High-octane gasoline

Alkylation combines lower-molecular-weight saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes) to produce high-octane gasoline and other hydrocarbon products. Conventional paraffin-olefin (alkane-alkene) alkylation is an acid-catalyzed reaction, such as combining isobutylene and isobutane to isooctane.  [c.102]

These are effective high-octane gasoline additive oxygenates. The conversion of isobutane into isopropyl, methyl ketone, or isopentane into isobutyl, methyl ketone is illustrative. In this reaction, no branched carboxylic acids (Koch products) are formed.  [c.166]

A component of high octane gasoline  [c.53]

All lation. Petroleum and, to a lesser extent, detergent aMylation are processes which make use of the particular catalytic properties of anhydrous HF. Petroleum alkylation produces a very high octane gasoline blending component (C-7 or C-8 compounds) by condensation of C-3 or C-4 olefins obtained in the catalytic cracking process along with isobutane. Detergent alkylation generates a deskable biodegradable detergent intermediate. Although HF is used as a catalyst in these processes, the HF is slowly consumed because of side reactions, with impurities contained in the various feedstocks (qv). As of this writing there are 69 petroleum alkylation and two detergent alkylation units operating in North America.  [c.199]

Many important industrial processes such as the production of high octane gasoline, ethylbenzene (eventually leading to polystyrene), synthetic mbber, plastics, and detergent alkylates are based on Friedel-Crafts chemistry. The scope of the reactions is extremely wide as they form a large part of the more general field of electrophilic reactions, the class of reactions involving electron deficient carbocationic intermediates. The pubUshed Hterature is very extensive, and for more detailed information, monographs (1,2) and other comprehensive reviews (3—5) should be consulted (see also Alkylation Aluminum compounds Boron compounds Catalysis).  [c.551]

Protic Acids (Brmnsted Acids). Sulfuric acid is among the most used Brmnsted acids for the Friedel-Crafts reactions, especiaHy in hydrocarbon conversions, and in alkylation for the preparation of high octane gasoline. Anhydrous HF has replaced in part sulfuric acid, because of its convenience, although the toxic hasardous nature of HF is causing environmental concerns in its industrial use. Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid [1493-13-6] (and related superacids) are also gaining significance. Triflic acid does not react with aromatics (whereas sulfuric acid causes sulfonation) and thus offers substantial advantages with aromatic systems.  [c.564]

Most of the German gasoline production was blended into motor fuels using benzene derived from coking. The gas oil could be used dkectly as a superior diesel fuel some was also used in soap (qv) manufacture. The paraffin (referred to as gatsch) was used primarily for the synthesis of fatty acids and hard soaps. The propane and butane gases were also used as motor fuels. Some propylene and butylenes were polymerized over phosphoric acid to high octane gasoline, and some olefins to lubricating oils. Typical values for the composition of the technical-scale reaction products of the normal and medium pressure synthesis are available (41).  [c.81]

LPG recovered from natural gas is essentially free of unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as propylene and butylenes (qv). Varying quantities of these olefins may be found in refinery production, and the concentrations are a function of the refinery s process design and operation. Much of the propylene and butylene are removed in the refinery to provide raw materials for plastic and mbber production and to produce high octane gasoline components.  [c.182]

Thermal reforming, less effective and less economical than catalytic processes, has been largely supplanted. Like thermal reforming, catalytic reforming converts low octane gasolines iato high octane gasolines, ie, reformate. Whereas thermal reforming produces reformate having research octane numbers ia the 65—80 range, depending on the yield, catalytic reforming produces reformate having octane numbers on the order of 90—105. Catalytic reforming is conducted ia the presence of hydrogen over hydrogenation—dehydrogenation catalysts, eg, ia the platforming process (22). Catalytic reformer feeds are saturated, ie, not olefinic, materials. Catalytic cracker naphtha and hydrocracker naphtha that contains substantial quantities of naphthenes are also suitable reformer feedstocks.  [c.207]

The cumene product is 99.9 wt % pure, and the heavy aromatics, which have a research octane number (RON) of 109, can either be used as high octane gasoline-blending components or combiaed with additional benzene and sent to a transalkylation section of the plant where DIPB is converted to cumene. The overall yields of cumene for this process are typically 97—98 wt % with transalkylation and 94—96 wt % without transalkylation.  [c.50]

