Labels


Also described in this section are the labeled common storage bloc)cs associated with the thermodynamic subroutines.  [c.289]

LABELED COMMON STORAGE  [c.315]

The parameters characterizing pure components and their binary interactions are stored in labeled common blocks /PURE/ and /BINARY/ for a maximum of 100 components (see Appendix E).  [c.340]

PARIN loads values of pure component and binary parameters from formatted card images into labeled common blocks /PURE/ and /BINARY/ for a maximum of 100 components.  [c.341]

See labeled common storage description for /PURE/ and /BINARY/ (Appendix E).  [c.342]

See labeled common storage description for /PURE/ and /BINARY/ (Appendix E).  [c.345]

Different descriptors sets and clustering parameters result in different partitions and cluster validity is based on separability criteria and human judgement. Since we are facing an inverse problem of characterising the source by if s resulting signal and even more to find correlation with damage mode, it should not always be expected a unique solution. Therefore, there is no guarantee that the resulting classes will exhibit one to one correlation with the respective failure mechanisms. Thus confident class labelling, i.e. identification of failure mechanisms requires additional follow-up by complementary NDT methods and/or consideration of stress analysis data, as in the case of conventional analysis of AE results. Nevertheless, it is doubtful if similar results could be obtained by conventional analysis techniques and if so for some cases it would require much longer time and extremely experienced analyst.  [c.44]

Ball bearings. The NSC software was also tested on a large set of ultrasonic resonance spectra from spot weldings in commercial ball bearings. The spectra were collected from 50 ball bearings, of which 20 were labeled flawless and the remaining 30 had different kinds of artificial defects in the weld, resulting in a training set consisting of 130 spectra from flawless ball bearings and 208 spectra from flawed specimens. The spectra consisted of 100 frequencies in the range from 1 kHz to 10 MHz. After training, 96.5% of the spectra were correctly classified. Furthermore, the conclusion could be made that the testing has a global character, i.e., ball bearings can be classified as flawless or flawed based on a single spectrum, acquired from an arbitrary point.  [c.108]

The NSC was trained using labeled data acquired during inspection of objects with known defects. Examples of spectra for the object Lower wing skin are shown in Figure 5, the spectra measured for the flawless structures for different number of layers in the upper panel, the spectra corresponding 100% and 50% disbonds in the middle and lower panel, respectively. The size of the disbonds is given as a percent of active surface of the probe used for the test.  [c.109]

One way of proceeding is shown in the flow diagram of figure 2 for the ease of = 8, P = 3. The operation labeled PERMUTE rearranges the sequence of data. The /th member is placed into theyth position where] is calculated from i as follows  [c.183]

The curve minima (labeled with A) are ascribed to the presence of the weld joining the head to the shell because thickness in the weld zone is greater than the one of the steel sheet.  [c.412]

A comparison of the results achieved with the FEM Analysis and the rosetta strain gauge measurements is shown in fig. 19. Differences can be noted in areas labeled B and C. The former can be explained as an effect of the discrepancy between the actual shape of the vessel and the ideal one used in the F.E.M. model. The latter can be ascribed to the presence of a muff, located in the centre of the head of the actual vessel, which has not been taken into account in the model.  [c.413]

Image processing software is used to improve the signal to noise ratio of the image by integration over a number of frames. The integrated image is stored on the hard disc of the computer. Information on part and system settings are labelled to the image.  [c.455]

Tracer labelled fraction  [c.1059]

The tracer solution is made from oil soluble bromobenzene with the radioactive isotope Br-82. The tracer solution is injected through a thin nozzle inserted into the pipeline through the valve previously connected to the injection instrumentation. The injection device provides a very sharp beginning and termination of the fraction of labelled oil.  [c.1060]

