Java Virtual Machine miming on the system. Mechanisms like JIT (Just in Time Compiler - parts of the byte code were compiled into machine code) or JNI (Java Native Interface - enables the use of fast libraries resulting from compiled C+ + Code within a Java program) can be used to reduce this characteristic disadvantage.  [c.628]

Just-in-time delivery Jute  [c.538]

The additives and ingredients industry remains quite fragmented. Competitors are drawn from a wide range of industries that include commodity grain and oilseed processors, other agricultural material processors, and bulk, specialty, and fine chemical suppHers. The large majority of participants have under 100 million in sales only a handful have over 300 million. This relatively small size contrasts sharply with the multihillion doUar food companies that represent the customer base for ingredients and additives. Increasing demands are being placed on ingredient and additive suppHers by these customers, including appHcations support, favorable pricing, just-in-time deHveries, and conformance to standards.  [c.445]

Quality in Japan. Japanese economic prowess has been attributed variously to such quahty improvement activities as quahty circles, statistical process control (SPG), just-in-time dehvery (JIT), and zero defects (ZD). However, the real key to success hes in the apphcation of numerous quahty improvement tools as part of a management philosophy called Kaizen, which means continuous improvement (10).  [c.366]

Just-in-Time. Just-in-time closely followed the reintroduction of SPG into the American workplace. The efficacy of JIT was limited in the United States to an emphasis on keeping component inventories low to reduce the cost of inventory (16). More importantiy, however, JIT should be used to focus management attention on quahty problems.  [c.366]

However, this procedure required color selection much before shipping of the garments to the retailer. It was considered better for just-in-time merchandising if the garment could be dyed just before product shipment. Therefore, an intense effort was made to produce a dyeable smooth-dye fabric. Although several functional moieties were grafted to cellulose and evaluated (133—141), the moiety that seemed to hold the most promise was the quaternary group. The addition of this group to cotton led to a cationic cotton, which was dyeable using anionic dyes. The reactive module first used for this purpose in conjunction with a cross-linking system was choline chloride (7) (133—140).  [c.448]

By assuming such responsibilities, the control system greatly reduces the incidences where operator error results in off-specification batches. Such a reduc tion in error is essential to implement just-in-time production practices, where each batch of product is manufactured at the last possible moment. When a batch (or batches) are made todav for shipment by overnight truck, there is insufficient time for producing another batch to make up for an off-specification batch.  [c.753]

The orders for products. Orders are normally received at the corporate level and then assigned to individual plants for produc tion and shipment. Although the scheduling of some products is based on required product inventoiy levels, scheduling based on orders and shipping direc tly to the customer (usually referred to as just-in-time) avoids the costs associated with maintaining product inventories.  [c.753]

Similarly, hazardous raw material storage should also be minimized, with greater attention being given to just in time supply. Inventory reduction lowers inventory costs, while increasing inherent safety. In determining appropriate raw material inventories, the entire raw material supply chain must be considered. Will the supplying plant have to increase inventories to provide just in time service, and will  [c.34]

Just-in-time supply of materials may affect the mode of transportation and could increase risks from the material. For example, drums of a chemical could be stockpiled near a user and not be under the level of control that could be provided by either the supplier or user if the inventory were maintained in a storage tank at one or the other facility. This type of risk should be included when contemplating just-in-time shipments.  [c.94]

Several methods have evolved to achieve, sustain, and improve quality, they are quality control, quality improvement, and quality assurance, which collectively are known as quality management. This trilogy is illustrated in Figure 2.1. Techniques such as quality planning, quality costs, Just-in-time , and statistical process control are all elements of  [c.28]

You should review the contract and the detail specifications to identify whether your existing controls will regulate quality within the limits required. You may need to change the limits, the standards, the techniques, the methods, the environment, and the instruments used to measure quality characteristics. One technique may be to introduce Just-in-time as a means of overcoming storage problems and eliminating receipt inspection. Another technique may be Statistical Process Control as a means of increasing the process yield. The introduction of these techniques needs to be planned and carefully implemented.  [c.192]

