, but some plants use sand filters in which the Hquor is filtered by gravity through a bed of properly sized sand. Entered soHds are removed from filter press cloth by hosing and are elutriated from the sand by backwashing.  [c.134]

Propylene oxide has a variety of toxic effects on humans. Thus, exposure to propylene oxide during manufacture, storage and handling, and use should be minimised. Potential for high exposure to propylene oxide can occur during such routine activities as sampling, analysis, and maintenance, and in disconnecting hoses used for product transfer. Exposure is first minimised through proper design of sampling devices and the handling equipment and use of job procedures for both routine work and maintenance activity. A last resort is the use of personal protective equipment such as respirators, breathing air, gloves, and chemical suits (242,243). Reference 2 provides some recommended methods for safe sampling of propylene oxide.  [c.143]

Close-Coupled Single-Stage Hori ntal nd Suction. A closed-coupled pump has an impeller mounted directly on the shaft of the driver, thus eliminating the need for pump-bearing housing. The driver bearings take all pump loads. These pumps are used for relatively light-duty services. They are often appHed for sanitary and corrosive pumping requirements because of a clean-in-place (CIP) capabiUty, ie, the pump can be flushed (cleaned) without much disassembly. This type of pump can handle Hquids and semisoHds having entrained vapors, pump viscous products, and sustain good vacuum characteristics under varying conditions. Designs are simple, and maintenance is easy. These centrifugal pumps use only four basic parts pump hosing or casing, impeller, shaft, and a seal. The shaft, coimected to the power source, eg, a motor, rotates the impeller inside the casing.  [c.291]

ELASTOPffiRS,SYNTHETic-POLYcm.OROPRENE Elastop rs, SYNTHETIC-ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE-DIENE RUBBER). Tires, hoses, belts, molded and extmded goods, and asphalt products consume ca 80% of the reclaimed mbber manufactured. Typical properties of reclaimed mbbers are shown in Table 5.  [c.19]

Economics and price of the final article often dictate a specific type of mbber that can be used. The expected usable life for the product is controlled by many factors including end customer awareness, competitive situation in the marketplace, safety, reUabiUty, and other factors. Rubber is almost always used as a functional part of another system. For example tires, hoses, belts, O-rings, and numerous mbber components are used in manufacturing automobiles and tmcks. The overall life of the vehicle as well as its performance level often control or direcdy relate to the service life or quaUty level of the mbber parts.  [c.230]

As the demand for rubber increased so did the chemical industry s efforts to prepare a synthetic sub stitute One of the first elastomers (a synthetic poly mer that possesses elasticity) to find a commercial niche was neoprene discovered by chemists at Du Pont in 1931 Neoprene is produced by free radical polymerization of 2 chloro 1 3 butadiene and has the greatest variety of applications of any elastomer Some uses include electrical insulation conveyer belts hoses and weather balloons  [c.408]

The motor in a hydrostatic system can be any type of positive displacement hydrauhc motor. Axial piston motors usually are used for large drives and, in some cases, for small drives. Gear and radial piston motors are used for low power drives the motor usually is a fixed-displacement type. The direction of rotation is dependent on the direction of flow to the pump in the closed loop circuit. In addition to the pump and motor, connecting lines, rehef valves, and a charge pump are required. The connecting lines may be passages where the pump and motor are in the same housing, or may be hoses where the motor is mounted away from the pump. The charge pump provides initial pressurization of the motor and replaces any fluid lost due to internal leakage. On small tractors it may also be used to supply fluid for remote hydrauhc cylinders (16). A typical small tractor schematic diagram is shown in Figure 4. The low pressure make-up pump also is used to supply auxitiary hydrauhc units. The drive system consists of a variable volume pump with a fixed displacement motor. Fluid is drawn through a strainer from the reservoir and excess fluid that is not required to charge the main pump flows through the filter back to the reservoir.  [c.270]

The fluoroelastomers possess good mbber properties with the added advantages of being nonburning, hydrophobic, and solvent- and fuel-resistant. In addition to these, because of flexibiHty down to about —60° C, these polymers have been used in seals, gaskets, and hoses in army tanks, in aviation fuel lines and tanks, as well as in cold-climate oil pipeline appHcations. These polymers have also found appHcation in various types of shock mounts for vibration dampening (14,17).  [c.257]

Channel thermal design, although requiring care, poses no significant problems. Heat fluxes from the gas to the walls of the channel can range from 50 W/cm at the exit of a well slagged channel to about 500 W/cm at the inlet of an unslagged channel. Coolant flow velocities in gas-side surface elements are typically in the range 2-5 m/s. Coolant hoses, manifolds, etc, must have adequate mechanical and thermal properties, and also be electrically insulating, in order to avoid electrical shorting of channel elements. These requirements limit the types of hoses and manifolds which can be used, and therefore the allowable cooling water pressure and temperature.  [c.432]

Polymers of Gycloolefins. Polyoctenamer elastomers are processed by extmsion, injection mol ding, and calendering into hoses, mbber coatings, and tire components. They are mostly used as components in mbber-, PVC-, and PS-based compositions. Compounding polyoctenamer with natural mbber and polyisoprene can reduce energy requirements during mbber processing and significantly increase green strength of tire components  [c.432]

Plasticizers. Plastici2ers are used to increase the flexibiHty of nylon and improve impact strength. They are most commonly used in nylon-11 and nylon-12 for such appHcations as flexible fuel hoses for automobiles. Unextracted nylon-6 is also used with the caprolactam acting as the plastici2er. Other common plastici2ers are long-chain diols and sulfonamides.  [c.274]

During the 1930s gradual improvements in the product and processing overcame some of the drawbacks of this material. Nonetheless, the apphcations were limited and Thiokol Corp. stmggled to remain solvent. The first year Thiokol reported a profit was in 1941, 13 years after its foundation. This was realized when the U.S. Air Force discovered that the aUphatic polysulftdes were usehil as a fuel-resistant sealant for aircraft tanks and hoses. Polysulftdes also began to be used as sealants for boat hulls and decks.  [c.455]

Hoses must be made for anhydrous ammonia service 2500 kPa (348 psig) working pressure and stamped for this service. In locations where hoses may be abraded, wke braid armored or reinforced hose types should be used. Hose ends should have boss or other acceptable ak kon ferruled couplings.  [c.354]

See pages that mention the term Hoses : [c.276]    [c.483]    [c.104]    [c.494]    [c.499]    [c.499]    [c.342]    [c.360]    [c.460]    [c.71]    [c.305]    [c.17]   
What went wrong (0) -- [ c.3 , c.150 , c.151 , c.152 , c.233 , c.263 , c.264 , c.265 , c.294 , c.378 ]