Butyric ether

The broad experimental details will be evident from those described in the previous experiments, particularly Sections 111,17 and 111,22. Place 49 g. of dry magnesium turnings and 100 ml. of sodium-dried ether in a 1-litre three-necked flask and a solution of 284 g. (124-5 ml.) of dry methyl iodide (Section 111,40) in 300 ml. of anhydrous ether in the separatory funnel protected by a cotton wool or calcium chloride guard tube. Run in about 15 ml. of the iodide solution. The reaction should start within a few minutes if it does not, warm gently on a water bath and add a crystal of iodine, if necessary. Once the reaction has commenced, remove the water bath, add the iodide solution, with stirring, at such a rate that the mixture refluxes gently if the reaction becomes too vigorous, cool the flask in ice water. Finally reflux the reaction mixture until all, or most, of the magnesium has reacted. Allow to cool, and slowly add a solution of 116 g. (132 ml.) of ethyl -butyrate (1) in 100 ml. of anhydrous ether into the vigorously stirred solution of the Grignard reagent. Reflux the mixture on a water bath for one hour to complete the reaction. Pour the ethereal solution into a mixture of 200 ml. of approximately 4A-sulphuric acid and 750 g. of crushed ice. Separate the upper ethereal layer and extract the aqueous solution with two 150 ml. portions of ether. Wash the combined ethereal extracts with dilute sodium bicarbonate solution, followed by a little water, then dry with anhydrous potassium carbonate or anhydrous calcium sulphate, distil off the ether on a water bath, and distil the residue from a Claisen flask with fractionating side arm or through a short column. Collect  [c.259]

Separation of Impurities. After separation of the plastics, a number of impurities may still be present. This include inks used to print information and label onto plastics, other types of labels, wood, and dirt accumulated during use and disposal of the plastic. Washing technology has been used to remove inks, labels, and encmsted dirt from plastics, particularly botties (14). A number of technologies have been used to separate other materials from plastics. Froth flotation has been used to separate poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) from PET despite the similar densities of these polymers (15). In laboratory tests, froth flotation separated PVC, polycarbonate (PC), polyacetal, and poly(phenylene ether (PPE)) from each other. Wetting agents such as lignosulfonates, tannic acid, and saponin were required to promote the separation (16). Plastics may be separated from mixed bulk materials based on particle size (17). To separate poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) in window glass from impurities, the polymer is melted and allowed to flow into supercritical carbon dioxide (18). Another technique to remove impurities from melted polymers is filtration (19).  [c.230]

Indole-3- -butyric acid can be prepared as a solution and used at a concentration of 0.1—1.0%. A convenient method for handling the chemical involves dissolving an appropriate quantity in acetone or similar solvent, and then adding the solution to a carrier such as talc. The material can be spun on a rotary distillation apparatus and the acetone evaporated away from the powder. The preparation, which has an evenly coated residue of indole-3-butyric acid, maybe stored for many years in a cool place without the loss of activity. Cuttings of herbaceous or woody plants can be easily rooted by treating the basal ends with either a solution or the activated talc and placing them in moist sand in a misting chamber. The material is nontoxic at the concentrations used. The talc formulation is available commercially. Not all woody cuttings respond to treatment, eg, larch and cedar.  [c.420]

It was many years before organic nomenclature shook off the influence of electrochemical theory and its binary names. Gradually, as facts accumulated, it became clear that this theory must give way to a unitary conception of the molecule. At the same time, the phenomenon of substitution, or replacement of one atom or group of atoms by another, was recognized to be of central importance. Some binary names are stiU used, either as a tme expression, as for salts, or for convenience, as in ethyl sulfide or acetyl chloride, but for the most part the principle of substitution is used without regard to whether such replacement can actually be effected experimentally. Usually the atom replaced is hydrogen, and the replacement may be indicated by either a prefix or a suffix. Thus, in naming CH Cl chloromethane rather than methyl chloride, the replacement of one atom of hydrogen in methane, CH by chlorine is indicated. The name methanol for CH OH indicates that one hydrogen atom of methane has been replaced by hydroxyl, the characteristic group of alcohols, denoted by the suffix -ol. A third group of names is formed by combining a class name with a specific word, as in ethyl alcohol or benzophenone oxime. Whatever the method or combination of methods used, there must be a name for a parent compound to form a basis for it. This may be a trivial, ie, traditional or common as distinguished from systematic, name such as camphor or naphthalene, or it may be partiy systematic, such as butane (from butyric), or fully systematic, such as pentane. Such methods show how, because of its inherent problems, organic chemical nomenclature is different from that of botany and zoology or mineralogy, and even from inorganic chemistry.  [c.117]

