Objective quality system

The drive for these additional requirements has come not from the suppliers but from users, such as the automotive, utilities, telecommunications, software, and aerospace industries which purchase millions of products and services used to produce the goods and services they provide to the consumer. Rather than invoke customer-specific conditions in each contract, the larger purchasers perceive real benefits from agreeing common quality system requirements for their industry sector. Quite often a supplier will be supplying more than one customer in a particular sector and hence costs increase for both the supplier and the customer if the supplier has to meet different requirements that serve the same objective. All customers desire products and services that consistently/ meet their requirements. While the physical and functional requirements for the product or service will differ, the requirements governing the manner in which their quality is to be achieved, controlled, and assured need not differ. Differences in quality system requirements may arise between industry sectors where the technology, complexity, and risks are different.  [c.4]

A manager who signs off waivers without customer agreement is not committed to quality, whatever the reasons. It is not always easy, however, for managers to honor their commitments when the chips are down and the customer is screaming down the phone for supplies that have been ordered. The standard only requires that commitment is defined and documented. It does not require that it is honored or tested but that will emerge as objective evidence is gathered over a period of time. The proof that managers are committed to quality will be self evident from their actions and decisions. When they start spending time and money on quality, diverting people to resolve problems, motivating their staff to achieve performance standards, listening to their staff and to customers, there is commitment. It will also be evident from customer feedback, internal and external audits, and sustained business growth. Increased profits do not necessarily show that the company is committed to quality. Profits can rise for many reasons, not necessarily because of an improvement in quality. Managers should not just look at profit results to measure the success of the quality program. Profits may go down initially as investment is made in quality system development. If managers abandon the program because of short-term results, it shows not only a lack of commitment but a lack of understanding. Every parent knows that a child s education does not bear fruit until he or she is an adult.  [c.96]

Job descriptions or job profiles are useful in describing what a person is responsible for however, it rather depends upon the reason for having them as to whether they will be of any use in managing quality. Those produced for job evaluation, recruitment, salary grading, etc. may be of use in the quality system if they specify the objectives people are responsible for achieving and the decisions they are authorized to take.  [c.117]

The standard requires that the quality system be reviewed at defined intervals sufficient to ensure its continuing suitability and effectiveness in satisfying the requirements of ISO 9001 and the supplier s stated quality policy and objectives. There is also a supplementary requirement in clause 4.2.8 for the performance of the system to be evaluated to verify the effectiveness of its operation.  [c.134]

While the plan itself is not auditable by third parties, it may be auditable by second parties i.e. customers. The third party or registrar is entitled to examine the plan to ascertain that it is what it proclaims to be. The particulars are of no concern except those aspects relating to quality, such as the resources, quality objectives, customer satisfaction plans, and performance metrics. Whatever is stated on these aspects, the auditors will expect to see evidence that the business plan is not merely a wish list and that provisions have been made to enable implementation through the quality system.  [c.140]

What evidence demonstrates that your quality system is suitable and effective in satisfying ISO/TS 16949 and your stated quality policy and objectives  [c.155]

Although there are only two basic requirements in ISO/TS 16949 for the establishment and maintenance of a quality system, they are perhaps the most important requirements of all. The quality system is a tool to enable you to achieve, sustain, and improve quality. It implements your quality policy and enables you to achieve your quality objectives either for control or for improvement. Quality systems, like any other system, need to be managed and so quality system management is a function of the business. This function consists of four principal processes  [c.157]

This requirement clearly defines the purpose of a quality system, that of ensuring that products conform to specified requirements. One of the principal differences between ISO 9000 and ISO/TS 16949 is the emphasis placed on internal efficiency and effectiveness. Implementing the requirements of ISO/TS 16949 will cause the waste, errors, and internal costs to be minimized. Unlike ISO 9001, ISO/TS 16949 requires the system to enable the organization to implement its quality policy and achieve its quality objectives, which after all is its purpose. This fundamental shift in concept is also behind the changes being made to ISO 9000 in the year 2000 edition.  [c.159]

