TBP crude oil

TBP Crude Oil Distillation - Analysis of Fractions  [c.331]

Crude oil is generally characterized by a TBP analysis whose results are expressed as temperatures equivalent to atmospheric pressure as a function of the fraction of volume and weight distilled  [c.106]

Initial portion of the TBP curve of a Saharan crude oil (Note the discontinuities due to the presence of aromatics benzene B, toluene T, xylenes X).  [c.333]

A knock out vessel may on the other hand be followed by a variety of dehydrating systems depending upon the space available and the characteristics of the mixture. On land a continuous dehydration tank such as a wash tank may be employed. In this type of vessel crude oil enters the tank via an inlet spreader and water droplets fall out of the oil as it rises to the top of the tank. Such devices can reduce the water content to less than 2%.  [c.247]

TBP [atmospheric or 10 torr (1.3 kPa)] Nelson, ASTM D 2892 Crude oil and petroleum fractions  [c.1324]

Simulated TBP (gas chromatography) ASTM D 2887 Crude oil and petroleum fractions  [c.1324]

A crude-oil assay always includes a whole crude API gravity and a TBP curve. As discussed by Nelson (op. cit., pp. 89-90) and as shown in Fig. 13-85, a reasonably consistent correlation (based on more than 350 distillation curves) exists between whole crude API gravity and the TBP distillation curve at 101.3 kPa (760 torr). Exceptions not correlated by Fig. 13-85 are highly paraffinic or naphthenic crude oils.  [c.1326]

From the produc t specifications, distillate yields are computed as follows From Fig. 13-86 and the ASTM D 86 50 percent temperatures, TBP 50 percent temperatures of the three intermediate cuts are obtained as 155, 236, and 316°C (311, 456, and 600°F) for the HN, LD, and HD respectively. The TBP cut points, corresponding volume fractions of crude oil, and flow rates of the four distillates are readily obtained by stai-ting from the specified 343°C (650°F) cut point as follows, where CP is tne cut point and T is the TBP temperature (°F)  [c.1330]

These cut points are shown as vertical lines on the crude-oil TBP plot of Fig. 13-91, from which the following volume fractions and flow rates of product cuts are readily obtained.  [c.1330]

A potential source of emissions from distillation of crude oil is the combustion of fuels in the furnace and some light gases leaving the top of the condensers on the vacuum distillation column. A certain amount of noncondensable light hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide pass through the condenser to a hot well, and then are discharged to the refinery sour fuel system or are vented to a process heater, flare, or another control device to destroy hydrogen sulfide. The quantity of these emissions depends on the size of the unit, the type of feedstock, and the cooling water temperature. If barometric condensers are used in vacuum distillation, significant amounts of oily wastewater can be generated. Vacuum pumps and surface condensers have largely replaced barometric condensers in many refineries to eliminate this oily wastewater stream. Oily sour water is also generated in the fractionators.  [c.85]

Water used in processing operations also accounts for a significant portion of the total wastewater. Process wastewater arises from desalting crude oil, steam stripping operations, pump gland cooling, product fractionator reflux drum drains and boiler blowdown. Because process water often comes into direct contact with oil, it is usually highly contaminated. Petroleum refineries typically utilize primary and secondary wastewater treatment technologies. Primary wastewater treatment consists of the separation of oil, water, and solids in two stages. During the first stage, an API separator, a corrugated plate interceptor, or other separator design is used. Wastewater moves very slowly through the separator allowing free oil to float to the surface and be skimmed off, and solids to settle to the bottom and be scraped off to a sludge collecting hopper. The second stage utilizes physical or chemical methods to separate emulsified oils from the wastewater. Physi a methods may include the use of a series of settling ponds with a long retention time, or the use of dissolved air flotation (DAF). In DAF, air is bubbled through the wastewater, and both oil and suspended solids are skimmed off the top. Chemicals, such as ferric hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide, can be used to coagulate impurities into a froth or sludge which can be more easily skimmed off the top. Some wastes associated with the primary treatment of wastewater at petroleum refineries may be considered hazardous and include API separator sludge, primary treatment sludge, sludges from other gravitational separation techniques, float from DAF units, and wastes from settling ponds.  [c.96]

