Abatement methods

The uses of lead are many and varied. U.S. consumption is summarized in Table 6. Some of the main uses are in the manufacture of storage batteries, ammunition, nuclear and x-ray shielding devices, cable covering, ceramic glazes, and noise control materials (see Noise POLLUTION AND ABATEMENT METHODS). Lead is also used in bearings (see Bearing materials), in brass and bronze (see Copper alloys), in casting metals, for pipes, traps, and bends, and in some solders (see Solders and brazing alloys).  [c.53]

Plant layout and noise suppression material are two general noise abatement methods. Plant layout does not affect noise levels at any given point however, noise can be abated by screening off a section of the plant. An example of this is to orient cooling towers with their closed faces toward the critical location. This method must also consider wind direction to balance air draft. Tankage can be located to act as a noise screen.  [c.83]

Finely ground barite which may be bleached, usually by sulfuric acid, or unbleached, is used as a filler or extender in paints (qv), especially in automotive undercoats, where its low oil absorption, easy wettabiUty in oils, and good sanding properties are advantageous (see Fillers). It is also used as a filler in plastics and mbber products. In nonasbestos brake linings, the barite filler acts as a heat sink (see Brake linings and clutch facings). In floor mats and carpet backings made of polyurethane foam, barite imparts sound-deadening characteristics and improves processing quaUties (see Noise pollution AND ABATEMENT METHODS Urethane POLYMERS). In furniture manufacture where polyurethane foam is used for recoil and density properties, the unique chemical inertness of barite in combination with its high density plays a primary role.  [c.476]

Emission abatement methods covered are suitable for the emission control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VOCs include organic compounds existing in the gaseous phase in air at 293.15 K. However, or ganic compounds, which are not regarded as VOCs, can be treated by the methods covered in this section.  [c.1251]

Both these methods relate to the required removal efficiencies of the pollution control equipment. All abatement methods achieve high removal efficiencies when used in the correct applications (Fig. 13.19). The highest efficiency (with limitations) is in most cases achieved with incineration. When removal efficiencies of 99% or greater are required, incineration is usually recommended.  [c.1254]

The average dust loading in rotary kilns is 10% of the kiln feed or approximately 20 kg/t of lime, allowing for a ratio of limestone to lime of 2 on a weight basis. Primary collection of particulates is accompHshed with multiple cyclones that entrap about 85% of the dust loading. A secondary system is necessary to abate most of the remaining dust. Of the secondary systems in use, the baghouse is the predominant type, followed by the wet scmbber, electrostatic precipitator, and gravel bed filter (see Airpollution control methods).  [c.172]

During intermediates production, the generation of waste is greater but again, significant success has been made in isolating, purifying, and selling the by-products, which previously were burned for their fuel value, in this instance as specialty chemicals into other industries. Waste streams whose contaminants are too low in concentration or in value to warrant separation are increasingly being remediated via biotreatment, rather than by more controversial methods such as burning or deep-weU disposal. It has been recognized that the nitric acid oxidation of cyclohexanone—cyclohexanol mixture to adipic acid is a significant source of N2O [10024-97-2] production worldwide (215). Nitrous oxide is potentially a contributor to the greenhouse effect and contributes to catalytic ozone depletion. In 1991 an interindustry consortium was formed to share information on N2O abatement (216,217). There are three potential, commercially viable routes to solving this problem (/) thermal combustion of N2O in a reducing flame to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide (2) controlled partial oxidation of N2O to NO [10102-43-9], then dissolution in H2O to form nitric acid and (3) catalytic decomposition of N2O into nitrogen and oxygen. Du Pont has patented the third method and is making it available for implementation around the world between 1996 and 1998  [c.240]

Demands for pollution abatement forced the development of chemical recovery methods for all sulfite pulping processes, including NSSC. One response to environmental concerns was the development of other semichemical pulping methods. Semichemical pulping can be performed using kraft green Hquor. This procedure is especially advantageous if the semichemical pulp mill has access to an existing kraft recovery system. Neutral sulfite semichemical Hquors can also be fed into a kraft recovery system as makeup for the kraft chemicals that are consumed, but the balance is unfavorable and the relative amount of NSSC Hquors that can be utilized is small.  [c.275]

Decrea.sed energy consumption. As mentioned previously, methods of energy conservation are often interrelated and complementary to each other. Energy expenditures associated with the treatment and transport of waste are usually but not always reduced when the amount of waste generated is lessened, while at the same time the pollution associated with energy consumed by these activities is abated.  [c.2169]