Although tests have shown that / -butyraldehyde exhibits some adverse physiological effects, there is no danger to health in normal plant practice. No threshold limit value has been assigned for either butyraldehyde or isobutyraldehyde. Both aldehydes, however, have a pungent, penetrating odor. Their vapors as well as the neat Hquids can cause skin, eye, and respiratory organ irritation possibly because of rapid oxidation to the acids on contact with air. Because of the ease of oxidation of the butanals to the corresponding butyric acids, precautions associated with these carboxyUc acids must also be noted. Reported animal toxicity and irritancy values for the butanals are given in Table 6.  [c.381]

Although cellulose acetate remains the most widely used organic ester of cellulose, its usefulness is restricted by its moisture sensitivity, limited compatibihty with other synthetic resins, and relatively high processing temperature. Cellulose esters of higher aUphatic acids, and C, circumvent these shortcomings with varying degrees of success. They can be prepared relatively easily with procedures similar to those used for cellulose acetate. Mixed cellulose esters containing acetate and either the propionate or butyrate moieties are produced commercially in large quantities by Eastman Chemical Co. in the United States (Table 2). Bayer AG discontinued the production of mixed esters at Leverkusen in Germany in mid-1987 citing poor economics as the reason for the closing.  [c.249]

Mixed esters, such as cellulose acetate propionate and cellulose acetate butyrate, have desirable properties not exhibited by the acetate or the high acyl triesters. These mixed esters are produced commercially in multiton quantities by methods similar to those for cellulose acetate they are prepared over a wide range of acyl substitutions and viscosities. The ratio of acetyl to higher acyl in the product is proportional to the concentration of components in the esterification solution (Eigs. 5 and 6). Thus it is possible to estetify cellulose with propionic or butyric anhydride in the presence of acetic acid to produce the mixed esters. In a similar manner, acetic anhydride can be used in the esterification with either propionic or butyric acid to produce a cellulose ester containing both acyl moieties. The commercial production of cellulose acetate butyrate has been described (38), and the different reactivities of lower anhydrides toward cellulose have been investigated in detail. Cellulose butyrate has been prepared in homogenous solution by the reaction of cellulose in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-paraformaldehyde with butyric anhydride and pyridine catalyst (39). The maximum degree of substitution is ca 1.8, and the products are soluble in common organic solvents. Dichloromethane has been used in the preparation of cellulose acetate butyrate to prevent excessive  [c.251]

Triboelectricity is a relative phenomenon and, as a result, use is made of ordering the relative charging capabiHties of materials. Thus, in the triboelectric series, window glass > polyamide > common salt > wool > silk > cotton > styrene—butadiene copolymer > poly(vinyl butyral) > epoxide resin > natural mbber > sulfur > polyethylene > poly(vinyl chloride) > polytetrafluoroethylene (52—54). Materials at the beginning of this series charge positively with respect to materials near the end. Such a series is used only as a general guide, and the results of any particular combination may deviate from expectations because of contamination, impurities, or humidity variations. A number of efforts have been made to correlate this series with other material parameters. Because the charge exchange may involve the transfer of ions, electrons, or macroscopic amounts of charged material, either separately or in combination, a number of relationships have been claimed. For example, it has been claimed that materials of higher dielectric constant become positively charged when contacted with those of lower dielectric constant (54). Such a correlation is consistent with a charge transfer of weakly bonded ions between soHds, because the relative binding forces of these ions to thek respective surfaces are reduced through the dielectric constant. Another correlation involves the differential work function, ie, the relative difference in electron energy levels in materials, because charge transfer requkes the movement of electrons from one material to another.  [c.136]

A. m-Butyl Butyrate from Di- -butyl Ether by Ruthenium Tetroxide  [c.12]

Oxidation of Di-n-butyl Ether (16) The ruthenium tetroxide solution (containing about 0.3 g of the oxidizing agent) is added dropwise to a magnetically stirred solution of 0.40 g of di- -butyl ether in 10 ml of carbon tetrachloride cooled in an ice bath. A thermometer is inserted in the reaction mixture. After a few minutes, black ruthenium dioxide begins to form, and the temperature rises. The rate of addition is controlled to maintain the temperature at 10-15°. After completion of the addition, the reaction mixture is allowed to stand at room temperature overnight. The precipitated ruthenium dioxide is filtered off, and the residue is washed thoroughly with carbon tetrachloride. The combined filtrate and washings are washed once with sodium bicarbonate solution to remove a trace of butyric acid. The carbon tetrachloride solution is then dried (anhydrous sodium sulfate), filtered, and distilled in a micro-apparatus. -Butyl n-butyrate has a normal boiling point of 165-166°.  [c.13]

