Fire tubes hazard


Production and Shipment. Estimated adiponitrile production capacities in the U.S. in 1992 were about 625 thousand metric tons and worldwide capacity was in excess of lO metric tons. The DOT/IMO classification for adiponitrile is class 6.1 hazard, UN No. 2205. It requires a POISON label on all containers and is in packing group III. Approved materials of constmction for shipping, storage, and associated transportation equipment are carbon steel and type 316 stainless steel. Either centrifugal or positive displacement pumps may be used. Carbon dioxide or chemical-foam fire extinguishers should be used. There are no specifications for commercial adiponitrile. The typical composition is 99.5 wt % adiponitrile. Impurities that may be present depend on the method of manufacture, and thus, vary depending on the source.  [c.221]

The assessment of the contribution of a product to the fire severity and the resulting hazard to people and property combines appropriate product flammabihty data, descriptions of the building and occupants, and computer software that includes the dynamics and chemistry of fires. This type of assessment offers benefits not available from stand-alone test methods quantitative appraisal of the incremental impact on fire safety of changes in a product appraisal of the use of a given material in a number of products and appraisal of the differing impacts of a product in different buildings and occupancies. One method, HAZARD I (11), has been used to determine that several commonly used fire-retardant—polymer systems reduced the overall fire hazard compared to similar nonfire retarded formulations (12).  [c.451]

The greatest hazard is violent exothermic polymerization with quick pressure build-up and mpture of the vessel. Pressure increases of 12.1 MPa/min have been measured. Polymerization can take place on heating or through contact with even catalytic amounts of bases, mineral acids, strong oxidants, Friedels-Crafts catalysts, and other substances. On addition of 1 drop of an amine to 1 g of diketene, the hot reaction mixture is violently projected out of the test tube within a few seconds. Water decomposes diketene slowly. Acids react slower than bases storage vessels should therefore be thoroughly clean and free of contaminants. In chemical reactions diketene should be added slowly to the other reagents, not vice-versa, making sure that there is no build-up of unreacted diketene.  [c.480]

Threshold limit values for the components of cemented carbides and tool steels are given in Table 14 (176). There is generally no fire or explosion hazard involved with tool steels, cemented carbides, or other tool materials. Fires can be handled as metal fires, eg, with Type D fire extinguishers. Most constituents of tool materials do not polymerize.  [c.220]

Another elevator adaptation is that for a spiral-type elevating device developed for ground cement and thus hmited to fine powdery burdens. The spiral operates inside a cylindrical shell, which is externally cooled bv a falling film of water. The spiral not only elevates the material in a thin layer against the wall but keeps it agitated to achieve high heat-transfer rates. Specific operating data are not available [Chem. np. Prog., 68(7), 113 (1968)]. The falling-water film, besides being ideal thermally, by virtue of no jacket pressure very greatly reduces the hazard that the coohng water may contact the water-sensitive burden in process. Surfaces wet by water are accessible for cleaning. A fair range of sizes is available, with material-handling capacities to 60 tons/h.  [c.1097]

Flash Point The lowest temperature at which vapors above a liquid will ignite at a pressure of 760 mm Fig absolute. The temperature at which vapor will burn while in contact with an ignition source, but which will not continue to burn after the ignition source is removed. There are several flash point test methods, and flash points may vary for the same material depending on the method used. Consequently, the test method is indicated when the flash point is given. A closed cup type test is used most frequently for regulatory purposes. The lower the flash point temperature of a liquid, the greater the fire hazard following a release.  [c.162]

This is a location safer than Zone I with a likelihood of concentration of explosive gases, chemical vapour or volatile liquids during processing, storage or handling. This would become a fire hazard only under abnormal conditions, such as a leakage or a burst of joints or pipelines etc. Such a condition may exist only for a short period. A standard motor with additional features, as di.scussed below, may also be safe for such locations. A non-sparking type. Ex. n , or an increased safety motor, type Ex. e , may also be chosen for such locations.  [c.179]

Fire Hazards - Flash Point (deg. F) -22 OC Flammable Limits in Air (%) 2.6 - 16.1 Fire Extinguishing Agents On small fires use carbon dioxide or dry chemical. For large fires use alcohol type foam Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used Water may be ineffective Special Hazards of Combustion Products Not pertinent Behavior in Fire Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back Ignition Terr erature (deg. F) 405 Electrical Hazard Not pertinent Burning Rate 4.4 mm/min.  [c.331]

