Labels adding

Finally, for linear molecules in Z states, the wavefunctions can be labeled by one additional quantum number that relates to their symmetry under reflection of all electrons through a ay plane passing through the molecule s Coo axis. If F is even, a + sign is appended as a superscript to the term symbol if F is odd, a - sign is added.  [c.262]

The concentration of insulin in a production vat is determined by the method of isotope dilution. A 1.00-mg sample of insulin labeled with with an activity of 549 cpm, is added to a 10.0-mL sample taken from the production vat. After homogenizing the sample, a portion of the insulin is separated and purified, yielding 18.3 mg of pure insulin. The activity for the isolated insulin is measured at 148 cpm. How many milligrams of insulin are in the original sample  [c.647]

Before sample preparation, surrogate compounds must be added to the matrix. These are used to evaluate the efficiency of recovery of sample for any analytical method. Surrogate standards are often brominated, fluorinated, or isotopically labeled compounds that are not expected to be present in environmental media. If the surrogates are detected by GC/MS within the specified range, it is  [c.299]

Each of these reactions is characterized by a propagation constant which is labeled by a two-digit subscript The first number identifies the terminal repeat unit in the growing radical, and the second identifies the adding monomer. The rate laws governing these four reactions are  [c.425]

Commonly, a juice drink contains 10% fruit juice, which usually is a blend of several fruits. The 1990 Federal Nutrition and Labeling Act requites declaration of juice content so that the consumer can make a more informed choice (3). With cocktails and juice drinks, added sugars, acids, flavorings, colorings, and nutrients can be used to provide a wide variety of stable products of uniform quaUty. Because drinks requite less juice than 100% juice products, the drinks can be sold at a lower price.  [c.575]

In fact, most RIAs and many nonisotopic immunoassays use a competitive binding format (see Fig. 2). In this approach, the analyte in the sample to be measured competes with a known amount of added analyte that has been labeled with an indicator that binds to the immobilized antibody. After reaction, the free analyte—analyte-indicator solution is washed away from the soHd phase. The analyte-indicator on the soHd phase or remaining in the wash solution is then used to quantify the amount of analyte present in the sample as measured against a control assay using only an analyte-indicator. This is done by quantifying the analyte-indicator using the method appropriate for the assay, for example, enzyme activity, fluorescence, radioactivity, etc.  [c.22]

Another commercial CLIA system uses antibody-coated beads to capture either unknown analyte or alkaline phosphatase-labeled analyte using a competitive heterogenous assay (33). Excess analyte and labeled analyte are then removed from the tube through a series of centrifugal washings. The amount of sample analyte is then deterrnined by adding substrate (dioxetane) and measuring the emitted light as the substrate is hydrolyzed by the alkaline phosphatase.  [c.28]

Information about a food s potassium content is required on the nutrition facts panel only if the food contains added potassium as a nutrient or if claims about it as a nutrient appear on the label. In all other cases, it is voluntary. The recommended daily value for potassium is 3500 mg. The following labels have been designated for foods high potassium (700 mg or more per serving) good source of potassium (350—665 mg per serving) more or added potassium (at least 350 mg more per serving than the reference food) (43).  [c.536]

Amino resins are used by the paper industry in large volume for a variety of apphcations. The resins are divided into two classes according to the mode of appHcation. Resins added to the fiber slurry before the sheet is formed are called wet-end additives and are used to improve wet and dry strength and stiffness. Resins appHed to the surface of formed paper or board, almost invariably together with other additives, are used to improve the water resistance of coatings, the sag resistance in ceiling tiles, and the scuff resistance in cartons and labels.  [c.331]

The thermodynamics and physical properties of the mixture to be separated are examined. VLE nodes and saddles, LLE binodal curves, etc, are labeled. Critical features and compositions of interest are identified. A stream is selected from the source Hst. This stream is either identified as meeting all the composition objectives of a destination, or else as in need of further processing. Once an opportunistic or strategic operation is selected and incorporated into the flow sheet, any new sources or destinations are added to the respective Hsts. If a strategic separation for dealing with a particular critical feature has been implemented, then that critical feature is no longer of concern. Alternatively, additional critical features may arise through the addition of new components such as a MSA. The process is repeated until the source Hst is empty and all destination specifications have been satisfied.  [c.450]

Powdered sugar is made by grinding granulated sugar and adding 3% com starch (in the United States) to help prevent caking. The fineness is designated by labels such as 4X, 6X, lOX. However, the label is mislea ding 12X is not twice as fine as 6X. In other countries, calcium phosphate, or maltodextrins are used as hygroscopic additives.  [c.21]