The most widely used experimental method for determining surface excess quantities at the liquid-vapor interface makes use of radioactive tracers. The solute to be studied is labeled with a radioisotope that emits weak beta radiation, such as H, C, or One places a detector close to the surface of the solution and measures the intensity of beta radiation. Since the penetration range of such beta emitters is small (a ut 30 mg/cm for C, with most of the adsorption occurring in the first two-tenths of the range), the measured radioactivity corresponds to the surface region plus only a thin layer of solution (about 0.06 mm for C and even less for H).  [c.77]

As an example, Tajima and co-workers [108] used labeling to obtain the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the solution-air interface. The results, illustrated in Fig. Ill-12, agreed very well with the Gibbs equation in the form  [c.77]

A difficulty in the physicochemical study of penetration is that the amount of soluble component present in the monolayer is not an easily accessible quantity. It may be measured directly, through the use of radioactive labeling (Section III-6) [263, 266], but the technique has so far been used only to a limited extent.  [c.145]

Some further details are the following. Film nonideality may be allowed for [192]. There may be a chemical activation barrier to the transfer step from monolayer to subsurface solution and hence also for monolayer formation by adsorption from solution [294-296]. Dissolving rates may be determined with the use of the radioactive labeling technique of Section III-6A, although precautions are necessary [297].  [c.150]

In general, it is not convenient and sometimes not possible to follow reactions in films by the same types of measurements as employed in bulk systems. It is awkward to try to make chemical analyses to determine the course of a reaction, and even if one of the reactants is in solution in the substrate, the amounts involved are rather small (a micromole at best). Such analyses are greatly facilitated, of course, if radioactive labeling is used. Also, film collapsed and collected off the surface has been analyzed by infrared [299] or UV-visible [300] spectroscopy and chromatographically [301]. In situ measurements can be made if the film material has a strong absorption band that is altered by the reaction, as in the case of chlorophyll [302], or if there is strong photoexcited emission [303]. Reactions have been followed by observing changes in surface viscosity [300] and with radioactive labeling if the labeled fragment leaves the interface as a consequence of the reaction.  [c.151]

Examination of Fig. VII-4 shows that the mutual interaction between a pair of planes occurs once if the planes are a distance a apart, twice for those la apart and so on. If the planes are labeled by the index I, as shown in the figure, the mutual potential energy is  [c.264]

Some polymers, such as functionally terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), exhibit more complex isotherms such as those due to Koberstein and co-workers [6] shown in Fig. XV-3. Up to six inflection points or transitions, labeled A-F, were observed in these systems. Generally, at large areas the polymer lays flat on the water and between A and B makes a transition to a zigzag stmcture with every other oxygen or silicon at the surface. Between B and C PDMS coils into helices, and from C to D these helices begin to slide past one another and the monolayer collapses. Shorter chains make a transition to upright configurations at E and finally collapse at F. Thus, depending on the functional groups and the subphase, end-functionalized PDMS shows transitions of the macromolecule on the surface as well as transitions involving vertical orientations of whole chains.  [c.539]

Of these, A are indistinguishable since the molecules are not labeled, and the complete partition function for N molecules becomes  [c.607]

A reacting system may also be studied by programmed desorption, now called temperature-programmed reaction (TPR). Examples include the reaction of chemisorbed CO with H2 to give methane on a Ni catalyst [99] and on Pt( 111) [100] and more complex systems such as the reaction of C02 with carbon to give labeled C02 and CO [101] and the production of H2 through the surface decomposition of benzene [102] and phenyl thiolate [103], Quantitative interpretation is now complicated since T may depend both on the activation energy for reaction and on the energy of desorption of the product.  [c.698]

For a free electron gas, it is possible to evaluate the Flartree-Fock exchange energy directly [3, 16]. The Slater detemiinant is constructed using ftee electron orbitals. Each orbital is labelled by a k and a spin index. The Coulomb  [c.94]