If we look at ISO 10013, which is referenced for guidance in preparing a quality manual, we will see that it shows that the quality manual is a top-level document containing the stated quality policy, the quality objectives, and a description of the quality system (see Figure 2.2). The definition in ISO 8402 supports this concept and the requirement aligns with this definition. However, ISO 8402, ISO 10013, and the above requirement from ISO 9001 provide a choice as to whether the manual contains or refers to procedures.  [c.160]

It would be sensible to document your quality policies separately from your quality objectives and keep these separate from the other quality system documentation. A solution is to have  [c.164]

One way of applying the FMEA technique to the quality system is to take each procedure objective and establish the probability of it not being achieved, the likely cause and effect on the system, and the probability of the failure being detected by the downstream controls. The analysis may show up key activities for which there are no safeguards, activities that rely on one person doing something for which there are no checks that it has been done. The quality system is a collection of interrelated processes therefore by chasing the effect along the chain you may find single point failures (parts of the system which affect the performance of the whole system).  [c.182]

The standard doesn t require that documents visibly display approval. Approval can be denoted directly on the document, on a change or issue record, in a register, or on a separate approval record. The presence of a colored header or the stamp of the issuing authority can substitute for actual signatures on documents. Providing signatures and front sheets often adds an extra sheet but no added value. The objective is to employ a reliable means of indicating to users that the document is approved. Some organizations maintain a list of authorized signatories therefore where you have large numbers of people whose signatures and names may be unknown to users, this may be necessary. If you are dealing with a small group of people who are accessible and whose signatures are known, a list of authorized signatures is probably unnecessary. The quality system will not prevent fraud only inadvertent error. All you need is a means of checking that the person who signed the document was authorized to do so. If below the signature you indicate the position of the person and require his/her name to be printed alongside his/her signature, you have taken adequate precautions.  [c.291]

Some auditors believe that any document generated or used by the quality system is a quality record and will attempt to apply the requirements of clause 4.16. Whilst it can be argued that any documented output is a record of an activity, the reader is referred to ISO 8402 for a definition of records in the context of the quality system. ISO 8402 states that a record is a document which furnishes objective evidence of activities performed or results achieved. A quality record provides objective evidence of the fulfillment of the requirements for quality (e.g. product quality record) or the effectiveness of the operation of a quality system element (e.g. quality system record).  [c.495]

The requirements for internal audits apply to audits of the quality system, including the policies, practices, products, and services to which the quality system relates. They are not limited to audits of procedures. In order to determine whether the quality system is effective in maintaining control, you need to check that the resultant products and services meet the specified requirements and that prescribed quality objectives are being achieved. If the products and services are not meeting the specified requirements, or the prescribed objectives are not being achieved, something is clearly amiss with the quality system. The requirements do not apply to audits of suppliers or subcontractors as they are covered in clause 4.6 of the standard.  [c.507]

Planned arrangements is another unusual term, especially when throughout the standard the terms documented quality system and documented procedures have been used. However, so that audits are not restricted to documented procedures and policies, the term planned arrangement has been used. It encompasses contracts, specifications, plans, objectives, strategies - in fact any arrangement made by the organization to satisfy customer needs. You therefore need to define what constitutes your planned arrangements.  [c.512]

As internal audits can comprise documentation audits, implementation audits, product audits, process audits, etc., it is not necessary to train everyone assigned to carry out audits in the auditing techniques defined in ISO 10011. This is one of the ambiguities in the series of standards. The term quality audit is defined in such a way that encompasses all types of audit and yet ISO 10011 only applies to quality system audits where the objective evidence is obtained through interviewing personnel. When conducting product audits, knowledge and skill in reading specifications, planning tests, setting up and operating test and measuring equipment is more relevant. In fact the audits may well be carried out by an accredited test laboratory.  [c.517]

Introducing a quality system, thus requiring awareness of ISO 9000, the quality policies and objectives, and training in the implementation of quality system procedures, standards, guides, etc.  [c.527]

All activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives, and responsibilities and implement them by means such as quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement within the quality system (ISO 8402).  [c.562]

The operations group will develop general operating and maintenance objectives for the facilities which will address product quality, costs, safety and environmental issues. At a more detailed level, the mode of operations and maintenance tor a particular project will be specified in the field development plan. Both specifications will be discussed in this section, which will focus on the input of the production operations and maintenance departments to a field development plan. The management of the field during the producing period is discussed in Section 14.0.  [c.278]

In NDT the key question is the reliability of the methods, verified by validation. Regarding the visual methods, the reliability, that means probability of the visual recognition depends on the optical abilities of the scene with the objects. These abilities were determined quantitatively with an image-processing system for fluorescent magnetic particle inspection. This system was used, determining quality of detection media, following the type testing of the european standard prEN 9934-2. Another application was the determination of the visibility in dependance of the inspection parameters as magnetization, application of the detection medium, inclination of the test surface, surface conditions and viewing conditions. For standardized testing procedures and realistic parameter variations the probability of detection may be determined on the basis of physiological lightening in dependance of the defect dimensions.  [c.669]

The "feedback loop in the analytical approach is maintained by a quality assurance program (Figure 15.1), whose objective is to control systematic and random sources of error.The underlying assumption of a quality assurance program is that results obtained when an analytical system is in statistical control are free of bias and are characterized by well-defined confidence intervals. When used properly, a quality assurance program identifies the practices necessary to bring a system into statistical control, allows us to determine if the system remains in statistical control, and suggests a course of corrective action when the system has fallen out of statistical control.  [c.705]

Weed Management Strategies. The paradigm that all noncrop plant populations in a field should be controlled, regardless of the actual impact on crop yield and quality, is not justifiable. The objective determination a priori of which plant populations require control and which do not, direcdy reduces the economic, environmental, and social costs associated with weed control and can be considered an innovative approach to weed management. For example, some noncrop plant populations do not significantly hinder production. In some developing areas of the world, producers have found uses for noncrop plants that would otherwise be considered weeds (451), and many weeds are both edible and nutritious (452). In aquaculture systems, certain highly problematic algal and bacterial weeds are also essential to the overall stability and productivity of the production system (453).  [c.55]

The "feedback loop in the analytical approach is maintained by a quality assurance program (Figure 15.1), whose objective is to control systematic and random sources of error.The underlying assumption of a quality assurance program is that results obtained when an analytical system is in statistical control are free of bias and are characterized by well-defined confidence intervals. When used properly, a quality assurance program identifies the practices necessary to bring a system into statistical control, allows us to determine if the system remains in statistical control, and suggests a course of corrective action when the system has fallen out of statistical control.  [c.705]

Truck barrel cleaning may be done by third party cleaning stations and the assessor should establish what the selection criteria are. Are cleaning stations assessed by the toller on a regular basis as regards capability, quality of service, costs, cleaning methods used, quality assurance management system, safety The assessor should check records for objective evidence.  [c.196]

QRA practitioners can use to satisfy some QRA objectives. Also, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) has sponsored a project to expand and improve the quality of component failure data for chemical industry use. And many process facilities have considerable equipment operating experience in maintenance files, operating logs, and the minds of operators and maintenance personnel. These data can be collected and combined with industrywide data to help achieve reasonable QRA objectives. However, care must be exercised to select data most representative of your specific system from the wide range available from various sources. Even data from your own plant may have to be modified (sometimes by a factor of 10 or more) to reflect your plant s current operating environment and maintenance practices.  [c.10]

Chapter 1 provides orientation and an introduction to the subject of air quality. The focus of this book is on industrial air pollution problems. We begin by reviewing the regulatory driving force in the United States for air pollution abatement. To appreciate the objectives of our Federal air pollution control regulations, an understanding of the fate and transport mechanisms in the environment is important. Hence, some general discussions on the behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere are included in this chapter. There are only two general methods for ensuring high quality air. These options are the application of control technologies that clean air or remove pollutants, and methods of prevention. In general, prevention is more cost-effective than the application of end-of-pipe treatment technologies, however, there are many situations where control technologies represent the only feasible methods to managing air pollution problems. Both approaches are presented in this volume, and the reader will need to assess which is the most appropriate means on a case by case basis. At the end of Chapter 1 you will find a summary of the topics to be discussed in this volume. This will help you to focus on specific areas of reading that are most useful to you. There is also a list of recommended resources, including Web sites, as well as a review section.  [c.567]