Enriching Ingredients. Most commercially produced white breads are enriched with added thiamin, riboflavin, and iron. When breads or roUs are labeled enriched, these nutrients must be present in amounts prescribed by federal standards of identity (29). In g/kg product these are thiamin 4.0, riboflavin 2.4, niacin 33, and iron 27.5. Calcium may optionally be added at 1.3 g/kg. Although federal regulations relate to interstate commerce, most states also require enrichment of white bread and roUs. Enrichment nutrients may be added by the baker to the dough in the form of tablets, as a mixture of powdered nutrients in water-soluble pouches, or as a proprietary salt-enrichment blend. Alternatively, many bakers prefer to purchase flour that has been enriched to prescribed levels during the flour milling operation. Products labeled as enriched must also carry a nutritional label. Typically, a serving of one shce, approximately 1 oz (28 g), of enriched bread provides the following percentages of the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance thiamin 8.0%, riboflavin 4.0%, niacin 6.0%, iron 4.0%, and calcium 4.0%.  [c.462]

Sandwich Assays. In the sandwich technique, the most widely used ELISA, the soHd surface is first coated with an appropriate antibody as shown in Figure 5. The sample solution containing the antigen (analyte) is then added and allowed to react with the bound antibody on the soHd surface. After the reaction any remaining unbound antigens are washed away. Then an enzyme-labeled antibody, specific for a different site on the antigen, is added in a known amount for reaction with the bound antibody—antigen complex. After the reaction any unbound enzyme-labeled antibodies are washed away. A substrate is added which, when acted upon by the bound enzyme, produces a color change the amount of which is a direct measurement of specific enzyme-conjugated bound antibody and therefore of antigen present.  [c.101]

Competitive Assays. The next most widely used type of ELISA is the competitive assay (39,43). In this technique the analyte of interest is mixed with a known amount of enzyme-labeled antigen and both compete for a limited number of binding sites on an antibody that is adsorbed on a soHd support. After binding the excess free enzyme-labeled antigen or excess test antigen is washed away. Then a substrate is added which is acted upon by the enzyme-labeled antigen yielding a colored product. The amount of color development is proportional to the amount of enzyme-labeled conjugate bound to the antibody. Littie or no color change indicates that the unlabeled antigen of interest was present in the test solution and was bound to the antibody. A color change indicates that enzyme-labeled antigen was bound to the antibody, so that Httie or no unlabeled antigen was present in the original test solution.  [c.101]

The concentration of insulin in a production vat is determined by the method of isotope dilution. A 1.00-mg sample of insulin labeled with C, with an activity of 549 cpm, is added to a 10.0-mL sample taken from the production vat. After homogenizing the sample, a portion of the insulin is separated and purified, yielding 18.3 mg of pure insulin. The activity for the isolated insulin is measured at 148 cpm. How many milligrams of insulin are in the original sample  [c.647]

Tapes and labels. Formulations mainly include blends of BR and tackifier. Permanent tack can be provided using low molecular weight polyisobutylenes, which find application as label PSAs. Cohesive strength of BR adhesives is low compared to natural rubber and can be increased by adding natural rubber or particular resins and fillers. The polymer formulation is pre-coated onto a suitable carrier (film, reinforcement). In this group, general-purpose tapes, surgical tapes, electrical tapes and pipe wrap tapes, can be included. The resistance of BR and PIB to ageing and the permanent tack, also made those materials adequate for removable PSA labels and freezer label adhesives  [c.653]

One incident is described in Section 2.8 (a). Several incidents have occurred because drums or bottles were unlabeled and people assumed that they contained the material usually handled at the plant. In one case, six drums of hypo (sodium hypochlorite) had to be added to a tank of water. Some of the drums were not labeled. One, which contained sulfuric acid, was added after some of the genuine hypo and chlorine was given off. The men adding the material in the drums were affected by the fumes.  [c.104]

Runaways have also occurred when operators added the wrong material to a reactor, often because different materials had similar names, were stored in. similar drums, or were poorly labeled (see Chapter 4).  [c.387]

In figures 3.46-3.49, which show dynamical profiles of various measures for sequences Gs, rmax = 3 or 4, and the x-axis labels the number of edges added to gj.  [c.111]

