Kalina cycle


Single-flash, double-flash, and binary generating plants are all being used in the United States to produce energy from Hquid-dorninated hydrothermal resources. A fourth type of power plant, which is really a sophisticated version of a binary system, is being evaluated. In this last design, often referred to as the Kalina cycle, the working fluid is an adjustable proportion fluid mixture, most often consisting of water and ammonia (20).  [c.267]

To reduce drying time, maximum airflows are used during the first portion of the kilning cycle until the exit air is no longer saturated with moisture. Airflow then is reduced or recirculated to conserve energy. Average fuel consumption for a United States kiln is ca 5.9 x 10 kJ/t (1.4 x 10 kcal/t) ) malt, with a range of 2.9-10 X 10 kJ/t of malt.  [c.481]

The catalyst is employed in bead, pellet, or microspherical form and can be used as a fixed bed, moving bed, or fluid bed. The fixed-bed process was the first process used commercially and employs a static bed of catalyst in several reactors, which allows a continuous flow of feedstock to be maintained. The cycle of operations consists of (/) the flow of feedstock through the catalyst bed (2) the discontinuance of feedstock flow and removal of coke from the catalyst by burning and (J) the insertion of the reactor back on-stream. The moving-bed process uses a reaction vessel, in which cracking takes place, and a kiln, in which the spent catalyst is regenerated and catalyst movement between the vessels is provided by various means.  [c.205]

The white Hquor is separated from the calcium carbonate by decantation in a clarifier and is then available for a new cooking cycle. The underflow from the clarifier, which contains the calcium carbonate and is referred to as lime mud, is diluted with water and passed to a second clarifier known as the lime mud washer. The clarified weak white Hquor (weak wash) goes to storage and then enters the dissolving tank. The lime mud residue from the lime mud washer is passed to a rotary filter and subsequently to the lime kiln where calcium carbonate is converted back to calcium oxide, thus completing the lime cycle.  [c.270]

Charcoal is produced commercially from primary wood-processing residues and low quaUty roundwood in either kilns or continuous furnaces. A kiln is used if the raw material is in the form of roundwood, sawmill slabs, or edgings. In the United States, most kilns are constmcted of poured concrete with a capacity of 40 to 100 cords of wood and operating on a 7- to 12-d cycle. Sawdust, shavings, or milled wood and bark are converted to charcoal in a continuous multiple-hearth furnace commonly referred to as a Herreshoff furnace. The capacity is usually at least 1 ton of charcoal per hour. The yield is - 25% by weight on a dry basis.  [c.332]

There ate two basic types of kilns used, the tunnel kiln and the periodic kiln. The tunnel kiln has the highest production rate and uses cats to carry the dried brick through the firing or burning process. Tunnel kilns can produce from 40 to 80 million bricks a year each. The periodic kiln is a batch-type kiln that is loaded, mn through the cycles, and then emptied. Because of the firing process, brick manufacture requites much energy, which represents approximately 35% of the total manufacturing cost.  [c.324]

AH stacks and vents attached to the process equipment must be protected to prevent environmental releases of hexavalent chromium. Electrostatic precipitators and baghouses are desirable on kiln and residue dryer stacks. Leaching operations should be hooded and stacks equipped with scmbbers (see Airpollution control methods). Recovered chromate values are returned to the leaching-water cycle.  [c.138]

The next major development in gasoline production was a moving bed operation (process flow sheets of two early units are shown in Figure 19). In the moving bed processes, the hot salt heat transfer and cycle time systems were eliminated. The catalyst was transferred to the top of the unit and flowed by gravity down through the vessel. These systems were first commercialized around 1943. The catalyst was pelletized into about one eighth-inch, diameter beads and allowed to flow by gravity from the top of the vessel, down through a seal zone to the pressurized reactor vessel. The catalyst then flowed down through another sealing section and a countercurrent stripping zone. From there, catalyst flowed to the regenerator or kiln, which operated close to atmospheric pressure. The Socony Vacuum Oil Co. s unit (Figure 19 A) injected the regeneration air near the center of the regenerator bed. The gas flowed upward and then downward. The upflowing gas combusted about 60% of the coke, and heated the downward flowing catalyst. The downward flowing gas completed the combustion process. The principal difference between the Socony Vacuum process (Figure 19 A) and the modified Houdry process (Figure 19 B) was that the latter consisted of a single vessel with reaction and stripping zones separated by intermediate vessel heads. Also, flue gas rather than air was used for catalyst lifting in the Houdry design. This allowed for a higher circulation rate.  [c.206]

