# I’S.YPACK

Mizutani, F. Yabuki, S. Asai, M. Anal. Chim. Acta. 1991, 245, 145-150. [c.103]

X-Ray Reflectometer. Thin films can be deposited on single-crystal substrates. Such materials have special properties (eg, YBCO deposited on sUicon is used as a superconductor which can detect very smaU magnetic fields). To be able to measure the thickness of thin layers, an x-ray reflectometer has been designed. Although this instmment measures the reflected x-ray photons rather than diffracted photons, the design is very similar to that of a conventional powder diffractometer. As with visible photons, total reflection can take place from a surface if the angle between the incident and reflected beams is smaU enough. Because the wavelengths of x-rays are very smaU, total reflection occurs at angles on the order of several tenths of a degree. A diagram of an x-ray reflectometer is shown in Figure 16. With this instmment it is possible to measure the thickness of several layers deposited on top of one another. It is also possible to measure the roughness of each layer. Typical measured thicknesses are tens of nanometers and typical [c.380]

Mizutani, F. Yabuki, S. Asai, M. Anal. Chim. Acta. 1991, 245, [c.103]

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New Yofk, 1960. [c.161]

Baxter R J 1970 Ornstein Zernike relation and Percus-Yevick approximation for fluid mixtures J. Chem. Phys. 52 4559 [c.552]

Cummings P T and Stell G 1984 Statistical mechanical models of chemical reactions analytic solution of models of A + S AS in the Percus-Yevick approximation Mol. Phys. 51 253 [c.554]

Cummings P T and Stell G 1984 Statistical mechanical models of chemical reactions II. Analytic solutions of the Percus-Yevick approximation for a model of homogeneous association Mol. Phys. 51 253 [c.554]

Baxter R J 1968 Percus-Yevick equation for hard spheres with surface adhesion J. Chem. Phys. 49 2770 [c.554]

Baxter R J 1968 Percus-Yevick equation for hard spheres with surface adhesion J. Chem. Phys. 49 2770-4 [c.2692]

[c.64]

If a molecule has a plane of symmetry, for which the symbol is a, reflection of all the nuclei through the plane to an equal distance on the opposite side produces a configuration indistinguishable from the initial one. Figure 4.3(a) shows the two planes of symmetry, (7 (xz) and (yfyz), of H2O using conventional axis notation. Just as theyz plane, the plane of the molecule, is a plane of symmetry so any planar molecule has at least one plane of symmetry. The subscript u stands for vertical and implies that the plane is vertical with respect to the highest-fold axis, C2 in this case, which defines the vertical direction. [c.75]

Emulsions have been employed to produce spherical powders of mixed cation oxides, such as yttrium aluminum garnets (YAG), and many other systems (15). Sol—gel powder processes have also been appHed to fissile elements (16). Spray-formed sols of UO2 and UO2—PUO2 were formed as rigid gel spheres during passage through a column of heated Hquid. Abrasive grains based on sol—gel-derived mixed alumina are important commercial products (1). Powders for superconductors, eg, the YBaCuO system, and magnetic ceramics were also developed using the sol—gel technology (see Magnetic materials). [c.249]

Y. Yabuki, K. Kawata, H. Kitaguchi, and K. Sato, SPSE/SPSTJ International East-West Sjmposium II, Kona, Hawaii, 1988, p. D-32. [c.512]

The simplest possible case occurs when (1) both the operating and the equilibrium hues are straight (i.e., there are dilute solutions), (2) Henry s law is valid y /x = yifXj = m), and (3) absorption heat effects are negligible. Under these conditions, the integral term in Eq. (14-20) may be computed by Colburn s equation [Trans. Am. Jn.st. Chem. Eng., 35,211 (1939)] [c.1355]

Such significant increase of accuracy may be explained on the base of analysis of the numerical values of the theoretical correction coefficients and calculated for 1, , and for analytical pai ameter lQ.j,yipj.j,jj- Changing from lines intensities for the ratios of analytical element line intensity to the intensity of the line most effecting the result of analytical element (chromium in this case) measurement enables the decreases of the error 5 or even 10 times practically to the level of statistics of the count rate. In case of chromium the influencing elements will be titanium, tungsten or molybdenum. [c.442]

The same results were gained for Cr analysis in high alloyed steels. The error of linear calibration in this case is 0.28%. The application of theoretical corrections decreases this error to 0.07%. The standard error of the linear calibration on the base of the analytical pai ameter Ici.j,yipj,j,p is 0.23% and the application of the theoretical corrections in this case gives error 0.04%. [c.442]

Scaling the temperature, the overall weight on i,ybiij or all masses tM are fonnally equivalent [31]. The independent scaling of each contribution Ei by its weight factor W gives rise to a large number of possible simulated annealing schemes. We call annealing schemes that vary the Wi independently generalized annealing schemes. The initial velocities are usually assigned from a Maxwell distribution at the desired starting temperature, and the temperamre is controlled (e.g., by coupling to a heat bath [56]). For the use of MD as an optimization technique, it is convenient to use uniform masses mi = m for all i [39]. This, in combination with uniform energy constants in the force field, allows the use of larger time steps in the molecular dynamics, because differences in vibrational frequencies are avoided (the time step is determined by the highest vibrational frequency). [c.261]

The general equation can be further reduced to the case of infinite dilution limit, a binary mixmre, ionic solutions, and so on. These equations are supplemented by closure relations such as the Percus-Yevick (PY) and hypernetted chain (HNC) approximations. [c.420]

See pages that mention the term

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Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries (1998) -- [ c.141 ]