The spin-orbit coupling in vibronic states is taken into account assuming the spin-orbit paid of the Hamiltonian in the phenomenological form is given by Eq. (16). This operator is added to (51) and the total Hamiltonian is diagonalized in the basis of the above basis functions, assumed that the electronic functions are eigenfunctions of the spin operator, with the eigenvalue S. The total model Hamiltonian (including spin-orbit operator) commutes with the projection of the total angular momentum on the z axis so that the vibronic secular equation can be solved for each value of the quantum number P = K sepai ately. In the lowest order approximation (Aso assumed to be constant) with the electronic basis (53) the spin-orbit conhibution to the total model Hamiltonian is diagonal with respect to all quantum numbers (A, la, Ua, Ip, and Up) labeling the basis functions.  [c.523]

No chemist will be satisfied with this first hit, as the carbonyl group is still present in the product molecule. Although both molecules of the hit that was found fulfill the reaction query, the chemist has tacitly assumed that a reaction takes place at the carbonyl group, The declaration of atom-atom mapping numbers will solve this ptoblcrn cf. Section 3.3. Corresponding atoms in the starting material and in the product arc labeled with the same mapping number (see Figure 5-26). The refinement of adding atom-atom mapping numbers leads to 105 hits. Furthermore, there are some other search criteria that can be set within a reaction query to specify the arrangement of bonds, such as setting a Make/Break or Change bond order flag. In our case, the declaration of atom-atom mapping numbers is sufficient.  [c.265]

WebLab Viewer gives a very-high-quality display suitable for publication and presentation. Molecules can be displayed as lines, sticks, ball and stick, CPK, and polyhedrons. In addition, different atoms within the same structure may be displayed in different ways. Text can be added to the display as well as labeling parts of the structure in a variety of ways. The user has control over colors, radii, and display quality. The program can also replicate a unit cell to display a crystal structure. Several types of molecular surfaces can be displayed.  [c.352]

Also present in the first test tube is a synthetic analog of ATP in which both the 2 and 3 hydroxyl groups have been replaced by hydrogens This compound is called 2 3 dideoxyadenosme triphosphate (ddATP) Similarly ddTTP is added to the second tube ddGTP to the third and ddCTP to the fourth Each tube also contains a primer The primer is a short section of the complementary DNA strand which has been labeled with a radioactive isotope of phosphorus ( P) When the electrophoresis gel is examined at the end of the experiment the positions of the DNAs formed by chain extension of the primer are located by a technique called autoradiography which detects the particles emitted by the P isotope  [c.1181]

Self-rising flours are all-purpose flours to which leavening agents and salt have been added. The leavening agents used are sodium bicarbonate and an acid-reacting substance, monocalcium phosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium aluminum phosphate, or a combination of these acids. The sodium bicarbonate and the acid ingredient react in the presence of Hquid to release carbon dioxide. The leavening agent and salt are added in amounts sufficient to produce not less than 0.5% of their combined weight of carbon dioxide. Their combined weight must not exceed 4.5 parts per hundred parts of flour. Phosphated flour is all-purpose flour to which the acid-reacting ingredient, monocalcium phosphate, has been added in a quantity of not more than 0.75% of the weight of the finished phosphated flour. It assists in stabilising gluten and helps nourish yeast. Bromated flour contains potassium bromate in a quantity not exceeding 50 ppm. The bromate has an oxidising effect that improves the baking quaUties of the flour. Such flour must be labeled as bromated.  [c.358]

Peanut Butter. By federal regulation, at least 90% of commercial peanut butter consists of shelled roasted peanuts that are ground and blended with salt, sweeteners, and emulsifiers. No artificial flavors and sweeteners, chemical preservatives, natural or artificial color, purified vitamins, or minerals are allowed (125). To meet consumer demand for low fat products, several U.S. manufacturers have created products ia which the peanut content has been partially replaced by maltodexttins, com symp soflds or similar starches, and soy proteia (126—128). As of the mid-1990s the FDA is stiU considering modifying the standard of identity, ia accordance with the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (129), to permit the adding of vitamin as well as the display of nutrient content cl aim (eg, "reduced fat") to an existing standardized term (peanut butter). This has met with opposition from growers associations. In a 1994 ruling, the FDA upheld the existing standard.  [c.277]

For accelerator-produced isotopes, the cost of the isotope is directiy related to the time and total energy necessary to produce a unit of radioactivity. A portion of the capital cost of building the cyclotron is also added. Owing to the cost and siting difficulties inherent in a large production-scale cyclotron, there are relatively few cyclotrons. The need to ship the resulting products long distances tends to dictate that these products have relatively long half-Hves. The most commonly used accelerator-produced isotopes are [13064-65-0] as thaHous chloride for myocardial perfusion, Xe [14932-42-5] for pulmonary ventilation studies, Ga as gallium citrate for imaging of inflammation and certain tumors, and In for white cell labeling, studies using antibodies, and other receptor antagonists. In addition, I is used in a form bound to an amphetamine derivative, I-iofetamine [75917-92-9] for imaging localized brain perfusion.  [c.476]