From an engineering perspective, the general corrective measures construction activities identified in the CAP conform with typical construction management activities, but are more rigorous. The planning, inspection, and quality assurance activities in the CAP focus on issues of concern to the regulatory community to ensure that the completed corrective measures meet or exceed the cleanup objectives. In addition to the regulatory needs, the facility engineer is also concerned with these issues from the perspective of ensuring efficient construction of facilities, and that the facilities installed meet the design specifications, plant safety requirements, and building codes. As most construction projects proceed, a "punch" list of items requiring completion, modification to meet safety codes, or repairs identified during equipment checkout is developed and system start-up and shake-down procedures are developed. Periodic review and resolution of each item is required before the construction phase is considered complete.  [c.188]

Municipal and industrial systems frequently make use of the coagulation process to aid in the removal of turbidity. In this economical process, a coagulating agent such as aluminum sulphate is fed into the water. After rapid mixing, the coagulating agent forms a "floe" generally in the form of a gelatinous precipitate. This floe gives the appearance of a soft, gentle snowfall. A settling period is then needed to allow the floe to fall gently through the water. As the floe forms and settles, it tends to collect or entrap the turbid particles and form them into larger particles which sink to the bottom. On large installations, huge settling basins provide the necessary time and space for the process. After the settling period, the water flows through a filter to remove the last traces of the coagulant and any remaining turbid particles. An additional water quality parameter of importance is color. Ordinarily we think of water as being blue in color. When artists paint bodies of water, they generally color them blue or blue-green. While water does reflect blue-green light, noticeable in great depths, it should appear colorless as used in the home. Ideally, water from the tap is not blue or blue-green. If such is the case, there are certain foreign substances in the water. Among these substances Infinitely small microscopic particles add color to water. Colloidal suspensions and non-colloidal organic acids as well as neutral salts also affect the color of water The color in water is primarily of vegetable origin and is extracted from leaves and aquatic plants Naturally, water draining from swamps has the most intense coloring. The bleaching action of sunlight plus the aging of water gradually dissipates this color, however. All surface waters possess some degree of color. Like some shallow wells, springs and an occasional deep well can contain noticeable coloring. In general, water from deep wells is practically colorless. An arbitrary standard scale has been developed for measuring color intensity in water samples. When a water is rated as having a color of five units, it means The color of this water is equal in intensity to the color of distilled water containing 5 milligrams of platinum as potassium chloroplatinate per liter. Highly colored water is objectionable for most process work in the industrial field because excessive color causes stains. While color is not a factor of great concern in relation to household applications, excessive color lacks appeal from an aesthetic standpoint in a potable water. Further, it can cause staining. The Aesthetic Objective (AO) for color in drinking water is < = 15 true color units. The provision of treated water at or below the AO will encourage rapid notification by consumers should problems leading to the formation of color arise in the distribution system. In general, color is reduced or removed from water through the use of coagulation, settling and filtration techniques. Aluminum sulphate is the most widely used coagulant for this purpose. Superchlorination, activated carbon filters and potassium permanganate have been used with varying degrees of success in removing color. Table 11 summarizes water treatment methods currently used.  [c.54]

The management review to monitor strategic quality objectives and the performance of the system  [c.12]

It is not mandatory that you have documented procedures for forming the quality policy and the quality objectives, defining the responsibility of personnel, identifying resources, or conducting management reviews. However, section 4 of the standard is titled Quality s /stem requirements and section 4.2 requires that a quality manual be prepared covering the requirements of the standard. It follows therefore that you need to address the requirements of section 4.1 in your quality manual. You have a choice of how you address the requirements providing they are documented.  [c.87]