The so-called Thermofor moving-bed process borrowed two important techniques from Houdry s technology a molten salt cooling system for the kiln section and gas turbine technology that generated power to pressurize more air for the regenerator. The catalyst was stored in an overhead hopper, from which it was fed into the catalyst-filled reactor. The catalyst then traveled down the vessel under the influence of gravity. In the commercial plants, oil, injected as a liquid spray near the top of the reactor, moved down along with the catalyst. During this time, the latter transferred its heat, obtained and stored during the previous regeneration cycle, to the oil. The system conserved on energy by thus recycling heat units through the catalyst which simultaneously vaporized and cracked the oil particles that descended with it.  [c.992]

The need for effectively extracting latent heat from the turbine exhaust in the Kalina cycle is the motivation behind numerous studies of convective condensation of non-azeotropic vapor mixtures. In condensers operating with pure vapors, the vapor pressure generally remains constant during the process of phase change. Therefore, it implies that the temperature difference between the vapor and the coolant increases along the direction of vapor flow in a counterflow type of heat exchanger. Thus, a situation is created in which the available excess energy is maximum at the exit of the condensate and minimum at the entrance of the entrance of the vapor. As a result, all the available energy is not utihzed in pure vapor condensation. The utilization of availability can be enhanced by maintaining a constant temperature difference between the vapor and coolant, all along the heat exchanger. This can be achieved by using a certain non-azeotropic vapor mixture which can maintain a constant temperature difference due to its variable boiling temperature characteristics. The introduction of another condensable vapor, may alter the composition of the vapor and decrease the heat and mass transport in the condenser. Furthermore, the orientation of the condenser can affect the flow regime in the condenser, and hence alter the performance of the condenser.  [c.53]

Stecco, S., S., Kalina Cycle Some Possible Applications and Comments, Proc. American Power Conf., Vol. 55-1, ppl96-201, 1993,  [c.64]

This chapter is an attempt to present the important results of studies of the synthesis, reactivity, and physicochemical properties of this series of compounds. The subject was surveyed by Bulka (3) in 1963 and by Klayman and Gunther (4) in 1973. Unlike the oxazoles and thiazoles. there are few convenient preparative routes to the selenazoles. Furthermore, the selenium intermediates are difficult to synthesize and are often extremely toxic selenoamides tend to decompose rapidly depositing metallic selenium. This inconvenience can be alleviated by choice of suitable reaction conditions. Finally, the use of selenium compounds in preparative reactions is often complicated by the fragility of the cycle and the deposition of metallic selenium.  [c.219]

The parallel-flow kiln operates with two or three independent shafts within one large refractory-lined shell. As one shaft is calcining, the waste hot gases are preheating the kiln feed in an adjoining shaft. Thus calcining, discharging, charging, and preheating are performed cycHcaHy, programmed at preset intervals of 10—15 min. At each cycle, firing lances automatically are switched to an adjacent shaft with its preheated stone charge ducts conveying the hot exhaust gases are similarly reversed. During each cycle s transition period, precise increments of kiln feed are provided by a mobile overhead weight hopper that maintains constant levels. This kiln operates at relatively low temperatures of 950—1050°C with kiln feed of 2.5—15 cm, but usually a si2e ratio of only 1 3.  [c.172]

Sihca brick and large fireclay shapes are fired in circular downdraft kilns. These kilns vary in diameter and can accommodate up to 150,000 23-cm bricks or their equivalent in other si2es. The complete burning cycle for a typical periodic kiln ranges from 21 to 27 days as compared with four to seven days for a tunnel kiln.  [c.32]


See pages that mention the term Kalina cycle : [c.53]    [c.342]    [c.2154]   
Handbook of chemical processing equipment (2000) -- [ c.53 ]