Biologically active molecules may be labeled either directly or indirectly. For direct labeling, that is, incorporating the radiolabel directly into the compounds, the labeling may be isotopic or nonisotopic. For isotopic labeling, one group already present in the molecule is substituted with or exchanged for the radioisotope. For nonisotopic labeling, that is, incorporating the radiolabel into the compounds through a chelator or other functional group which has been incorporated into the compounds, the radioisotope is added to the molecules without substituting with or exchanging for an already existing group.  [c.480]

Methiocarb [2032-65-7] (3,5-dimethyl-4-(methylthio) phenol methylcarbamate) (26) is classed as an insecticide and acaticide and is used as a slug and snail bait, but is no longer registered for use as a bird repellent in the United States. Its uses on field and horticultural crops for bird repeUency as an emetic have been reviewed (63). It was found to reduce bird damage in treatments of sweet com (64). Methiocarb has been appHed to wine grapes in Ohio, California, and Oregon (65), and to blueberries in New Zealand (66). Residues in wine (qv), as well as its effect on the composition and flavor of the bottled wine, were reported (67). Its efficacy in ripening sorghum in Canada and Senegal were also reported (51,68), as were its residues and its sulfoxide and sulfone metabofltes during efficacy studies against starlings in cherry orchards (69). Sorghum hybrids were treated with methiocarb, and grain yield and predation were studied (70). The conditioning response acquired is effective against red-winged blackbirds and persists in the laboratory up to 16 weeks (71). More recent studies to answer EPA queries show lack of methiocarb toxicity to birds and mammals in the laboratory and during field studies in fmit and sweet com using labeled treatment levels. Based on estimates from 26 studies, treated plantings average 15% loss of fmit to birds compared to 36% for nearby orchards it has been concluded that methiocarb has efficacy in repelling birds from fmit crops when appHed at 1.7 kg/ha, a level that does not adversely affect birds (71). Calcium carbonate has been added to methiocarb in an effort to increase its effectiveness as a visual cue, but failed to enhance bird repeUency in ripening sorghum (72).  [c.121]

U.S. regulations define two types of gin distilled gin and compounded gin. Distilled gin is produced from the original mash or the redistikation of neutral spirits with juniper berries and other botanicals. Distiked gin may retain this labeling as long as juniper berries are present during distikation and other aromatics used in the formula may be added as Hquid concentrates purchased or produced by the distiker.  [c.83]

An important group of clays used ia polymers are those labeled "surface treated" ia Table 4. These products are made from a fully calciaed kaolin, an air-floated kaolin, or a water-washed kaolin. Several types of chemical compounds are used to convert the somewhat hydrophilic surface iato a more oleophilic surface that is more compatible with polymers (15). Of special utility are calciaed kaolins that have beea treated with silanes. Although silane treatment raises the cost of kaolin-based fillers significantly, the improvement ia polymer properties justifies the extra cost. The data of Table 5, for example, show the effect oa physical properties of adding 40% of an aminosilane-treated high temperature calciaed kaolin to a ayloa compouad. The improvement ia strength properties and the marked iacrease ia heat deflectioa temperature are aoteworthy. Custom processors can treat clay minerals usiag a wide variety of materials to alter surface properties.  [c.209]

AH organic esters are unstable in the presence of acid or base and nucleophiles such as water or alcohols. However, if stored anhydrous, they are stable. Storage vessels can be constmcted of steel, aluminum, or other metallic materials, but plastic storage tanks are unsuitable because the highly lipophilic esters can sometimes permeate into the container boundary and soften or even dissolve it. When esters are stored in tanks, a nitrogen blanket and vent are necessary because of potential fire hazards. However, acrylates should be stored in the presence of sufficient oxygen to enable the inhibitor to be effective in preventing polymerization. The esters with high melting points can be stored in paper or wood containers. Proper placarding, packaging, and labeling should always be used before transporting organic esters (74). Sometimes special precautions such as adding inhibitors must be taken before transporting polymerizible esters such as methyl acrylate (75).  [c.391]