The supplementary requirements provide a welcome addition to this somewhat inadequately specified clause of ISO 9001. However the reference to clause with respect to objectives specified in the quality policy is somewhat ambiguous. Clause does not require objectives to be included in the policy this is required in clause As stated previously, system effectiveness is judged by how well the system enables implementation of policy and achievement of objectives. Therefore, requiring records that contain evidence of this is a logical interpretation. Such records need to identify the matters reviewed, the results, the actions, and the decisions taken, together with the names of those responsible and the date by which actions are to be completed. The records should also contain the data used to conduct the review as the basis upon which the decisions have been made and so that comparisons can be made at later  [c.139]

The fundamental objective in design is to achieve the best structural configuration that will do the job intended. The concept of best implies that a measure of design quality is available. For example, in aircraft structures, the lowest-weight design often is regarded as the best design because of positive implications for range, economy, and performance. For other structures, the least-cost design might be judged the best. The answer to any design problem is not unique, so some means must be established to define and determine the best configuration. The functional requirements of strength, stiffness, and life as discussed in Section 7.6 are the basis for defining the best configuration. Optimization is the more or less mathematical procedure by which that best configuration is obtained in a direct, rational way. In this section, we will first examine some fundamental concepts of optimization as in Figure 7-48. Next, we will address analysis and optimization for strength.  [c.425]

Written surveys request feedback on the PSM system, asking about its clarity, ease of use, quality of training received on the system, perceived barriers to its effective use, perceived effectiveness in meeting objectives, and suggested modifications and improvements. These kinds of surveys typically mix open-ended and "yes/no" questions, and are distributed to all system users they tend to be simple and brief to encourage participation. Figure 8-6 provides an example.  [c.183]

The objective of consequence analysis is to evaluate the safety (or quality) consequences to the system of any human errors that may occur. Consequence Analysis obviously impacts on the overall risk assessment within which the human reliability analysis is embedded. In order to address this issue, it is necessary to consider the nature of the consequences of human error in more detail.  [c.216]

The requirement for the review to ensure that the quality system satisfies the quality policy and objectives emphasizes that compliance with ISO 9001 alone is insufficient and that the system has to meet business needs as well. However, the effectiveness of the system is dependent upon what you defined as its purpose. If the purpose of the system is merely to ensure customers are supplied with products and services which meet their requirements, its effectiveness is judged by how well it does this and not how much it costs to do it. However, ISO/TS 16949 goes beyond this as it requires continuous improvement in quality, cost, technology, and process performance. This implies you develop a quality system with the purpose of minimizing waste, improving efficiency, reducing operating costs, etc. Hence the effectiveness of an ISO/TS 16949 quality system will be judged by how well it does these things. The standard does not simply require the system to be effective. It requires the system to be effective in satisfying the requirements of the standard and your stated policies and objectives. This is measurable, whereas the former statement is not. (See also Phrt 1 Chapter 2 for a means of measuring system effectiveness.) The supplementary requirement in clause 4.2.8 adds little to the original ISO 9001 requirement, as effectiveness of operation is determined by the extent to which the system enables implementation of the quality policy and achievement of the quality objectives.  [c.135]

The management review is not a meeting. Management review is an activity aimed at assessing information on the performance of the quality system. When you have a real understanding of the intentions of the review you will realize that its objectives cannot be accomplished entirely by a meeting. The review should be in three stages. Stage one is collecting and analyzing the data, stage two is reviewing the data, and stage three is meeting to discuss the results and decide on a course of action. A typical review process flow is illustrated in Figure 1.3.  [c.137]