A 100% on-time delivery performance means that your subcontractors must deliver supplies within the time window you specify. Unless you so specify, they do not need to operate a just-in-time system but it is obviously less costly to you if they do. It all depends  [c.324]

The key phrase in this clause is or otherwise verified as it allows you to receive product into your company and straight onto the production line if you have verified that it conforms to the specified requirements before it arrives. An example of this is where you have performed acceptance tests or witnessed tests on the supplier s premises. You may also have obtained sufficient confidence in your supplier that you can operate a Just-in-time arrangement but you must be able to show that you have a continuous monitoring program which informs you of the supplier s performance.  [c.379]

Establish an inventory management system that enables FIFO and just-in-time deliveries and shipments.  [c.488]

To minimize the cost of manufacture, one approach is to minimize the manufacturing throughput" time, sometimes called just in time or the Toyota lean manufacturing process.  [c.451]

Manufactured Components Varies Fast. The just in time requirements of manufactures demand quick dependable deliveries. Truck.  [c.511]

There is a grave transportation risk in relying on just-in-time production methods. Any freight transportation system breakdown can be catastrophic for companies and nations. If key parts get stuck at the border, or if a natural disaster destroys a highway or a rail line, some factories might have to close down, others write off permanent losses. And if it is a component for an essential product or service, the ripple effect could cost the economy billions of dollars.  [c.520]

Automobile companies are major users of just-in-time methods, coordinating the delivery of thousands of parts from many different suppliers. A transportation delay of a few hours for one part could shut down an assembly line for half a day.  [c.520]

These ideas, interestingly described by Goldratt and Cox, provide flexible production and cater for customer requirements. They have become known as just in time (JIT) manufacture, but are often overlooked by many that think that investment in computer-controlled equipment is the only way to go. The concept, simplify before you automate, can provide significant improvements in production and can point the way to later advanced manufacturing where  [c.67]

This is the backbone of all Internet communication E-mail is quickly replacing many other communication tools, e g., phone, fax and mail. This is increasingly becoming the preferred method of communication, especially in technical circles Even though the "conversation" usually takes place in time-frame of minutes to hours, one can check the messages at any time Back up and search capability are just two features of most common email programs E-mail is very inexpensive This is especially good for long distance communication In addition to text messages, binary or image files may be sent by e-mail you can use your e-mail address to have information delivered right to your mailbox, like the NDT-Mailing List, which can save a lot of time  [c.974]

Consider how the change of a system from a thennodynamic state a to a thennodynamic state (3 could decrease the temperature. (The change in state a —> f3 could be a chemical reaction, a phase transition, or just a change of volume, pressure, magnetic field, etc). Initially assume that a and (3 are always in complete internal equilibrium, i.e. neither has been cooled so rapidly that any disorder is frozen in. Then the Nemst heat  [c.371]

In his classical paper, Renner explicitly considered only one of several cases that differ from each other from a quantitative point of view, namely, that in which the molecular potential energy surfaces for both components of a ft state have the minimum at the linear geometry (we shall call this situation weak R-T ejfect ). The reason for his restriction to II states was that he realized that the manifestation of the breakdown of the Bom-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation seen in the spectral features would be most spectacular just in this case at the same time this was the only situation for which closed formulas for vibronic (vibrational-electronic) energy levels could be derived by hand (in the framework of the perturbation theory). A generalization of his theory to the cases in which one or both of these potential surfaces has/have a minimum at a bent nuclear arrangement and to other degenerate electronic species is (at least from the conceptual point of view) more or less straightforward. It requires, however, other computational approaches (numerical, variational) to solve the corresponding equations.  [c.477]