Sasol Fischer-Tropsch Process. 1-Propanol is one of the products from Sasol s Fischer-Tropsch process (7). Coal (qv) is gasified ia Lurgi reactors to produce synthesis gas (H2/CO). After separation from gas Hquids and purification, the synthesis gas is fed iato the Sasol Synthol plant where it is entrained with a powdered iron-based catalyst within the fluid-bed reactors. The exothermic Fischer-Tropsch reaction produces a mixture of hydrocarbons (qv) and oxygenates. The condensation products from the process consist of hydrocarbon Hquids and an aqueous stream that contains a mixture of ketones (qv) and alcohols. The ketones and alcohols are recovered and most of the alcohols are used for the blending of high octane gasoline. Some of the alcohol streams are further purified by distillation to yield pure 1-propanol and ethanol ia a multiunit plant, which has a total capacity of 25,000-30,000 t/yr (see Coal conversion processes, gasification).  [c.119]

Petroleum Refining. Petroleum refining includes not only the refining of petroleum but associated chemical processes where process streams may serve both the refinery and the chemical complex. Sulfuric acid requirements for these processes account for approximately 6% of sulfur demand. About 60% of the sulfuric acid used in petroleum refining is returned as spent acid for reclaiming therefore, the demand for new sulfuric acid is about 3% of the total sulfur demand. The principal use for sulfuric acid is as a catalyst for alkylation (qv), a process by which Hquid high octane gasoline components having very good stabiUty are produced from a combination of gaseous streams. Sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid are competing catalysts in this process. Sulfuric acid for refinery processes is manufactured from recovered sulfur produced at the refinery and from contaminated acid (acid sludge) returned to the acid plants for reconstitution (see Petroleum).  [c.125]

There are two important sources for the commercial production of butylenes catalytic or thermal cracking, and steam cracking. In these two processes, butylenes are always produced as by-products. A catalytic cracking process is always associated with a petroleum refining complex that upgrades high boiling fractions of hydrocarbons to high octane gasoline. Steam cracking converts a variety of hydrocarbon feedstocks that range from natural gas hquids to heavy petroleum fractions to produce light olefins. As demand for butylenes picks up ia the future, a third important source for the commercial  [c.365]

The value of butylenes ia the United States is determined by their value ia alkylation of isobutane to high octane gasoline. Table 11 shows how the chemical use of ethylene, propylene, butylenes, and butanes varied between 1983 and 1988 and their corresponding price swiags.  [c.371]

Catalysts in the ZSM-5 and ZSM-11 family are used to convert methanol into high octane gasoline components in the Mobil MTG process (45).  [c.197]

The popularity of the catalytic cracker stems from its abiUty to produce large quantities of high octane gasoline and other valuable light products and to use a wide range of refinery process streams as feed materials. The FCCU feeds include high molecular-weight vacuum gas oils (VGO), which are traditional feeds atmospheric and vacuum residues coker gas oils gas oils from other thermal and hydrocracking operations lube oil extracts and deasphalted oils. In a modem U.S. gasoline refinery, the FCCU typically produces about 35% of the total refinery gasoline pool (2).  [c.208]

Heterogeneous catalysts containing noble metals, such as platinum, are widely used in the petroleum refining industry for a large variety of hydrocarbon conversion processes. The products made by these processes, such as motor fuels and petrochemicals, are of immense economic value. Processes of commercial importance that use platinum catalysts include reforming of low octane naphtha to produce high octane gasoline, reforming to produce aromatics, paraffin isomerization, xylene isomerization, hydrogenation, and dehydrogenation.  [c.222]

The illustrated unit can be used to study vapor-phase reforming of kerosene fractions to high octane gasoline, or hydrogenation of benzene, neat or in gasoline mixtures to cyclohexane and methylcyclopentane. In liquid phase experiments hydrotreating of distillate fractions can be studied. The so-called Solvent Methanol Process was studied in the liquid phase, where the liquid feed was a solvent only, a white oil fraction.  [c.89]

Alkylation - Alkylation is used to produce a high octane gasoline blending stock from the isobutane formed primarily during catalytic cracking and coking operations, but also from catalytic reforming, crude distillation, and natural gas processing. Alkylation joins an olefin and an isoparaffin compound using either a sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid catalyst. The products are alkylates including propane and butane liquids. When the concentration of acid becomes less than 88%, some of the acid must be removed and replaced with stronger acid. In the hydrofluoric acid process, the slip stream of acid is redistilled. Dissolved polymerization products are removed from the acid as a thick dark oil. The concentrated hydrofluoric acid is recycled and the net consumption is about 0.3 pounds per barrel of alkylates produced. Hydrofluoric acid alkylation units require special engineering design, operator training and safety equipment precautions to protect operators from accidental contact with hydrofluoric acid.  [c.92]