The wavevector is a good quantum number e.g., the orbitals of the Kohn-Sham equations [21] can be rigorously labelled by k and spin. In tln-ee dimensions, four quantum numbers are required to characterize an eigenstate. In spherically syimnetric atoms, the numbers correspond to n, /, m., s, the principal, angular momentum, azimuthal and spin quantum numbers, respectively. Bloch s theorem states that the equivalent  [c.101]

The solutions can be labelled by their values of F and m.p. We say that F and m.p are good quantum. num.bers. With tiiis labelling, it is easier to keep track of the solutions and we can use the good quantum numbers to express selection rules for molecular interactions and transitions. In field-free space only states having the same values of F and m.p can interact, and an electric dipole transition between states with F = F and F" will take place if and only if  [c.140]

As a result the eigenstates of // can be labelled by the irreducible representations of the synnnetry group and these irreducible representations can be used as good quantum numbers for understanding interactions and transitions.  [c.140]

From an overall economic viewpoint, any investment proposal may be considered as an activity which initially absorbs funds and later generates money. The funds may be raised from loan capital or from shareholders capital, and the net (after tax and costs) money generated may be used to repay interest on loans and loan capital, with the balance being due to the shareholders. The shareholders profit can either be paid out as dividends, or reinvested in the company to fund the existing venture or new ventures. The following diagram indicates the overall flow of funds for a proposed project. The detailed cash movements are contained within the box labelled the project .  [c.304]

As it can be seen from figure 3, the appearance of classes 3 and 4 at 30MPa, is indicative of the initiation of severe failure mechanism which become critical at 45MPa. Finally the appearance of AE hits from class 5 should be considered as an alarm indication just before the final failure. Classes 3, 4 and 5, all exhibiting low DAN values are considered as the most critical from the structural point of view and were not observed during AE testing of neat epoxy. Classes 1 and 2 are characterised by AE signals of low and medium intensity and thus were considered as matrix failure and/or single fibre fracture. Follow-up of the classification results for each loading stage was performed by direct comparison with the observation at the optical microscope. The comparison verified both the clustering results and the labelling of the different classes in relation to the failure mechanisms observed .  [c.41]

Results can sometimes be unexpected. The first study of this type made use of labeled Aerosol OTN [111], an anionic surfactant, also known as di-n-octylsodium sulfosuccinate. The measured F was twice that in Eq. III-93 and it was realized that hydrolysis had occurred, that is, X + H2O = HX + OH , and that it was the undissociated acid HX that was surface-active. Since pH was essentially constant, the activity of HX was just proportional to C. A similar behavior was found for aqueous sodium stearate [112].  [c.78]

Lipid bilayer dynamics have been characterized with NMR [75, 85], photon correlation spectroscopy [86], and fluorescence recovery after pattern photo-bleaching [87], lypicd membrane proteins limited by the membrane lipid viscosity diffuse with a diffusion coefhcent 2) = 10 cm /sec, while those undergoing transient binding in the membrane slow to 2) = 3 x 10 °cm /sec. The observation of the motion of nanometer-size gold colloids attached to lipids by a technique known as nanovid microscopy (nanoparticle video-enhanced microscopy) provides a means to track the actual Brownian trajectory in a membrane [87-89]. This technique, where 30 40-nm gold particles are anchored to fluorescein labeled lipids via antifluorescein, aids in the determination of restricted motion. Lateral and rotational diffusion as well as out-of-plane fluctuations can be revealed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering [90].  [c.551]

Infrared Spectroscopy. The infrared spectroscopy of adsorbates has been studied for many years, especially for chemisorbed species (see Section XVIII-2C). In the case of physisorption, where the molecule remains intact, one is interested in how the molecular symmetry is altered on adsorption. Perhaps the conceptually simplest case is that of H2 on NaCl(lOO). Being homo-polar, Ha by itself has no allowed vibrational absorption (except for some weak collision-induced transitions) but when adsorbed, the reduced symmetry allows a vibrational spectrum to be observed. Fig. XVII-16 shows the infrared spectrum at 30 K for various degrees of monolayer coverage [96] (the adsorption is Langmuirian with half-coverage at about 10 atm). The bands labeled sf are for transitions of H2 on a smooth face and are from the 7 = 0 and J = 1 rotational states Q /fR) is assigned as a combination band. The bands labeled  [c.634]