Abstract. Simulation of the dynamics of biomolecules requires the use of a time step in the range 0.5-1 fs to obtain acceptable accuracy. Nevertheless, the bulk of the CPU time is spent computing interactions, such as those due to long-range electrostatics, which vary hardly at all from one time step to the next. This unnecessary computation is dramatically reduced with the use of multiple time stepping methods, such as the Verlet-I/r-RESPA method, which is based on approximating slow forces as widely separated impulses. Indeed, numerical experiments show that time steps of 4 fs are possible for these slow forces but unfortunately also show that a long time step of 5 fs results in a dramatic energy drift. Moreover, this is less pronounced if one uses a yet larger long time step The cause of the problem can be explained by exact analysis of a simple two degree-of-freedom linear problem, which predicts numerical instability if the time step is just less than half the period of the fastest normal mode. To overcome this, a modification of the impulsive Verlet-I/r-RESPA method is proposed, called the mollified impulse method. The idea is that one modifies the slow part of the potential energy so that it is evaluated at time averaged values of the positions, and one uses the gradient of this modified potential for the slow part of the force. Various versions of the algorithm are implemented for water and numerical results are presented.  [c.318]

The 1962 Brookhaven Mechanism Conference, where I first reported on long-lived carbocations in public, is still clear in my mind. The scheduled main event of the meeting was the continuing debate between Saul Winstein and Herbert Brown on the classical or non-classical nature of carbocations (or carbonium ions as they were still called at the time). It must have come as a surprise to them and to the audience that a young chemist from an industrial laboratory was invited to give a major conference lecture to report having obtained and studied stable, long-lived carbonium ions (i.e., carbocations) by the new method of using a highly acidic (superacidic) system. I remember being called aside separately during the conference by Winstein and Brown, both towering and dominating personalities of the time who cautioned me that a young man should be exceedingly careful in making such claims. Each pointed out that most probably I was wrong and could not have obtained long-lived carbonium ions. Just in case, however, my method turned out to be real, I was advised to obtain further evidence for the nonclassical or classical nature  [c.140]

Another effect of cross-linking is reduction in accessibiHty of the fiber. Because of this, dyeing is normally performed before the fabric is processed. In a scheme of operation where fabric is dyed and cross-linked in the textile mill before being fabricated into garments, this approach is satisfactory. Since the rise of garment dyeing in the 1990s, which emphasizes just-in-time responses for color and style, an extensive finishing research effort to produce a dyeable cross-linked fabric was begun at the Southern Regional Research Center (New Orleans, Louisiana). Although these efforts have led to several chemical alternatives, the industry has opted for post-garment finishing using resins as the most reasonable alternative to this problem.  [c.443]

The traditional eoneept of maintenanee in the petroehemieal and the utilities industry has been undergoing a major ehange to ensure that equipment not only has the best availability but also is operating at its maximum effieieney. There is a eonsistent trend in these industries throughout the world to improve maintenanee strategy from fix-as-fail to total performanee based planned maintenanee. In praetiee, this ealls for on-line monitoring and eondition management of all major equipment in the plant. To reaeh the Utopian goal of just-in-time maintenanee with minor disruption in the operation of the plant requires a very elose understanding of the thermo-dynamie and meehanieal aspeets of plant equipment to be able to implement predietive maintenanee programs.  [c.634]

Leaving aside rayon and artificial silks generally, the first really effective polymeric textile fibre was nylon, discovered by the chemist Wallace Hume Carothers (1896-1937) in the Du Pont research laboratories in America in 1935, and first put into production in 1940, just in time to make parachutes for the wartime forces. This was the first of several major commodity polymer fibres and, together with high-density polyethylene introduced about the same time and Terylene , polyethylene tereph-thalate, introduced in 1941 (the American version is Dacron), transformed the place of polymers in the materials pantheon.  [c.321]

Obviously, the risk of hazardous chemicals is reduced by a minimized inventory using just-in-time procurement. If further inventory reduction is not feasible, additional risk reduction may be achieved by dispersing the inventory to multiple site locations so a release in one location does not allcci other locations of inventory.  [c.67]