Perhaps the most generally useful reagent for adding fluorine and oxygen is acetyl hypofluonte It is produced by bubbling a fluorine-nitrogen mixture into a suspension of sodium acetate in fluorotnchloromethane and acetic acid and is used in situ ot as a gas generated by passing fluorine-nitrogen over a solid acetate salt [147 148, 149] The reagent adds to olefins to afford vicinal fluoroacetates with Markovnikov regiospecificity (reagent polarized F 02CCH-,) and predominantly or exclusively syn stereochemistry [150] (equations 8-10) It is widely used to prepare fluonnated carbohydrates [151,152, 753], including fluotine-18 labeled compounds for diagnostic applications [149 154, 155, 156]  [c.70]

The efficacy of ring fluorination depends on the nature and position of the activating group, Y, m the aromatic ring The relative extent of for N (CH3)3 displacement decreases in the following order for Y p-NOy (71%), p-CN (24%), P-CH3CO (15%), p CHO (<5%) = m NO2 (<5%) This fluorodequaternization technique was subsequently adapted to prepare numerous NC A (no-camer-added) F-labeled aryl fluorides [7J, 74]  [c.279]

Also present in the first test tube is a synthetic analog of ATP in which both the 2 - and 3 -hydroxyl groups have been replaced by hydrogens. This compound is called 2, 3 -dideoxyadenosine triphosphate (ddATP). Similarly, ddTTP is added to the second tube, ddGTP to the thud, and ddCTP to the fourth. Each tube also contains a primer. The primer is a short section of the complementar y DNA strand, which has been labeled with a radioactive isotope of phosphorus ( P). When the electrophoresis gel is exanined at the end of the experiment, the positions of the DNAs formed by chain extension of the primer are located by a technique called autoradiography, which detects the particles emitted by the P isotope.  [c.1181]

The idea that lipids and proteins could move rapidly in biological membranes was a relatively new one when the fluid mosaic model was proposed. Many of the experiments designed to test this hypothesis involved the use of specially designed probe molecules. The first experiment demonstrating protein lateral movement in the membrane was described by L. Frye and M. Edidin in 1970. In this experiment, human cells and mouse cells were allowed to fuse together. Frye and Edidin used fluorescent antibodies to determine whether integral membrane proteins from the two cell types could move and intermingle in the newly formed, fused cells. The antibodies specific for human cell proteins were labeled with rhodamine, a red fluorescent marker, and the antibodies specific for mouse ceil proteins were labeled with fluorescein, a green fluorescent marker. When both types of antibodies were added to newly fused ceils, the binding pattern indicated that integral membrane proteins from the two ceil types had moved laterally and were dispersed throughout the surface of the fused ceil (Figure 9.7). This clearly demonstrated that integral membrane proteins possess significant lateral mobility.  [c.265]

The Rule requires manufacturers of most major household appliances to show energy information about their products on labels so consumers purchasing the appliances can compare the energy use or efficiency of competing models. Without this energy use information on EnergyGuide labels, purchasers would have no way to assess the energy efficiency of appliance products and thus would not be able to include the information as a criterion in their purchasing decisions. At the time it was published, the Rule applied to refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water heaters, window air conditioners, furnaces, and boilers. In 1987 the FTC included central air conditioners and heat pumps, and in 1989 the FTC added a requirement for a simple disclosure for fluorescent lamp ballasts. In 1993 and 1994, the  [c.380]

Consider a two-dimensional CA system with the usual Euclidean lattice and some simple set of nearest-neighbor rules. Suppose that, for some set of initial states, the system appears random, with no discernible patterns or correlations. Now start playing with the ordering of the individual sites of the lattice (x,y) = (13,40) becomes x, y ) = (27,50), the site (22,115) becomes (0,0), and so on. Maybe you tinker with your definitions of the local state variables, so that a G 0,1,...,/c becomes a G 0,1,...,/c. Maybe you partition the lattice using some peculiar tiling maybe you use a Penrose tiling, whatever that would be like. The point is, you take your original system, and redefine it without adding or subtracting any information and by maintaining the overall integrity of the entire system. You are allowed only to use whatever latent information already exists within the system to reorganize its parts internally. Now examine the behavior of your reorganized system, using your new labels, site variables, rules, and/or whatever else you have altered the prescription for.  [c.701]

See pages that mention the term Labels adding : [c.158]    [c.1515]    [c.263]    [c.624]    [c.437]    [c.423]    [c.83]    [c.290]    [c.310]    [c.407]    [c.1232]   
Introduction to chemical engineering analysis using mathematica (2002) -- [ c.21 ]