B. n-BuTYL Butyrate from Di- -butyl Ether by Trichloroisocyanuric Acid (17)  [c.13]

The phenol was removed from the crude oil in the usual manner by shaking with aqueous sodium hydrate, washing the aqueous solution with ether to remove adhering oil, acidifying and extracting with ether. The residue, which contained a small amount of acetic and butyric acids, was washed with dilute sodium carbonate, extracted with ether, the ether removed and the phenol distilled. It boiled at 268° to 273° C. (uncor.) and at 175° under 25 mm. pressure. It was optically inactive, the specific gravity at 23° was 1-077, and the refractive index at 22° was 1-5269. Besides being soluble in alkalies the phenol is soluble in ammonia, partly soluble also in sodium carbonate but not in bicarbonate. It also dissolves slightly in boiling water. The reaction with ferric chloride in alcoholic solution is characteristic, the deep red colour which is first formed remaining persistent for days, after the alcohol has evaporated. The odour reminds one somewhat of carvacrol. It contains one methoxy group and appears to have two phenolic groups in the para position to each other.  [c.264]

To a solution of 42.0 g of p-[N-bis(/3-chloroethyl)amino] phenyl butyric anhydride in 500 ml dry pyridine was added 24.4 g of prednisolone. The reaction mixture was kept at room temperature for 24 hours under anhydrous condition. It was then poured into a mixture of concentrated HCI and crushed ice and extracted with ether-ethyl acetate (1 1).  [c.1282]

The residue is dissolved in ether and the solution is washed with sodium chloride solution and then with a little sodium thiosulfate solution. The ethereal solution is dried over sodium sulfate and ether removed by distillation. A yield of 108 parts of 3,5,5-trimethyl-oxazolidine-2,4-dione is obtained having a melting point of 45° to 46°C with slight softening at 43°C. This represents a 75% theory yield on the ethyl o-hydroxy-iso-butyrate taken. The product may be further purified by dissolving the minimum quantity of dry ether and cooling to -10°C. The product so obtained melts sharply at 45.5° to 46.5°C, according to U.S. Patent 2,559,011.  [c.1546]

Chemical Designations - Synonyms Butyric acid, Ethyl ester Butyric ether Ethyl butanoate Chemical Formula CHjCHjCHjCOOCjHj  [c.161]

By the action of ammonia upon the acid chloride. The acid chloride need not be isolated, and can be obtained either by warming the acid with phosphorus trichloride until action ceases and then pouring off the crude acid chloride from the phosphorous acid, or by refluxing the acid with excess of thionyl chloride, removing the excess of the reagent by fractional distillation or by heating on a water bath. The acid chloride is then added dropwiso to a well-stirred concentrated ammonia solution cooled in a freezing mixture of ice and salt. The mixture is allowed to stand overnight and the amide crystallises out. The amides of acetic, propionic and butyric acids are soluble in water and must be isolated by evaporating to dryness and extracting the residue with absolute ethyl alcohol. The following example is given  [c.401]

Ethyl fsobutyrylfsobutyrate. Add 24-6 g. (28-3 ml.) of ethyl iso-butyrate, b.p. 110-111°, to the solution of ca. 0 -21 mol of sodium triphenyl-methide in approximately 1400 ml. of ether contained in the 2-litre conical flask. Stopper the flask, shake well to effect complete mixing, and keep at room temperature for 60 hours. Acidify the reaction mixture by adding, with shaking, 15 ml. of glacial acetic acid, and then extract with 100 ml. of water. Wash the ethereal solution with 50 ml. portions of 10 per cent, sodium carbonate solution until free from excess acid, dry over anhydrous magnesium sulphate, and distil off the ether on a steam bath. Distil the residue under reduced pressure from a Claisen flask with fractionating side arm (Figs. II, 24, 4-5). Collect the ethyl tsobutyryl tsobutyrate at 95-96718 mm. the yield is 15 g. The b.p. at atmospheric pressure is 201-202°.  [c.480]

The formation of acyloins (a-hydroxyketones of the general formula RCH(OH)COR, where R is an aliphatic residue) proceeds best by reaction between finely-divided sodium (2 atoms) and esters of aliphatic acids (1 mol) in anhydrous ether or in anhydrous benzene with exclusion of oxygen salts of enediols are produced, which are converted by hydrolysis into acyloins. The yield of acetoin from ethyl acetate is low (ca. 23 per cent, in ether) owing to the accompanying acetoacetic ester condensation the latter reaction is favoured when the ester is used as the solvent. Ethyl propionate and ethyl ji-butyrate give yields of 52 per cent, of propionoin and 72 per cent, of butyroin respectively in ether.  [c.1080]