Receipt inspection doesn t need to be a department, a section, a separate room, a full time job for someone, or a particular person. It is a process through which all product must pass, even those received on a Just-in-time basis. Someone should verify that products can pass uninspected. At a customs post some people are stopped, others are waved through all are inspected to some degree - it all depends on the confidence gained by observation.  [c.380]

The 29Q,0QQ-square-foot Miller SQA building was designed by William McDonough, FAIA to be a state-of-the art "green" building. Miller SQA, a wholly owned subsidiary of Herman Miller, Inc., is a remanufacturer, manufacturer, and vendor of office furniture that provides "just in time" furniture products for small businesses and nonprofit institutions. The building is a manufacturing plant, warehouse, and headquarters housing approximately 600 workers in a manufacturing plant and 100 workers in the office portion. The SQA building also has a lunchroom rest areas at each end of the manufacturing area and a fitness center, including a full-si e basketball court.  [c.198]

Intermodal service must improve for corporations that adopted just-in-time inventory in the 1980s and 1990s. Many companies feel that the benefits of keeping minimal stock are worth the premium price paid for faster door-to-door deliveiy by truck, which is a major reason why truck freight revenues remain at more than 80 percent of the country s total freight revenues.  [c.520]

The t3rpe of equipment illustrated in Fig. 4.12 is more t3rpical of batch operation than continuous operation even though continuous is being contemplated at the moment. For example, the evaporator is a stirred tank with a heating jacket. In continuous plsmt, a more elaborate design with tubular heating of some tjq>e probably would have been used.  [c.120]

This equation may be solved by the same methods as used with the nonreactive coupled-channel equations (discussed later in section A3.11.4.2). Flowever, because F(p, p) changes rapidly with p, it is desirable to periodically change the expansion basis set ip. To do this we divide the range of p to be integrated into sectors and within each sector choose a (usually the midpoint) to define local eigenfimctions. The coiipled-chaimel equations just given then apply withm each sector, but at sector boundaries we change basis sets. Let y and 2 be the associated with adjacent sectors. Then, at the sector boundary p we require  [c.976]

The multiple-pulse methods discussed iu this section, iu contrast, can be used to obtain mfonuatiou on the time evolution of electronic or vibrational coherence, the correlation of phase between two states. In fast, sub-picosecond chemical reactions and in energy transfer, as examples, knowledge of the time evolution of coherence an[c.1985]

One may argue that the high frequency motions are filtered since the time step is too large and the discrete trajectory could not possibly follow the fast modes hence, that the filtering is trivial. Of course we cannot follow fast motions if the time step we use is larger than their typical period. Nevertheless, these fast motions are the prime problem in attempts to increase the time step. We cannot just ignore them in the initial value approach since their presence introduces instabilities to the solution. The optimization of the Onsager-Maehlup action is considerably more stable. We  [c.272]

More surprisingly, there is also a problem for time steps At just smaller than half the period of the fastest normal mode, which is approximately 5 fs. There is in [4] a revealing experiment for the Verlet-I/r-RESPA impulse MTS method. In a 1000-fs simulation on a 36000-atom water-protein-DNA system it was found that At = 4fs produces very little energy drift, that Zlt = 5 fe yields dramatic energy growth, and that /It = 6 fs gives only half as much energy growth as At = 5 fs. In all cases the small time step St was 1 fs. This experiment suggests a stability problem associated with timesteps At approximately equal to half the period of the fastest normal mode. As a check a power spectrum was computed for 20 ps of a 180 K simulation of a 20 A sphere of the flexible TIP3P water used in that simulation. This is shown by Fig. 2. Peaks are discernible at frequencies corresponding to periods of 9.3 and 12.1 fe, evidently the periods of the two normal modes for the stretching of the 0-H bonds.  [c.323]