The classic explanation for the presence of an activation energy in the case where dissociation occurs on chemisorption is that of Lennard-Jones [113] and is illustrated in Fig. XVIII-12 for the case of O2 interacting with an Ag(llO) surface. The curve labeled O2 represents the variation of potential energy as the molecule approaches the surface there is a shallow minimum corresponding to the energy of physical adsorption and located at the sum of the van der Waals radii for the surface atom of Ag and the O2 molecule. The curve labeled O + O, on the other hand, shows the potential energy variation for two atoms of oxygen. At the right, it is separated from the first curve by the O2 dissociation energy of some 120 kcal/mol. As the atoms approach the surface, chemical bond formation develops, leading to the deep minimum located at the sum of the covalent radii for Ag and O. The two curves cross, which means that O2 can first become physically adsorbed and then undergo a concerted dissociation and chemisorption process, leading to chemisorbed O atoms (see Ref. 113a for a more general diagram). In this type of sequence, the molecularly adsorbed species is known as a precursor state (see Refs. 115 and 116).  [c.703]

Studies to determine the nature of intermediate species have been made on a variety of transition metals, and especially on Pt, with emphasis on the Pt(lll) surface. Techniques such as TPD (temperature-programmed desorption), SIMS, NEXAFS (see Table VIII-1) and RAIRS (reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy) have been used, as well as all kinds of isotopic labeling (see Refs. 286 and 289). On Pt(III) the surface is covered with C2H3, ethylidyne, tightly bound to a three-fold hollow site, see Fig. XVIII-25, and Ref. 290. A current mechanism is that of the figure, in which ethylidyne acts as a kind of surface catalyst, allowing surface H atoms to add to a second, perhaps physically adsorbed layer of ethylene this is, in effect, a kind of Eley-Rideal mechanism.  [c.733]

The types of critical points can be labelled by the number of less than zero. Specifically, the critical points are labelled by M. where is the number of which are negative i.e. a local minimum critical point would be labelled by Mq, a local maximum by and the saddle points by (M, M2). Each critical point has a characteristic line shape. For example, the critical point has a joint density of state which behaves as = constant x — ttiiifor co > coq and zero otherwise, where coq corresponds to thcAfQ critical point energy. At  [c.120]

Glassy materials are usually characterized by an additional criterion. It is often possible to cool a liquid below the thennodynamic melting point (i.e. to supercool the liquid). In glasses, as one cools the liquid state significantly below the melting point, it is observed that at a temperature well below the melting point of the solid the viscosity of the supercooled liquid increases dramatically. This temperature is called the glass transition temperature, and labelled as T. This increase of viscosity delineates the supercooled liquid state from the glass state. Unlike thennodynamic transitions between the liquid and solid state, the liquid —> glass transition is not well defined. Most amorphous materials such as tetraliedrally coordinated semiconductors like silicon and gennanium do not exliibit a glass transfonnation.  [c.130]

We collect syimnetry operations into various syimnetry groups , and this chapter is about the definition and use of such syimnetry operations and symmetry groups. Symmetry groups are used to label molecular states and this labelling makes the states, and their possible interactions, much easier to understand. One important syimnetry group that we describe is called the molecular symmetry group and the syimnetry operations it contains are pemuitations of identical nuclei with and without the inversion of the molecule at its centre of mass. One fascinating outcome is that indeed for  [c.137]


See pages that mention the term Labels : [c.369]    [c.369]    [c.942]    [c.434]    [c.486]    [c.495]    [c.545]    [c.28]    [c.32]    [c.138]    [c.139]    [c.140]    [c.141]   
Introduction to chemical engineering analysis using mathematica (2002) -- [ c.0 ]

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