Type of Hazard Toxicity, Explosion, and/or Fire  [c.296]

Organic solvents are a toxic, fire and explosive hazard to varying degrees, depending on type. Solvent entrapment is one of the most common forms of premature failure of modern, high-build, fast-drying materials. Paint manufacturers are urgently developing materials that can be substantially water based. Currently, this can only be achieved with a comparative loss of durability and some application problems, but development of suitable materials is inevitable for the future.  [c.127]

The hazard posed can be limited by maintaining a zone free of people and property around a storage area of explosive material. The minimum radius of the zone depends on the type and quantity of explosive, the extent and type of barrica ding, and the magnitude of loss that would be encountered if an explosive incident occurred. The maximum distance to which hazardous explosive effects propagate depends on the blast overpressure created, which as a first approximation is a function of the cube root of the explosive weight, W. This is termed the quantity distance and is defined as  [c.6]

Electrostatic spray atomizers are constmcted from metal or nonconductive materials. A metal atomizer has sufficient electrical capacitance that when it is approached rapidly by a grounded object, eg, workpiece, an electrical arc may occur that can have sufficient energy to ignite certain solvent-ak mixtures. A metal atomizer offers maximum mggedness and efficiency but may present a fire hazard if not electronically protected. Thus this type of system often employs an electronic feedback system to reduce voltage and prevent arcing under these conditions. Most nonconductive atomizers are of a nonincendiary design the rate of energy discharge has been specifically limited in such a way not to cause ignition. However, this type of atomizer is generally not as mgged as a metal atomizer, and in operation, the working voltages decrease, resulting in somewhat lower transfer efficiency.  [c.331]

Although ethylene is a colorless gas with a mild odor that is not irritating to the eyes or respiratory system, it is a hydrocarbon and therefore a flammable gas. AH vessels must be designed for handling the Hquids and gases during operation at the temperatures and pressures that exist, and safety and depressuring valves must be provided to reheve excessive pressure. Releasing of hydrocarbons into the air in large amounts must be avoided because of health and fire ha2ards. If hydrocarbons must be released into the air, it is done under a blanket of steam. To protect the plant and personnel in case of fire, a complete fire fighting system is provided with tanks grouped to minimise fire and provided with foam makers and deluge systems. Reviews at various stages of a project assure safety is given constant attention in the plant design (see Hazard analysis and risk assessment). An ethylene plant produces Hquid, gaseous, and soHd wastes that must be disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. Liquid wastes generated within the complex consist of wastewater streams of relatively low organic content, and process wastes of high organic content. Wastewater from various units and operations are segregated according to the wastewater characteristics, such as type of contaminants, concentration, special treatment, or pretreatment requirements. A segregated sewer system allows for the most efficient treatment of the wastewaters.  [c.445]

Fire or explosion hazards require special motor enclosures. Hazards include combustible gases and vapors such as gasoline dust such as coal, flour, or metals that can explode when suspended in air and fibers such as textile lint. The land of motor enclosure used depends on the type of hazard, the type and size of motor, and the probability of a hazardous condition occurring. Some available enclosures are explosionproof motors, which can withstand an internal explosion force-ventilated motors cooled with air from a safe location and totallv enclosed motors cooled bv air-to-water heat exchangers and pressurized with safe air, instrument air, or inert gas,  [c.2488]

In the previous section we discussed a more conventional type of painting process. A rather new (early 1960s) and more advanced technology is found in the electrostatic process of a powder coating system. This uses no liquids and no primer coat and can save on paint consumption by up to 50% compared to the conventional liquid paint method, due to an almost closed-loop painting process, incorporating a paint recovery and recycle system. It allows no paint fumes to the atmosphere, and causes no environmental pollution or fire hazard at the workplace. The technique is thus judged to be highly economical, besides being environment-friendly. It also ensures an absolutely uniform and perfect painted surface due to a  [c.409]

An appreeiation of the eomposition and morphology of the dust is important in the assessment of hazard. Thus, among siliea-eontaining eompounds, erystalline silieates and amorphous silieas (silieon dioxide) are generally not eonsidered fibrogenie, whereas free erystalline siliea and eertain fibrous silieates sueh as asbestos and tales ean eause disabling lung diseases. Table 5.8 indieates the approximate free siliea eontent of various materials Table 5.9 lists a range of siliea-eontaining materials aeeording to type.  [c.77]