Polymerization - Polymerization is occasionally used to convert propene and butene to high octane gasoline blending components. The process is similar to alkylation in its feed and products, but is often used as a less expensive  [c.92]

In a typical conversion type refinery the atmospheric P/S residuum can be fed to a vacuum pipestill. The vacuum tower enables the refiner to cut deeper into the crude, at the same time avoiding high temperatures (above about 750 "F) which cause thermal cracking with resultant deposition of coke and tarry residues in the equipment. The vacuum gas oil produced by vacuum distillation is fed to a catalytic cracking unit for conversion into high octane gasoline blending stock. Byproducts are gas, distillate, cycle gas oil, and fractionator bottoms. The process uses a fluidized catalyst system. The catalyst is circulated continuously between the reactor where cracking takes place and the regenerator where the coke deposited on the catalyst is burned off. The major competing process is hydrocracking which offers greater conversion and flexibility but usually requires a higher investment.  [c.219]

Visbreaking is the least expensive of the cracking processes but is limited to the lowest conversion of perhaps 20 to 25 % of the feed to 680 F material. To obtain light ends conversion, alkylation and polymerization are used to increase the relative amounts of liquid fuel products manufactured. The process of alkylation is used to convert olefins, (propylene, butylenes, amylenes, etc.), into high octane gasoline by reacting them with isobutane. Polymerization involves reaction of propylene and/or butylenes to produce an unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture in the motor gasoline boiling range.  [c.220]

The Powerforming unit is required to upgrade virgin naphtha to produce high octane gasoline. Powerforming is a fixed bed catalytic reforming process employing a regenerable platinum catalyst. In the process, a series of reactions  [c.4]

To obtain light ends conversion, alkylation and polymerization are used to increase the relative amounts of liquid fuel products manufactured. Alkylation converts olefins, (propylene, butylenes, amylenes, etc.), into high octane gasoline by reacting them with isobutane. Polymerization involves reaction of propylene and/or butylenes to produce an unsamrated hydrocarbon mixture in the motor gasoline boiling range.  [c.10]

Light Ends Recovery, Fractionation, and Conversion - Propylenes and butylenes may be recovered for feed to a polymerization plant for production of high octane gasoline or chemicals. Butylenes and isobutane may be desired for use in an alkylation plant where they are combined to make aviation gasoline and motor gasoline blendstocks. Propanes and butanes may be recovered in essentially pure form for sale as liquefied petroleum gases. It may be profitable to recover ethylene for chemical production. Certain of the light ends components, particularly ethylene, propylene, and butadiene are so in demand at processes such as steam cracking are employed specifically for their  [c.10]

The catalyst must also be selective to valuable products. Gasoline is desirable, so a lot must be produced, but it must be high octane gasoline. Cj s and C s are sometimes required for polymerization, alkylation and chemical production. Certain catalysts give high yields of these compounds, especially the imsaturated components. Gases, such as methane and hydrogen, are undesirable so the yield of these products must be suppressed.  [c.16]

As the demand for high octane gasoline increased, reforming processes were developed. In reforming, low octane normal paraffins are isomerized and/or aromatized. One process developed was a fluid bed process, called fluid hydroforming. In concept, it was similar to cat cracking, employing a reactor and regenerator with solids circulation for regeneration and heat balancing. However, fluid hydroforming faced some additional problems in the area of gas-solids contacting. Due to the nature of the process, fluidization was not inherently good in hydroforming, but at the same time the reaction required better contacting than FCC to obtain high yields of high octane gasoline. Thus, a large and ultimately successful program was carried out to improve fluidization and contacting. This work led to some of the earlier theories explaining the behavior of fluidized beds as chemical reactors.  [c.27]

Many years ago, little effort was made to recover light ends for anything but refinery fuel with the exception of butane. However, this situation has changed drastically, and the recovery, separation, and further processing of light ends have become major refining operations. For example, by suitable processing -polymerization and alkylation - normally gaseous hydrocarbons can be converted into high octane gasoline components the recovery of propane and butane for sale as Liquefied Petroleum Gas has become a universal refining operation and the light olefins, such as ethylene, propylene, and the butylenes, have become the foundations of the petrochemical industry. These processes and outlets not only have made the recovery of light ends from refinery gases essential in order to realize the full economic return for such processes, but also have made it desirable in many instances to operate a process, such as steam cracking, specifically for the production of these components.  [c.89]