The way in which these phases of quality system development are related is illustrated in the quality system life cycle model shown in Figure 2.6. This diagram has some important features. Note that the design input to the system comprises internal and external requirements. The system requirements are ISO/TS 16949 plus customer-specific system requirements. The customer needs and expectations include the product and process requirements and the business objectives include product, process, personnel, resource, and other objectives that affect the manner in which quality will be achieved, sustained, and improved. Note that on the right-hand side there is improvement in conformity, meaning getting better at doing what you said you would do, and improvement in the system, meaning correcting aspects of the system that are found noncompliant with the requirements. On the left-hand side, the emphasis is on performance not conformance. Here, performance data is collected and compared with objectives and either the system design modified or more challenging objectives established. On the right is tweaking and on the left is advancement.  [c.184]

Having carried out these inspections and tests it should be possible for you to declare that the product has been inspected and tested and objective evidence produced that will demonstrate that it meets the specified requirements. Any concessions given against requirements should also be identified. If you can t make such a declaration, you haven t done enough verification. Whether or not your customer requires a certificate from you testifying that you have met the requirements, you should be in a position to produce one. The requirement for a certificate of conformance should not alter your processes, your quality controls, or your procedures. One advantage of ISO 9000 is that it will enable you to build a quality system that will give you the kind of evidence you need to assure your customers that your product meets their requirements without having to do anything special.  [c.387]

The most modem model of this type is the tomograph Ultrafast CT SIC 311 by Siemens. This system for scanning 3D objects needs the minimum time 50msec for a slice at thickness 7mm. Number of inspected slicss can get out by the operator (standardly - 40). It is also possible to choose a mode of scanning step volume scanning with 40 slices in 30 sec or continuous scanning with 40 slices in 18.6 sec. There is a possibility to change the time of inspection for a slice. These parameters influence quality and resolution in obtained reconstmcted image [4].  [c.216]

Microscopes are imaging systems and, hence, the image quality is detennined by lens errors, by structures in the image plane (e.g., picture elements of CCD cameras) and by diffraction. In addition, the visibility of objects with low contrast suffers from various noise sources such as noise in the illuminating system (shot noise), scattered light and by non-imifomiities in the recording media. Interest often focuses on the achievable resolution, and discussions on limits to microscopy are then restricted to those imposed by diffraction (the so-called Abbe limit), assuming implicitly that lenses are free of errors and that the visual system or the image sensors are ideal. However, even under these conditions the Abbe limit of the resolution may not be reached if the contrast is insufficient and noise is high.  [c.1656]

Under appropriate contrast and high light intensity, the resolution of planar object structures is diffraction limited. Noise in the microscopic system may also be important and may reduce resolution, if light levels and/or the contrasts are low. This implies that the illumination of the object has to be optimal and that the contrast of rather transparent or highly reflecting objects has to be enlianced. This can be achieved by an appropriate illumination system, phase- and interference-contrast methods and/or by data processing if electronic cameras (or light sensors) and processors are available. Last but not least, for low-light images, efforts can be made to reduce the noise either by averaging the data of a multitude of images or by subtracting the noise. Clearly, if the image is inspected by the eye, the number of photons, and hence the noise, are detemimed by the integration time of the eye of about 1/30 s signal/noise can then only be improved, if at all possible, by increasing the light intensity. Hence, electronic data acquisition and processing can be used advantageously to improve image quality, since integration times can significantly be extended and noise suppressed.  [c.1659]

Water Quality Assessment. Assessments of the effects of effluents on receiving streams until the mid-1970s were more subjective than objective (32,33). Since then, changes in attitude within the aquatic life-science field and the regulatory system have necessitated a restmcturing of the design and foundations for effluent-impact assessments in receiving waters. For example, government regulations have proceeded from a system of stream standards-based regulations to effluent-based regulations involving strict requirements on various poUution parameters. Pressure is being exerted to go back to the receiving water system as the ultimate test for new and more stringent discharge-control measures. The increasing knowledge of the interrelationships between the various biological, chemical, and physical components of aquatic systems has provided significant restmcturing of field assessment programs which are designed to analyze effluent impact. A single organism as an indicator of stream quaHty has been replaced by community compositional and stmctural analysis. Thus, total effluent effects on a broad scale can be realized. Other measured parameters are algal assays, fish surveys, sediment mapping, plume mapping, sediment oxygen demand, and socioeconomic impacts.  [c.12]