Having grown a polymer onto the lattice, we now have to consider the generation of alternative configurations. Motion of the entire polymer chain or large-scale conformational changes are often difficult, especially for densely packed polymers. In variants of the Verdier-Stockmayer algorithm [Verdier and Stockmayer 1962] new configurations are generated using combinations of crankshaft, kink jump and end rotation moves (Figure 8.11). Another widely used algorithm in Monte Carlo simulations of polymers (not just in lattice models) is the slithering snake model. Motion of the entire polymer chain is very difficult, especially for densely packed polymers, and one way in which the polymer can move is by wriggling around obstacles, a process known as reptation. To implement a slithering sncike algorithm, one end of the polymer chain is randomly chosen as the head and an attempt is made to grow a new bead at one of the available adjacent lattice positions. Each of the remaining beads is then advanced to that of its predecessor in the chain as illustrated in Figure 8.12. The procedure is then repeated. Even if it is impossible to move the chosen head, the configuration must still be included when ensemble averages are calculated.  [c.443]

For the latter purpose, dissolve the crystals in hot ethanol, and then add water drop by drop to the well-stirred solution until a line emulsion just appears then add more ethanol, also drop by drop, until the emulsion just redissolves. ow allow the solution to cool spontaneousK if the emulsion reappears, add a few drops of ethanol from time to time in order to keep the solution clear. Finally the o-nitrophenol separates in crystals, and the well-stirred mixture may now be cooled in ieewvater until crystallisation is complete. Filter, drain and diy either in an atmospheric desiccator, or by pressing between drying-paper.  [c.172]

In the meantime, prepare a sodium sulphite solution as follows. In a 2-litre beaker or bolt-head flask place 50 g. of sodium hydroxide (2) and add 500 ml. of water. When the sodium hydroxide has dissolved, add 112-5 g. of recrystallised sodium bisulphite (3), and stir mechanically until the solid has dissolved. Cool the resulting solution to about 25° and add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution. Introduce small quantities of sodium bisulphite until the pink colour of the solution just disappears, then stir in a further 12 g. of sodium bisulphite (the total weight required should not exceed 135-140 g.). Cool this solution, with stirring, to about 5° by immersion in an ice bath, then add about 60 g. of crushed ice. Run in the ice-cold diazonium solution as rapidly as possible, while stirring vigorously. The reaction mixture immediately acquires a bright orange-red colour. Slowly heat the solution to 60-70 on a water bath and maintain this temperature for 30-60 minutes, i.e., until the colour becomes quite dark. Acidify the solution to litmus with concentrated hydrochloric acid (40-50 ml. are required) continue the heating on a boiling water bath until the colour becomes much hghter and in any case for 4-6 hours. If any solid is present, filter the solution. To the hot, clear solution add, with stirring, 500 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid cool, first in running water, and then in a freezing mixture to 0°. The phenylhydrazine hydrochloride separates as yellowish or pinkish crystals. CoUect them on a Buchner funnel, drain, wash with 25 ml. of dilute hydrochloric acid (1 3), and press well with a large glass stopper (4).  [c.636]

Zemplen helped his students in many ways. I remember an occasion in the difficult postwar period. The production of the famous Hungarian salami, interrupted by the war, was just in the process of being restarted for export. The manufacturer wanted a supportive analysis from the well-known professor. Zemplen asked for a suitable sample of some hundreds of kilograms, on which the whole institute lived for weeks. When it was gone he rightly could offer an opinion that the product was quite satisfactory. After the war, grain alcohol was for a long time the only available and widely used laboratory solvent, and, not unexpectedly, it also found other uses. Later, when it was denatured to prevent human consumption, we devised clever ways for its purification. The lab also manufactured saccharine, which was  [c.52]

See pages that mention the term Just-in-time : [c.35]    [c.325]    [c.521]    [c.80]    [c.236]    [c.264]    [c.246]    [c.826]   
Automotive quality systems handbook (2000) -- [ c.28 , c.192 , c.379 , c.380 ]