Normally, all of the heat is removed from the fractionator by three or more circulating reflux streams. The proportion of gas and naphtha in the cracked products is much higher than in crude oil, so it is seldom possible to reduce the diameter of the tower top as in atmospheric pipe still design. Due to the low operating pressure, it is necessary to provide expensive compression capacity to permit recovery of these light hydrocarbons in subsequent equipment.  [c.80]

To extract the products shown m Figure 1, the crude oil is heated in a distillation furnace. The resulting liquids and vapors are discharged into a distillation tower (also called a fractionating unit). This tower is hottest at the bottom, with the temperature dropping gradually toward the top. The distillation (vaporization temperature) separates the crudes into various fractions according to weight (specific gravity) and boiling point. Distillate runs down through the tower over a series of horizontal trays that are perforated to allow the up flow of A apors. Each tray is cooler than the one below it, thus providing a temperature gradient throughout the height of the tower. As different fraction reaches the tray where the temperature is just below its boiling point, its vapors can condense and change back into liquid, where it can be drawn off if desired.  [c.337]

C ( 1250°F) under vacuum. The residuum amounts to a small percentage of a very light crude oil and up to 30-40 wt% of a heavy crude. Its major constituents are resins, asphaltenes, and some high molecular weight oils and waxes. The residuum accounts for most of the total NSO content and the heavy metals. The resins and asphaltenes precipitate out when the residuum (or crude oil) is treated with liquid propane below 70°F. Additional treatment of this precipitate with n-pentane separates the soluble resins from the insoluble asphaltenes. The amount of resins always exceeds the asphaltene content of a crude oil. Resins are light to dark colored and range from thick viscous materials to amorphous solids. Asphaltenes appear as dark brown to black, amorphous solids. Together, they may possess nearly 50% of the total nitrogen and sulfur in the crude oil, predominantly in the form of heterocyclic condensed ring structures containing aromatic and cycloparaffinic rings. Asphaltenes may account for as much as 25 wt% of the residuum (up to 12% of the crude oil). Colorless oils are the most paraffinic, while asphaltenes are the most aromatic. Dark oils and resins show similar degrees of paraffinicity and aromaticity. Up to 40 wt% of saturated hydrocarbons may be present in tbe residuum however, this comprises only 1-3 wt% of the total crude. The rest are aromatic and N/O-containing compounds. In the nonasphaltene fraction of the residuum, the typical aromatic structure is a highly substituted, condensed polynuclear aromatic molecule, with an average formula, The substituents are fused  [c.323]

Figure 2-77 shows how the weight distributions of the different molecular types vary during the fractional distillation of a naphthenic crude oil. Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (i.e., paraffins and naphthenes) are the predominant constituents in the light gasoline fraction. As the boiling point is raised, the paraffin content decreases, and the NSO content increases continuously. About 75 wt% of tbe residuum is composed of aromatics and NSO compounds.  [c.323]

The zinc silicate, epoxy and coal tar/epoxy coatings are still used. Coal tar epoxies are used for crude oil tanks, sometimes on all the interior surfaces but more often for a) the bottom of the tank and about 2 m up the sides, b) the top of the tank and about 2 m down the sides, and (c) other horizontal surfaces where seawater ballast may lie. These partly coated tanks are frequently also fitted with cathodic protection to prevent corrosion of the uncoated areas when seawater ballast is carried. The pure epoxy or coal tar epoxy coatings applied in bulk cargo tanks used for the carriage of grain must be approved by the North of England Industrial Health Service, or by similar independent authorities in other countries.  [c.653]

The suspension of phenylacetamide may be further hydrolysed to phenylacetic acid by refluxing with stirring until the solid dissolves. The mixture becomes turbid after 30 minutes and the product begins to separate as an oil refluxing is continued for 6 hours, the mixture is cooled first with tap water and then by an ice-water bath for about 4 hours. The crude phenylacetic acid is filtered at the pump, washed with two 50 ml. portions of cold water, and dried in a desiccator. The resulting crude acid melts at 69- 70° it may be purified by recrystallisation from light p>etroleum (b.p. 40-60°) or, better, by vacuum distillation.  [c.762]