The mininnum time needed to complete a level 1 PSA is about one year. To allocate only 12 months from start of funding to final report is very ambitious, requiring complete manpower availability at the beginning of the effort and a large writing and editorial effort at the end. This is not the best use of either personnel or funds. The technical quality may suffer in such an accelerated project, depending upon the team leadership, completeness, and consistency from the beginning. But if a recent PSA for a similar plant is available and the objectives allow the use of many of the system models and most of the failure data, then a schedule extending over less than a vear i feasible.  [c.230]

The procedure of assessing health-based occupational exposure limits for chemical substances includes determination of no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the critical toxic effect and application of an appropriate safety factor based on expert judgment (see Section 5..3). In principle, the same procedure could be used for assessing the TLs. However, the quantitative risk assessment procedure entails notable uncertainties at low-dose regions—say, below one-tenth of the current OELs. In addition, exposure limits are revised at certain intervals in the light of new research information and actual policy objectives. In most cases, the limits have been reduced over the years. In theory, one possibility for assessing a target level for desired air quality could be the determination of an exposure that cannot be distinguished from the biological monitoring values of the nonoccupational population. However, adequate data for this purpose exist only for a few substances in advanced industrialized countries, and for that reason a technology-based approach for target level assessment is considered in this paper. Similar control strategies, based on performance standards and risk assessment, have been proposed for some industries—for example, the pharmaceutical industry and technology transition in the defense sector.  [c.399]

By being independent of the audited activities, the auditor is unaware of the pressures, the excuses, the informal instructions handed down and can examine operations objectively without bias and without fear of reprisals. It is for this reason that it was considered appropriate for the auditor to have no direct responsibility for the work being audited i.e. audits carried out by a manager, supervisor, or foreman of his/her own department or section do not qualify as internal quality audits in ISO 9001 1994. However, they will qualify under ISO 9000 2000.  [c.516]

The fundamental objective in design is to achieve the tiest structural configuration that will do the job intended. The concept of best implies that a measure of design quality is available. For example, in aircraft structures, the lowest-weight design often is regarded as the best design because of positive implications for range, economy, and performance. For other structures, the least-cost design might be judged the best. The answer to any design problem is not unique, so some means must be established to define and determine the best configuration. The functional requirements of strength, stiffness, and life as discussed in Section 7.6 are the basis for defining the best configuration. Optimization is the more or less mathematical procedure by which that best configuration is obtained in a direct, rational way. In this section, we will first examine some fundamental concepts of optimization as in Figure 7-48. Next, we will address analysis and optimization for strength.  [c.425]

One of the central principles presented in this book is the need to consider the organizational factors that create the preconditions for errors, as well as their immediate causes. Figure 1.1 (adapted from Reason, 1990) illustrates the structure of a general industrial production system. In the context of the CPI, this diagram can be interpreted as representing a typical plant. The plant and corporate management levels determine conditions at the operational level that either support effective performance or give rise to errors. Some of the factors that influence these conditions are given in Figure 1.1. The safety beliefs and priorities of the organization will influence the extent to which resources are made available for safety as opposed to production objectives. AtHtudes towards blame will determine whether or not the organization develops a blame culture, which attributes error to causes such as lack of motivation or deliberate imsafe behavior. Factors such as the degree of participation that is encouraged in the organization, and the quality of the communication be-  [c.5]

It was not until the 1960s that fuel cells successfully filled a niche that the battei y nr heat engine could not. Fuel cells were the logical choice for NASA s Gemini and Apollo Programs because they could use the same fuel and oxidant that was already available for rocket propulsion, and could generate high-quality electricity and drinking water in a relatively lightweight system. Although this application enabled a small fuel cell industry to emerge, the requirements were so specific, and NASA s cost objectives were so lenient, that fuel cells remained, and still remain, a minor power source.  [c.523]

See pages that mention the term Objective quality system : [c.140]    [c.515]   
Automotive quality systems handbook (2000) -- [ c.41 , c.159 ]