The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process, as shown in Figure 4-10, converts straight-run atmospheric gas oil, vacuum gas oils, and heavy stocks recovered from other operations into high-octane gasoline, light fuel oils, slurry oil, and olefin-rich light gases. These products undergo further processing and separation in the FCC unit main fractionator and other vessels downstream of the FCC reactor. The gasoline produced has good overall octane characteristics and an excellent octane number. The catalysts used are mixtures of crystalline alumina silicates (known as zeolites), active alumina, silica-alumina, clay, and rare earth oxides.  [c.234]

The simplest plant is a topping refinery that prepares feedstocks for petrochemical manufacture or for production of industrial fuels. It consists of tankage, a distillation unit, recovery facilities for gases and light hydrocarbons, and supporting utilities (steam, power, and water-treatment plants). The range of products is increased by the addition of hydrotreating and reforming units comprising a hydroskimming refinery, which can produce desulfurized distillate fuels and high octane gasoline. About half of the production is fuel oil.  [c.286]

The light gaseous hydrocarbons produced by catalytic cracking are highly unsaturated and are usually converted into high-octane gasoline components by polymerization or alkylation. In polymerization, the light olefins, propylene and butylene, are induced to polymerize into molecules two or three times their original molecular weight using as the catalyst phosphoric acid on pellets of kieselguhr. Pressures of 400 to 1,100 psi at 350 - 450°F produce polymer gasolines derived from propylene and butylene having octanes above 90.  [c.290]

A component of high-octane gasoline  [c.53]

The acid-catalyzed isomerization of alkanes (of substantial practical interest in production of high octane gasoline) is a consequence of the ready rearrangement of the involved alkyl cations (Chapter 10). Carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones) contain only a mildly electron-deficient carbonyl carbon atom of the polarized carbonyl group, which is insufficient to bring abont rearrangements. Under superacidic activation, as we found in our studies, the carbonyl oxygen atoms not only protonate but are further protosolvated, significantly decreasing neighboring oxygen participation and development of carbocationic character, which allows rearrangements to occur. An example is the rearrangement of pivaldehyde to methyl, isopropyl ketone.  [c.195]

Other Reactions. / -Butane or mixtures of / -butane and isobutane may be catalyticaHy converted to propane (22) in order to overcome propane shortage, absorb excess butane, reduce worldwide LPG consumption, and satisfy seasonal variations in demand for propane. Dehydrogenation of isobutane to isobutylene has been suggested (23) as a method to increase the quantity of isobutylene feedstock available for methyl tert-hutyi ether (MTBE) production MTBE is a high octane gasoline-blending stock (see Gasoline and other motor fuels Ethers). Aromatics such as xylenes, ethylbenzenes, toluene, and benzene may be made by dehydrocyclodimerization of butanes (24) (see Xylenes and ethylbenzene Toluene Benzene BTXprocessing). Other commercial reactions of butanes include nitration (qv) and halogenation.  [c.402]

Some refineries also have cokers, which use heat and moderate pressure to turn residuum into lighter products and a hard, coal-like substance that is used as an industrial fuel. Cokers are among the more peculiar- looking refinery structures. They resemble a series of giant drums with metal derricks on top. Cracking and coking are not the only forms of conversion. Other refinery processes, instead of splitting molecules, rearrange them to add value. Alkylation, for example, makes gasoline components by combining some of the gaseous byproducts of cracking. The process, which essentially is cracking in reverse, takes place in a series of large, horizontal vessels and tall, skinny towers that loom above other refinery structures. Reforming uses heat, moderate pressure and catalysts to turn naphtha, a light, relatively low-value fraction, into high-octane gasoline components.  [c.203]