The main aspect of the job of the top floor person is to pump solvents or oil to various reactors and blenders. Instructions are issued on a job-card or by phone. The instructions are entered in a log book (which is kept by the top floor worker) and on a record card which has to be returned to the laboratory at the end of the shift. To prepare for pumping, protective clothing must be worn. After the required amoimt of solvent is set on the meter, the worker has to connect the meter and the pipeline with a hose and then open the valve on the pipeline (see Figure 7.10). Before starting the pump, the blender valve  [c.317]

Typical equipment configurations for the distillation of crude oil and other complex hydrocarbon mixtures in a crude unit, a catalytic-cracking unit, and a delayed-coldng unit of a petroleum refinery are shown in Figs. 13-87, 13-88, and 13-89. The initial separation of crude oil into fractions is conduc ted in two main columns, shown in Fig. 13-87. In the first column, called the atmospheric tower or topping still, partially vaporized crude oil, from which water, sediment, and salt have been removed, is mainly rectified, at a feed-tray pressure of no more than about 276 kPa (40 psia), to yield a noncondensable light-hydrocarbon gas, a light naphtha, a heavy naphtha, a hght distillate (kerosine), a heavy distillate (diesel oil), and a bottoms residual of components whose TBP exceeds approximately 427°C (800°F). Alternatively, other frac tions, shown in Fig. 13-82, may be withdrawn. To control the IBP of the ASTM D 86 cui ves, each of the sidestreams of the atmospheric tower and the vacuum and main fractionators of Figs. 13-87, 13-88, and 13-89 may be sent to side-cut strippers, which use a partial reboiler or steam stripping. Additional stripping by steam is commonly used in the bottom of me atmospheric tower as well as in the vacuum tower and other main fractionators.  [c.1327]

Tbe difference between the required selling price and the crude oil equivalent price represents the enhanced value of the coal liquids, due to their alldistillate and low-beteroatom character.  [c.2378]

Refining breaks crude oil down into its various components, which are then selectively reconfigured into new products. The complexity of operations varies from one refinery to the next. In general, the more sophisticated a refinery, the better its ability to upgrade crude oil into high-value products. All refineries perform three basic steps separation, conversion and treatment. Modern separation involves piping oil through hot furnaces. The resulting liquids and vapors are discharged into distillation towers. Inside the towers, the liquids and vapors separate into components or fractions according to weight and boiling point. The lightest fractions, including gasoline and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), vaporize and rise to the top of the tower, where they condense back to liquids. Medium weight liquids, including kerosene and diesel oil distillates, stay in the middle. Heavier liquids, called gas oils, separate lower down, while the heaviest fractions with the highest boiling points settle at the bottom. These tarlike fractions, called residuum, are literally the "bottom of the barrel." The fractions now are ready for piping to the next station or plant within the refinery. Some components require relatively little additional processing to become asphalt base or jet fuel. However, most molecules that are destined to become high-value products require much more processing.  [c.202]