Health Hazards Information - Recommended Personal Protective Equipment Organic vapor-acid gas type canister mask rubber, neoprene, vinyl, etc. gloves chemical safety goggles, plus face shield where appropriate acid resistant clothing, plus apron for splash protection rubber safety shoes or boots hard hat Symptoms Following Exposure Inhalation causes irritation of nose and throat. Contact of liquid with eyes or skin causes severe burns. Ingestion causes vomiting and severe bums of mouth and stomach. Overexposure by any route can cause bloody stools, slow pulse, low blood pressure, coma, convulsions, cardiac arrest General Treatment for Exposure INHALATION remove to clean air rinse mouth and gargle with water if overexposure is serious, get prompt medical attention. EYES flush eyes and eye-lids thoroughly with large amounts of water get prompt medical attention. SKIN flush thoroughly with water remove contaminated clothing wash affected area with soap and water if overexposure is serious, get prompt medical attention. INGESTION dilute by drinking water if vomiting occurs, administer more water. If overexposure is serious, get prompt medical attention Toxicity by Inhalation (Threshold Limit Value) 0.5 mg/m as antimony Short-Term Exposure Limits Data not available Toxicity by Ingestion Grade 2 oral LD50 1,115 mg/kg (rat), 900 mg/kg (guinea pig) Late Toxicity Antimony poisoning may result Vapor (Gas) Irritant Characteristics Vapors are moderately irritating such that personnel will not usually tolerate moderate or high vapor concentrations Liquid or Solid Irritant Characteristics Severe skin irritant causes second- and third-degree burns on short contact and is very injurious to the eyes Odor Threshold Data not available. Fire Hazards - Flash Point Not flammable Flammable Limits in Air (%) Not flammable Fire Extinguishing Agents Not pertinent Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used Do not use water or foam on adjacent fires Special Hazards of Combustion Products Not pertinent Behavior in Fire Irritating fumes of hydrogen chloride given off when water or foam is used to extinguish adjacent fire Ignition Temperature Not pertinent Electrical Hazard Not pertinent Burning Rate Not pertinent. Chemical Reactivity - Reactivity with Water Reacts to form hydrogen chloride gas (hydrochloric acid) Reactivity with Common Materials Causes corrosion on metal Stability During Transport Stable Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics Soda ash or soda ash-lime mixture Polymerization Not pertinent Inhibitor of Polymerization Not pertinent.  [c.25]

Fire Hazards - Flash Point Not flammable Flammable Limits in Air (%) Not flammable Fire Extinguishing Agents-. tiov es neaL , Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used-. Not pertinent Special Hazards of Combustion Products Irritating hydrogen fluoride gas may form in fires Behavior in Fire Not pertinent Ignition Temperature Not pertinent Electrical Hazard Not pertinent Burning Rate Not pertinent.  [c.93]

Health Hazards Information - Personal Protective Equipment Air pack or organic canister respirator rubber gloves goggles clothing to prevent body contact with liquid. Symptoms Following Exposure Vapors irritate eyes and nose. Ingestion or skin contact causes headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness. Treatment for Exposure INHALATION remove to fresh air and call a physician. SKIN OR EYES immediately flush with plenty of water get medical care for eyes. Toxicity by Inhalation (Threshold limit Value) 50 ppm Short-Term Inhalation limits Data not available Toxicity by Ingestion Grade 2 LDjoO.5 to 5 g/kg (rat) Late Toxicity Data not available Vapor (Gas) Irritant Characteristics Vapors cause a slight smarting of the eyes or respiratory system if present in high concentrations. The effect is temporary. Liquid or Solid Irritant Characteristics Minimum hazard. If spilled on clothing and allowed to remain, may cause smarting and reddening of the skin. Odor Threshold Data not available. Fire Hazards - Flash Point (deg. F) 165 OC 155 CC Flammable limits in Air (%) 1.1 -10.6 Fire Extinguishing Agents Carbon dioxide or dry chemical for small fires alcohol-type foam for large fires Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used Data not available Special Hazards of Combustion Products Not pertinent Behavior in Fire Not pertinent Ignition Temperature (deg. F) 472 Electrical  [c.173]