In this chapter we focus our attention on some of the point sources of air emissions within different types of plant operations, along with the methods of abatement. Although we do not make direct comparisons between prevention and control methodologies until Chapter 6, the reader should gain an appreciation for the simplicity of applying pollution prevention as opposed to incorporating engineering controls in many situations.  [c.53]

Chapter 1 provides orientation and an introduction to the subject of air quality. The focus of this book is on industrial air pollution problems. We begin by reviewing the regulatory driving force in the United States for air pollution abatement. To appreciate the objectives of our Federal air pollution control regulations, an understanding of the fate and transport mechanisms in the environment is important. Hence, some general discussions on the behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere are included in this chapter. There are only two general methods for ensuring high quality air. These options are the application of control technologies that clean air or remove pollutants, and methods of prevention. In general, prevention is more cost-effective than the application of end-of-pipe treatment technologies, however, there are many situations where control technologies represent the only feasible methods to managing air pollution problems. Both approaches are presented in this volume, and the reader will need to assess which is the most appropriate means on a case by case basis. At the end of Chapter 1 you will find a summary of the topics to be discussed in this volume. This will help you to focus on specific areas of reading that are most useful to you. There is also a list of recommended resources, including Web sites, as well as a review section.  [c.567]

Thermal and catalytic incinerators, condensers, and adsorbers are the most common methods of abatement used, due to their ability to deal with a wide variety of emissions of organic compounds. The selection between destruction and recovery equipment is normally based on the feasibility of recovery, which relates directly to the cost and the concentration of organic compounds in the gas stream. The selection of a suitable technology depends on environmental and economical aspects, energy demand, and ease of installation as well as considerations of operating and maintenance. 7 he selection criteria may vary with companies or with individual process units however, the fundamental approach is the same.  [c.1251]

Concentration and Composition The average concentration of organic compounds in a waste gas determines the applicability of the abatement method. Recovery methods usually require high inlet concentrations. They may need a concentrator prior to actual treatment, which increases the investment cost.  [c.1253]

When unpleasant odors resulting from manufacturing processes or waste-disposal operations give rise to public complaints they should be identified and quantified prior to deriving methods of abatement. Such work is often innovative, requiring the design and fabrication of new equipment for the sampling and analysis of pollutants.  [c.40]

There are three common methods for SO abatement. These are tine gas scrubbing, feedstock desulfurization, and SO additive. The SOj, additive is often the least costly alternative, which is the approach practiced by many refiners.  [c.119]

Combustion. Biomass combustion accounted for about 4% of total U.S. energy consumption in 1992, primarily in the industrial, residential, and utiHty sectors. Electric power capacity fueled by biomass grew from 200 MW in the early 1980s to about 6000 MW in 1992. The direct combustion of biomass for heat, steam, and power has been, and is expected to continue to be, the principal end use of biomass energy. Conventional biomass-fired technology uses a variety of combustion equipment designs that are usually capable of burning a wet, nonhomogeneous fuel with large variations in moisture content and particle size (141). Spreader stoker-fired boilers have evolved from the designs of the past to systems which include several designs for controUed fuel distribution and automatic ash removal. Research on biomass combustion has focused on improvements of existing systems with respect to ease of operation, increased efficiency, and lower capital and operating costs emission controls and abatement and development of new technologies to permit utilization of soHd biomass fuels in a wider range of appHcations (142). Some of the biomass combustion research developments since the early 1930s include whole-tree burning technologies (143), cyclonic incineration of waste biomass (144), direct wood-fired gas turbines (145), improved combustion cycles for biomass (141), fluid-bed biomass combustion (146), pulverized biomass combustion (147), catalytic wood-burning stoves (148), cofiring of biomass and fossil fuels to reduce emissions (149), and control of biomass combustion to reduce emissions (150). Even though the burning of biomass is one of the oldest energy producing methods used, research continues to make significant advancements in the art and science of  [c.45]

Environmental regulations compel operations to abate dust, control wastewater discharge, and abide by noise-control regulations (11) (see Air POLLUTION CONTROL methods Noise POLLUTION AND abatementmethods). Drilling dust is ehmiaated by fabric filters that are a part of modem drilling rigs. Soil banks are planted with vegetation to reduce dust and erosion trees, snow fences, and berms serve as wiad barriers at vulnerable locations.  [c.169]

