Tea granules In granulation or agglomeration processes, the fluid drug extracts are sprayed on to a carrier (mostly saccharose or other carbohydrate) and dried with heating. The dried mass is crushed in a suitable mill to granular or cylindrical aggregates. These granular products, of average density,  [c.23]

Organic impurities in the electrolyte have also been quoted as increasing the rate of platinum dissolution when the metal is used as an anode in electroplating. Saccharose was observed to increase the anodic dissolution of platinum by a factor of ten, in a 3% brine solution , yet it did not affect the anodic breakdown voltage for titanium. Other organic compounds that may also have an effect are brightening agents  [c.168]

Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates from pecan kernel (21), coconut meal (22), Fnglish walnut (23), European chestnut (24), chufa, and the ivory nut (25) all include the following ingredients reducing sugar, sucrose, rafflnose, mannitol, dextrin, pentosan, amyloid, starch, cellulose (qv), tannin, gum (qv), wax, resin, and materials yet to be identified (see Carbohydrates Resins, natural Sugar). Mannitol is the main sugar derivative in the milk of young coconuts (see Sugar alcohols) however, it is not present in the milk of the mature nut, where the principal sugar is sucrose. Saccharose, on the other hand, is the predominant sugar in cashew nuts (26). The starch in peanuts (27) decreases during roasting.  [c.272]

Solutions of all carbohydrates containing a saccharose group reach an equiUbrium between various forms, as shown for D-glucose in Figure 3. The exact composition of an equiUbrium mixture depends on the temperature and the specific sugar for D-glucose the approximate composition of a solution at room temperature is <0.01% aldehydo form, 36.2% a-D-glucopyranose, 63.8% P-D-glucopyranose, and traces of the furanose ring forms. The process of conversion between forms is called mutarotation (1) because, when crystals of a-D-glucopyranose are dissolved in water, the initial specific optical rotation ([a] at 20°C) of +112° gradually decreases to the equiUbrium value of +52.7°. Likewise, when crystals of P-D-glucopyranose are dissolved in water, the initial specific optical rotation of +18.7° gradually increases to the equiUbrium value of +53°. Mutarotation is both acid and base cataly2ed.  [c.475]

Chemical Designations - Synonyms Beet sugar Cane sugar Saccharose Saccharum Sugar Chemical Formula CijHjjOij.  [c.363]

Two 300 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, each containing 60 ml of the following culture medium for the vegetative phase, were prepared peptone 0.6% dry yeast 0.3% hydrated calcium carbonate 0.2% magnesium Sulfate 0.01% the pH after sterilization was 7.2. Sterilization has been effected by heating in autoclave to 120°C for 20 minutes. Each flask was inoculated with a quantity of mycelium of the mutant F.1.106 (the new strain thus obtained has been given the code F.1.106 of the Farmitalia microbiological collection and has been called Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius] corresponding to V of a suspension in sterile water of the mycelium of a 10 day old culture grown in a big test tube on the following medium saccharose 2% dry yeast 0.1% bipotassium phosphate 0.2% sodium nitrate 0.2% magnesium sulfate 0.2% agar 2% tap water up to 100%. The flasks were then incubated at 28°C for 48 hours on a rotary shaker with a stroke of 30 mm at 220 rpm.  [c.540]

Many workers [69,75-77] have examined the influence of the resin particle size on the reaction kinetics in order to throw light on the role of difTusional limitation. The hydrolysis rate constants of ethyl acetate [72] and acetamide [78] are practically independent of particle size over quite a wide range. The rate-limiting step in these reactions is the chemical act itself. Saccharose under static [70] or dynamic [41,75] conditions is much faster when smaller resin particles are used. Reed and Dranoff [75] have observed a linear relationship between the rate constant and the catalyst particle size. In the hydrolysis of sarin [34], the kinetic curves become steeper as the diameter of the catalyst particles decreases and the temperature increases. The rate of hydrolysis in the presence of ion-exchange resins is influenced by the bond strength being attacked. However, and in contrast to homogeneous catalysis, the steric factor (defined as the ratio of the size of the reactant molecules to the distance between the counter-ions of the nearest active groups in the catalyst) plays an important role in ion-exchange catalysis [17,37,74]. Ordyan and coworkers [79] found that methyl acetate is hydrolyzed 5 times faster than butyl acetate, and the latter only 1.2 times faster than methyl valerate, indicating that the reaction is retarded by branched chains. Similar effects have also been observed with n- and isopropyl acetate [72] and the hydrolysis of disaccharides [44]. Odioso et al. [80] and Smith and Steele [81] observed that hydrolysis rates decrease with an increasing chain length in simple aliphatic esters and the same is true for esterification in alcohol solution [82]. Helfferich [71,83] suggested that the variation of distribution coefficient might be the prime cause of the relationship between the efficiency of the resin catalyst and the structure of the reactant. However, few data are available on the study of the kinetics of resin-catalyzed  [c.778]

See pages that mention the term Saccharose : [c.865]    [c.98]    [c.376]    [c.23]    [c.271]    [c.248]    [c.431]    [c.715]    [c.715]    [c.776]    [c.777]   
Handbook of hazardous chemical properties (2000) -- [ c.363 ]