An adhesive with good peel strength and soldering tolerance for copper in printed circuits is based on a mixture of poly(vinyl butyral) and a modified melamine resin containing pyrogaHol (40). A mbberized pyrogaHol—formaldehyde adhesive improves the adhesion of mbber to nylon (41). PyrogaHol 1-methyl, 3-propyl or aHyl ethers are useful in natural smoke-aroma compositions for food or tobacco (42). PyrogaHol-1,3-dimethyl ether imparts a bonito-like aroma to dried fish (43). Zinc or chrome-plated steel is treated with aqueous pyrogaHol or gaHic acid to improve the adhesion of a final alkyd  [c.377]

Cyclohexane butyric acid [444]-63-8] M 170,3, m 31°, 26.5-28.5°, b 136-139 /4mm. 169°/20mm, 188.8°/46mm, pK 4.95. Distil through a Vigreux column, and the crystalline distillate is recrystd from pet ether. The S-benzylthiouronium salt has m 154-155° (from EtOH) [Acta Chem Scand 9 1425 7 955 English and Dayan J Am Chem Soc 72 4187 7950].  [c.178]

Throughout the 1990s a large portion of the research and development effort for hot melt adhesives focused on developing adhesives that are either environmentally friendly or functional [69,81,82]. Environmentally friendly attributes include biodegradability, water dispersibility (repulpability), renewability, and water releasability. Biodegradable adhesives have been developed based on starch esters [83-86] and polyesters such as poly (hydroxy butyrate/hydroxy valerate) [87], poly(lactide) [88-91], and poly(hydroxy ether esters) [92-94]. All but the  [c.752]

Poly(ethylene terephtlhalate) Phenol-formaldehyde Polyimide Polyisobutylene Poly(methyl methacrylate), acrylic Poly-4-methylpentene-1 Polyoxymethylene polyformaldehyde, acetal Polypropylene Polyphenylene ether Polyphenylene oxide Poly(phenylene sulphide) Poly(phenylene sulphone) Polystyrene Polysulfone Polytetrafluoroethylene Polyurethane Poly(vinyl acetate) Poly(vinyl alcohol) Poly(vinyl butyral) Poly(vinyl chloride) Poly(vinylidene chloride) Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Poly(vinyl formal) Polyvinylcarbazole Styrene Acrylonitrile Styrene butadiene rubber Styrene-butadiene-styrene Urea-formaldehyde Unsaturated polyester  [c.434]

Butyl trichlorosilaiie, 30 Butyl vinyl ether, 30 Butyraldehyde, 30 Butyric Acid, 31 Buzz Uiiichem S.p.A., 178 BYK-Chemie GmbH, 162  [c.325]

Reduction of the quaternary immonium salt 161, obtained by treatment of l-methyl-2-ethylidenepyrrolidine with ethyl bromoacetate, by means of either sodium borohydride or formic acid, leads to (—)-erythro-2-(2-N-methylpyrrolidyl)butyric acid (162), in agreement with Cram s rule (196).  [c.289]

Two grams of the oU are saponified the portion insoluble in water separated by shaking with ether, and the aqueous solution neutralised with acetic acid. The solution is dUuted to 50 c.c. and 10 c.c. of cold saturated solution of barium chloride added. It is then warmed for two hours on a water-bath and allowed to cool. If a crystalline deposit is formed, the oil is to be considered adulterated, as the acids contained in normal lavender oil, acetic and butyric acids, give soluble barium salts. It is evident that this test will only detect those acids whose barium salts are insoluble. A more comprehensive test is therefore needed, as several other esters have since been employed for adulteration purposes. Glycerin acetate, prepared by the acetylation of glycerine, was first de-  [c.312]

Esterification A solution of 500 mg of 6a,9a-difluoroprednisoione 17-butyrate in 2.5 cc of pyridine is treated with 1.25 cc of acetic anhydride and the reaction mixture permitted to stand overnight at 0°C. The reaction mixture is then poured into ice water and the crystaiiine precipitate formed is filtered off and recrystailized from a methylene chloride-ether-petroleum ether mixture to yield 494 mg of 6a,9a-difluoroprednisolone 17-butyrate, 21-acetate MP 191°-194°C.  [c.491]

See pages that mention the term Butyric ether : [c.86]    [c.525]    [c.75]    [c.12]    [c.374]    [c.408]    [c.491]   
Handbook of hazardous chemical properties (2000) -- [ c.161 ]