Figure 3.4 Two-dimensional separation of dimethylnaphthalenes in crude oil using a 50 m methyl (95%)/phenyl (5%) polysiloxane primary column and a 50 m methyl (50%)/phenyl (25%)/cyanopropyl (25%) polysiloxane secondary column. The top trace indicates the primary separation monitor, while the following chromatograms indicate individual heart-cut secondary analysis. Reproduced from R.G. Schafer and J. Holtkemerr, Anal. Chim. Acta. 1992, 260, 107 (20). Figure 3.4 Two-dimensional separation of dimethylnaphthalenes in crude oil using a 50 m methyl (95%)/phenyl (5%) polysiloxane primary column and a 50 m methyl (50%)/phenyl (25%)/cyanopropyl (25%) polysiloxane secondary column. The top trace indicates the primary separation monitor, while the following chromatograms indicate individual heart-cut secondary analysis. Reproduced from R.G. Schafer and J. Holtkemerr, Anal. Chim. Acta. 1992, 260, 107 (20).
Malononitrile. Mix 75 g. of cyanoacetamide intimately with 75 g. of dry phosphorus pentachloride in a glass mortar (FUME CUPBOARD /). Transfer the mixture as rapidly as possible (with the aid of a large glass funnel with cut-oflF stem) to a 500 ml. Claisen flask fitted with a wide-bore capillary or (drawn-out) glass tube (to reduce the danger of blocking ) and a thermometer. Attach the Claisen flask by means of a long air condenser to a 200 ml. filter flask, which in turn is connected to a powerful water pump (or two glass water pumps in parallel) and a manometer. Evacuate the system to about 30 mm. of mercury and immerse the Claisen flask in a boiling water bath. The mixture gradually melts, boiling commences about 15 minutes before the solid has melted completely and the pressure rises to about 150 mm. owing to the liberation of hydrogen chloride and phosphorus oxychloride. The evolution of gas slackens in about 30-35 minutes, the boiling is then less vigorous and the pressure falls. At this point, charge the receiver and immerse it in ice water. Remove the Claisen flask immediately from the water bath, wipe it dry and immerse it in an oil bath at 140° to within 10 cm. of the top of the flask. The malononitrile commences to pass over at 113°/30 mm. (or 125°/50 mm.) raise the temperature of the oil bath over a period of 25 minutes to 180°. Collect the dinitrile at 113-125°/30 mm. if it solidifies in the air condenser melt it by the application of a small flame. Remove the oil bath when distillation has almost ceased discolouration of the product is thus prevented. The yield of crude dinitrile is 45 g. Redistil and collect the pure malononitrile at 113-120°/30 mm. as a colourless liquid (40 g.) this quickly solidifies on cooling, m.p. 29-30°. Store in a brown bottle and protect it from the light.  [c.434]

P-Benzoylpropionic acid. Equip a 1 litre three-necked flask with a mechanical stirrer and two efficient reflux condensers, and place in it 175 g. of sodium-dried A.R. benzene and 34 g. of succinic anhydride (Section 111,92). Stir the mixture and add 100 g. of powdered, anhydrous aluminium chloride all at once. The reaction usually starts immediately —hydrogen chloride is evolved and the mixture becomes hot if there is no apparent reaction, warm gently. Heat in an oil bath to gentle refluxing, with continued stirring, for half an hour, AUow to cool, immerse the flask in a bath of cold water, and slowly add 150 ml. of water from a separatory fuimel inserted into the top of one of the condensers. Introduce 50 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid and separate the benzene by steam distillation (Fig. II, 41, 1). Transfer the hot mixture to a 600 ml. beaker the p-benzoylpropionic acid separates as a colourless oil, which soon solidifies. Cool in ice, filter off the acid at the pump, and wash with 100 ml. of cold dilute hydrochloric acid (1 3 by volume) and then with 100 ml. of cold water. Dissolve the crude acid in a solution of 40 g. of anhydrous sodium carbonate in 250 ml. of water by boiling for 10-15 minutes filter the solution with suction to remove the small amount of aluminium hydroxide and wash with two 25 ml. portions of hot water. Treat the hot filtrate with 2 g. of decolourising carbon, stir for 5 minutes and filter at the pump through a preheated Buchner funnel. Transfer the hot filtrate to a 1 litre beaker, cool to about 50°, and cautiously acidify with 65-70 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Cool to 0° in a freezing mixture of ice and salt, filter, wash thoroughly with cold water, dry for 12 hours upon filter papers, and then to constant weight at 45-50°, The yield of practically pure -benzoylpropionic acid, m.p. 115°, is 57 g.  [c.737]

Place loO g. of p-nitrotoluene, m.p. 51-52°, in a 500 ml. three-necked flask, fitted with a reflux condenser, a Liquid-sealed mechanical stirrer, and a separatory funnel with stem reaching nearly to the bottom of the flask. Attach a gas absorption trap (Fig. 11, 8, 1, c) to the top of the condenser. Heat the flask in an oil bath at 145-150° and add 184 g. (59 ml.) of bromine during 2 hours (1). Continue the stirring for an additional 10 minutes after all the bromine has been added. Pour the contents of the flask whilst still Liquid CAUTION) (2) into a 2-5 litre round-bottomed flask containing 2 litres of hot light petroleum, b.p. 80-100°, and 8 g. of decolourising carbon. Attach a reflux condenser to the flask, heat it on an electric hot plate until the material dissolves, boil for 10 minutes, and filter rapidly through a pre-heated Buchner funnel. Cool the filtrate to 20°, filter the crystals with suction, press well and wash with two 25 ml. portions of cold light petroleum. The crude p-nitrobenzyl bromide, m.p. 95-97° (150 g.) is sufficiently pure for many purposes. Purify by dissolving in 1500-1700 ml. of light petroleum, b.p. 80-100°, boil with 8 g. of decolourising carbon, and filter tlirough a pre-heated Buchner or sintered glass funnel. Cool the filtrate in ice, filter at the pump, drain well, and wash with two 15 ml. portions of cold light petroleum. The yield of pure p-nitrobenzyl bromide (pale yellow crystals, m.p. 98-99°) is 135 g.  [c.961]