Health Hazards Information - Recommended Personal Protective Equipment Rubber gloves, shoes, and clothing, goggles and face shield, acid-type canister mask or air-line mask Symptoms Following Exposure Inhalation of fiimes causes severe irritation of nose and throat. Contact of liquid with eyes or skin causes very severe burns. Ingestion causes very severe burns of mouth and stomach General Treatment for Exposure Get medical attention quickly following all exposures to this compound. INHALATION remove victim to fresh air if he is unconscious, give artificial respiration. EYES flush with water until medical help arrives. SKIN flush with water until medical help arrives soak burned area in strong Epsom salt solution pay particular attention to area around fingernails. INGESTION give large amounts of water Toxicity by Inhalation (Threshold Linut Value) Data not available Short-Term Inhalation Limits Data not available Toxicity by Ingestion Data not available Late Toxicity Data not available Vapor (Gas) Irritant Characteristics Vapors cause severe irritation of eyes and throat and can cause eye and lung injury. They cannot be tolerated even at low concentrations Liquid or Solid Irritant Characteristics Severe skin irritant. Causes second- and third-degree bums on short contact and very injurious to the eyes Odor Threshold Data not available. Fire Hazards - Flash Point Not flammable Flammable Limits in Air (%) Not flammable Fire Extinguishing Agents Not pertinent Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used Do not use water or foam on adjacent fires Special Hazards of Combustion Products Toxic and irritating fumes of hydrogen fluoride and sulfuric acid may form in fires Behavior in Fire Contact with water or chemical foam used to fight adjacent fires can result in the formation of toxic hydrogen fluoride gas Ignition Temperature Not pertinent Electrical Hazard Not pertinent Burning Rate Not pertinent. Chemical Reactivity - Reactivity with Water Reacts violently with water forming hydrogen fluoride and sulfuric acid mists Reactivity with Common Materials Reacts with metals forming flammable hydrogen gas Stability During Transport Stable Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics Flood with water and rinse with sodium bicarbonate solution or lime solution Polymerization Not pertinent Inhibitor of Polymerization Not pertinent.  [c.184]

Provides emergency response and chemical handling information for more than 1,200 chemical substances that would be involved in chemical transport accidents, particularly by water. Contains information on labeling, physical and chemical properties, health and fire hazards and hazard classifications, chemical reactivity, and water pollution. Includes safety procedures for preventing emergency situations. Available online through Chemical Information System (CIS) and Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (COOHS) on CD-ROM through CCINFOdisc, SilverPlatter CHEM-BANK, as part of TOMES Plus System on magnetic tape through TOMES Plus System and from National Information Sendee Corporation.  [c.302]

Jet fuels in use today are essentially all kerosene-based but differ somewhat in their compositions. For civil fuels, Jet A is used primarily in the United States and Jet A-1 throughout most of the rest of the world. Jet A and Jet A-1 differ principally in their freezing point, which is the temperature at which solid wax crystals form in the liquid fuel as it cools. Commercial aircraft store their fuel primarily in wing tanks, and there is a concern that during long international flights through cold-weather conditions the formation of wax could interfere with the flow of fuel from the wing tanks into the engines. Thus all jet fuels specify a freezing point suitable for its intended flight use. The military fuel used by both the U.S. Air Force and NATO air forces is JP-8, which is similar in composition to commercial Jet A-1, but employs militaiy-dcsignatcd additives. The U.S. Navy uses JP-5, a jet fuel with a higher flash point (a measure of the fire hazard associated with the fuel) than Jet A, Jet A-1, or JP-8 because of concern about fire safety aboard aircraft carriers, particularly in combat operations. In the past the U.S. Air Force used a very low flash point fuel called JP-4, composed of a mixture of kerosene and lighter-boiling refinery streams, but switched to the higher-flash-point kerosene-based JP-8 fuel to reduce combat losses and post-crash fire and handling incidents. A commercial low-flash-point fuel designated Jet B, similar to militaiy JP-4, is used only in veiy cold Aixtic areas because of difficulties in starting engines with the more viscous kerosene-type fuels.  [c.109]


See pages that mention the term Fire tubes hazard : [c.540]   
Surface production operations Ч.2 (1999) -- [ c.362 , c.395 ]