Hydroskinuner A hydroskimming refinery lends itself to locations where the market demands for the major fuel products (gasoline, gas oil, and residual fuel oil) approximate the quantities of these products obtainable by distillation from the available crudes. A typical hydroskimming refinery would include an atmospheric pipestill, powerforming (catalytic naphtha reforming), light-ends recovery and fractionation, and treating and blending. The atmospheric pipestill performs the initial distillation of crude oil into gas, naphtha, distillates, and residuum. The naphtha may be separated into gasoline blending stock, solvents, and powerformer feed. The distillates include kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil and diesel oil. The residuum is blended for use as bunker fuel oil. The powerforming unit is required to upgrade virgin naphtha to produce high octane gasoline. Powerforming is a fixed bed catalytic reforming process employing a regenerable platinum catalyst. In the process, a series of reactions takes place. The most important of these is aromatization other reactions include isomerization, cracking, hydrogenation, and polymerization. The desired product is of approximately the same boiling range as the feed, but the molecules have been rearranged or reformed into higher octane compounds. Light ends recovery and fractionating equipment is necessary after the Powerformer and on the pipestill overhead stream to separate the effluent mixtures into the desired boiling range cuts. Hydrofining is used to reduce sulfur and/or other impurities and to improve odor, color, and stability of the pipestill fractions. Hydrofining is a fixed-bed catalytic process using a regenerable cobalt molybdate  [c.218]

About half of the world s production of sulfuric acid goes to producing supeiphosphate and related fertilizers. Other uses are many, such as the manufacture of high-octane gasoline, of titanium dioxide (white pigment - a filler for some plastics and paper), explosives, rayon, uranium processing, and the pickling of steel. Sulfur was mined from volcanic deposits in Sicily, but is mined under by liquefaction. It is also obtained from the ore iron, pyrite, by burning to produce sulfur dioxide, and from some natural gases (sour gas), that contain hydrogen sulfide. It also is obtained from roasting zinc or copper sulfides to release sulfur dioxide. The sulfur present in low percentages in fossil fuels is a notorious source of air pollution in most industrial counties. Removal of sulfur from crude oil adds to the sulfur supply and reduces pollution. It is more difficult to I emove sulfur directly from coal.  [c.263]

Ipatieff s final contribution to catalytic technology was more indirect but essential. His guidance and suggestions to Vladimir Haeiiscl, a fellow Russian emigre who worked on catalytic reforming at UOP and studied under Ipatieff at Northwestern, were a significant contribution to Haensel s development of the high-pressure reforming technology known as platforming. An extension of Ipatieff s previous work involving platinum catalysts, high pressure, and hydrogen environments, platforming represents the first continuous catalytic reforming process. It produces large tonnages of ultra-high octane gasoline materials and critical organic intermediates (benzene, toluene, and xylene), previous obtained only in limited quantities from coal tar. Platforming, along with fluid catalytic cracking, is generally considered one of the great petrochemical innovations of the century.  [c.680]

Some refineries have hydrocracking units in addition to the FCC unit. ITydrocracking units operate at high hydrogen pressures and temperatures and are constructed of high-alloy steels. This makes them very expensive to build and operate. They arc able to use feedstocks containing high concentrations of aromatics and olefins and produce jet fuel and diesel fuel products as well as naphthas for upgrading and blending into gasolines. The FCC units operate most efficiently with paraffinic feedstocks and produce high yields of high-octane gasoline blending stocks. I lydrocrackers give higher yields than FCC units, but the naphtha products have octanes in the seventies and the heavy naphtha fraction—180-380T (82—195°C)— must be sent to the catalytic reformer to improve its octane. It is possible to make specification jet and diesel fuels as products from the hydrocracker.  [c.985]

The increasingly stringent environmental c uality improvements for transportation fuels as specified by the ERA is putting constraints on present processing technologies. Process equipment needed for the newer technologies to meet future environmental restrictions is very costly and requires long lead times to design and build. Since the removal of low-cost lead compounds, used until the 1970s to increase the octanes of gasolines, refineries have been providing the replacement octane improvement needed by increasing the high-octane aromatic and olefin content of gasolines and also the amount of high-octane blending compounds containing oxygen (alcohols and ethers). The EPA is reducing the maximum aromatics and olefins content of reformulated gasolines for health and pollution reasons. There also is concern over the appearance of ethers in ground waters because of possible health effects, and it may be necessary to restrict their usage in gasolines. There is not enough ethanol available today to replace these components while providing the volumes of high-octane gasolines needed (over one million tons per day of gasolines used in the United States in 1998). Other ways must be used to provide the high octanes needed and to reduce degradation of the environment.  [c.986]

A fluid catalytic cracking unit in Joliet, Illinois, converts bea components of crude oils into high octane gasoline and distillates. (Corbis Corporation)  [c.994]

See pages that mention the term High-octane gasoline : [c.199]    [c.102]    [c.134]    [c.2079]    [c.8]    [c.142]    [c.61]    [c.109]   
Modeling of chemical kinetics and reactor design (2001) -- [ c.234 ]