Bromine (128 g., 0.80 mole) is added dropwise to the well-stirred mixture over a period of 40 minutes (Note 4). After all the bromine has been added, the molten mixture is stirred at 80-85° on a steam bath for 1 hour, or until it solidifies if that happens first (Note 5). The complex is added in portions to a well-stirred mixture of 1.3 1. of cracked ice and 100 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid in a 2-1. beaker (Note 6). Part of the cold aqueous layer is added to the reaction flask to decompose whatever part of the reaction mixture remains there, and the resulting mixture is added to the beaker. The dark oil that settles out is extracted from the mixture with four 150-ml. portions of ether. The extracts are combined, washed consecutively with 100 ml. of water and 100 ml. of 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and transferred to a short-necked distillation flask. The ether is removed by distillation at atmospheric pressure, and crude 3-bromo-acetophenone is stripped from a few grams of heavy dark residue by distillation at reduced pressure. The colorless distillate is carefully fractionated in a column 20 cm. long and 1.5 cm. in diameter that is filled with Carborundum or Heli-Pak filling. 4 hc combined middle fractions of constant refractive index are taken as 3-l)romoaccto])lu iu)nc weight, 94 -100 g. (70-75%) l).p. 75 76°/0.5 mm. tif 1.57,38 1.5742 m.]). 7 8° (Notes 7 and 8).  [c.8]

As shown in the figure, intermediate products are withdrawn at several points front ihc colunm. In addition, modem cmde distillation units employ intermediate reflux streams. Typical boiling ranges for various streams are light straight-run naphtha (overhead), heavy naphtha (top idcstream), 195 to 330 F crude kerosene (second sidestream), 300-475 F light gas oil (third sidestream), 420 to 600 F. Unvaporized oil entering the column flows downward over stripping t ays to remove any light constituents remaining in the liquid. Steam is injected into the bottom of ilie column to reduce the partial pressure of the hydrocarbons and separation products, T> picLtlU a  [c.287]

A solution of naphthyloxazoline 39 (200 mg, 0.79 mmol) in THF was cooled to -78°C and a solution of -butyllithium (0.79 mL, 1.5 M in hexanes, 1.19 mmol) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at -78°C for 2 h then iodomethane (1.21 mL, 2.37 mmol) was added. The mixture was warmed to rt, stirred for Ih, then quenched with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (30 mL). The mixture was extracted with CH2CI2 (3 X 30 mL) and the combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel to afford 259 mg (100%) of the title compound as a colorless oil. H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3) 8 7.3-7.0 (m, 4 H), 6.40 (d, J = 9.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.96 (dd, 7 = 4.3, 9.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.1-3.9 (m, 2 H), 3.83 (dd, 7 = 7.0, 10.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.4-2.3 (m, 1 H), 1.64 (s, 3 H), 1.6-1.2 (m, 6 H), 1.0-0.8 (m, 3 H), 0.87 (s, 9 H).  [c.247]

To 19 8 of well-agitated distilled water plus 18 g of ditertiary-butyl-p[c.1380]

See pages that mention the term TBP crude oil : [c.42]    [c.41]    [c.210]    [c.467]    [c.244]    [c.360]    [c.467]    [c.250]    [c.769]    [c.830]    [c.229]    [c.69]    [c.214]    [c.319]   
Crude oil Petroleum products Process flowsheets (1999) -- [ c.45 , c.106 , c.107 , c.331 , c.334 ]