Siace the early 1980s, several important developments have taken place ia the field of sugar analysis. (/) Worldwide efforts at harmonization of methods have led to greater definition and standardization of the methods, with the subsequent discarding of many obsolete methods (2) polarimetry of sugar solutions has been extended to the higher wavelength range of 880 nm (J) lead abatement has resulted ia new clarification agents for polarimetry (4) the 100°i poiat for sucrose has been redefined and is now called the 100°Z poiat (5) chromatographic methods have been improved to the poiat where they are widely accepted as official methods and (6) near-iafrared spectroscopic analysis is developiag rapidly as an alternative method for many tests.  [c.9]

Sampling is the keystone of source analysis. Sampling methods and tools vary in their complexity according to the specific task therefore, a degree of both technical knowledge and common sense is needed to design a samphng function. Sampling is done to measure quantities or concentrations of pollutants in effluent gas streams, to measure the efficiency of a pollution-abatement device, to guide the designer of pollution-control equipment and facihties, and/or to appraise contamination from a process or a source. A coiTmlete measurement requires a determination of the concentration ana contaminant characteristics as well as the associated gas flow. Most statutoiy limitations require mass rates of emissions both concentration and volumetric-flow-rate data are therefore required.  [c.2197]

Sulfur Efforts to abate atmospheric pollution have drawn considerable attention to the sulfur content of coal, since the combustion of coal results in the discharge to the atmosphere of sulfur oxides. Sulfur occurs in coal in three forms as pyrite (FeSg) as organic sulfur, which is a part of the coal substance and as sulfate. Sulhir as sulfate comprises at the most only a few hundredths of a percent of the coal. The organic sulfur may comprise from 20 to 80 percent of the total sulfur. Since organic sulfur is chemically bound to the coal substance in a complex manner, drastic treatment is necessary to break the chemical bonds before the sulfur can be removed. There is no economical method known at present that will remove organic sulfur, although so-called chemical treatment methods for cleaning coal can reduce the sulfur content. Pyritic sulfur can be partially removed by using standard coal-washing equipment. The degree of pyrite removal depends on the size of the coal and the size and distribution of the pyrite particles.  [c.2359]

In the 1970s these reasons lost some of their force. Oil became more expensive, economies of scale appear to have reached a limiting value, improvements in manufacturing methods tend to have only a marginal effect whilst in some, but not all, areas there has been some abatement in the intensity of competition. This analysis does not, however, lead to a prediction of a bleak future for plastics. Apart from the oil cost these factors largely indicate that the plastics industry has become a mature industry, the future growth of which will be increasingly dependent on the global economic situation. In the case of oil a cost of 35 dollars a barrel is only equivalent to about 10 cents or five pence a pound. The cost of converting this oil to plastics materials and of transporting and processing them will often be much less than for similar activities with traditional materials. Hence provided that the price of plastics increases at a lower rate than for competitive alternative materials, and there is reason to believe that this will be the case, plastics may be expected to increase in their importance.  [c.16]

In Chapter 2 we focus our attention on some of the point sources of air emissions within different types of plant operations, along with the methods of abatement and prevention. Although we do not make direct comparisons between prevention and control methodologies until Chapter 6, the reader should gain an appreciation for the simplicity of applying pollution prevention as opposed to incorporating engineering controls in many situations. While we will not cover all the important industry sector sources of air pollution in this chapter, an attempt is made to examine a broad spectrum of so-called heavy-industries . These are industry sectors that are plagued with air pollution problems, and have had a long history in battling them.  [c.567]

A further complication is the biotransfofmations of the hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater. In the early 1980s, chloroethene, cis- and trans-l,2-dichloroethene were detected in groundwater beneath industrial sites that traditionally only used TCE and PCE as degreasers or solvents. Because microorganisms present within the sources of recharge for the area aquifers were found to be active in the decomposition of organic matter, researchers speculated that the organisms could also act on the hydrocarbons, resulting in exotic organic byproducts that are poisonous themselves. It was concluded that some organisms can promote successive transformation of PCE to TCE, and of PCE and TCE to other compounds. Some of the chemical transformations are illustrated in Figure 17. As a result, there are several concerns when dealing with groundwater remediation. First, because of daughter compounds or by-products of environmental transformations, the identification of the source of contamination becomes much more difficult. As a result, the abatement of the source of discharge takes more time, during which additional contaminants may be introduced into the environment. Second, treatment methods developed to remove one compound may prove ineffective in removing the breakdown compounds.  [c.428]

See pages that mention the term Abatement methods : [c.43]    [c.44]    [c.1255]    [c.229]   
Industrial ventilation design guidebook (2001) -- [ c.0 ]