Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy

SIMS Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy [106, 166-168] (L-SIMS liquids) [169, 170] Ionized surface atoms are ejected by impact of -1 keV ions and analyzed by mass spectroscopy Surface composition  [c.316]

SIMS Secondary Ion mass spectroscopy A beam of low-energy Ions Impinges on a surface, penetrates the sample and loses energy In a series of Inelastic collisions with the target atoms leading to emission of secondary Ions. Surface composition, reaction mechanism, depth profiles  [c.1852]

Ions can also be used as both the excitation and detection species in several surface analysis techniques. In secondary ion mass spectroscopy (sims), an incident beam of ions can sputter molecular ions from a surface providing surface elemental and molecular information. Ions can be scattered from surfaces or within interfaces in ion scattering spectroscopy (iss), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (rbs), and low energy ion scattering (leis) to provide elemental composition and stmctural information. Finally, an electric field can be used to stimulate ionization of an imaging gas in field ion microscopy (fim) or electron tunneling in field emission microscopy (fern) and scanning tunneling microscopy (stm) for surface imaging. A surface imaging technique which utilizes van der Waals forces as the "excitation" while monitoring what are essentially drag or frictional forces is atomic force microscopy (afm).  [c.269]

When considering pure sihcon, there is much more emphasis on detecting trace impurities in the sihcon than on the detection of sihcon itself. Whereas optical spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (sims), x-ray fluorescence, neutron-activation analysis, and Auger spectroscopy have all been used, indirect electrical measurements generally provide the greater sensitivity required to detect impurities in the parts pet biUion (ppb) range. For example, electrical resistivity measurements allow the detection of <1 ppb of an electrically active impurity, although the impurity itself caimot be identified. There are also various measurements that can be made on diodes, eg, deep-level transient spectroscopy (dlts), that allow the presence of impurities in the ppb range to be inferred.  [c.526]

AES, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) have become the standard set of surface, thin-fllm, and interface analysis tools. Each has its own strengths, and mosdy they are complementary. XPS uses X rays as a probe, which are usually less damaging to the surface than the electron beam of Auger but which can t be focused to give high lateral spatial resolution. XPS is also more often selected to determine chemical information. SIMS can detect H and He and has a much higher absolute sensitivity in many cases, but seldom gives any chemical information and, by its nature, has to remove material to do its analysis. RBS readily produces good quantitative results and does nondestructive depth profiling, but it lacks the absolute sensitivity of Auger to many of the important elements and its depth resolution is not as good as Auger can produce, in many cases.  [c.311]

Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). When the p-n junction and the GaAs/GaAlAs heterojunction are not coincident, carrier recombination occurs, reducing the current and the performance of fabricated heterojunction bipolar transistors.  [c.394]

The main experimental techniques used to study the failure processes at the scale of a chain have involved the use of deuterated polymers, particularly copolymers, at the interface and the measurement of the amounts of the deuterated copolymers at each of the fracture surfaces. The presence and quantity of the deuterated copolymer has typically been measured using forward recoil ion scattering (FRES) or secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The technique was originally used in a study of the effects of placing polystyrene-polymethyl methacrylate (PS-PMMA) block copolymers of total molecular weight of 200,000 Da at an interface between polyphenylene ether (PPE or PPO) and PMMA copolymers [1]. The PS block is miscible in the PPE. The use of copolymers where just the PS block was deuterated and copolymers where just the PMMA block was deuterated showed that, when the interface was fractured, the copolymer molecules all broke close to their junction points The basic idea of this technique is shown in Fig, I.  [c.223]

The interface properties can usually be independently measured by a number of spectroscopic and surface analysis techniques such as secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), specular neutron reflection (SNR), forward recoil spectroscopy (FRES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared (IR) and several other methods. Theoretical and computer simulation methods can also be used to evaluate H t). Thus, we assume for each interface that we have the ability to measure H t) at different times and that the function is well defined in terms of microscopic properties.  [c.354]

The most widely used techniques for surface analysis are Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Raman and infrared spectroscopy, and contact angle measurement. Some of these techniques have the ability to determine the composition of the outermost atomic layers, although each technique possesses its own special advantages and disadvantages.  [c.517]

Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)  [c.518]

SIMS = secondary ion mass spectroscopy  [c.835]

In other articles in this section, a method of analysis is described called Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), in which material is sputtered from a surface using an ion beam and the minor components that are ejected as positive or negative ions are analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Over the past few years, methods that post-ion-ize the major neutral components ejected from surfaces under ion-beam or laser bombardment have been introduced because of the improved quantitative aspects obtainable by analyzing the major ejected channel. These techniques include SALI, Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (SIRIS), and Sputtered Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) or electron-gas post-ionization. Post-ionization techniques for surface analysis have received widespread interest because of their increased sensitivity, compared to more traditional surface analysis techniques, such as X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and their more reliable quantitation, compared to SIMS.  [c.559]

Mechanical profilers are the most common measurement tool for determining the depth of craters formed by rastered sputtering for analysis in techniques like Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Figure 2a shows an example of a 1.5-pm deep crater formed by a rastered oxygen beam used to bombard an initially smooth silicon nitride surface at 60° from normal incidence. The bottom of the crater has retained the smooth surfiice even though the 0.45-pm nitride layer has been penetrated. Depth resolution for an analytical measurement at the bottom of the crater should be good. Figure 2b shows a crater approximately 1 pm deep formed under similar conditions, but on a surface of silicon carbide that was initially rough. The bottom of the crater indicates that the roughness has not been removed by sputtering and that the depth resolution for a depth profile in this sample would be poor.  [c.700]

Surface analysis has made enormous contributions to the field of adhesion science. It enabled investigators to probe fundamental aspects of adhesion such as the composition of anodic oxides on metals, the surface composition of polymers that have been pretreated by etching, the nature of reactions occurring at the interface between a primer and a substrate or between a primer and an adhesive, and the orientation of molecules adsorbed onto substrates. Surface analysis has also enabled adhesion scientists to determine the mechanisms responsible for failure of adhesive bonds, especially after exposure to aggressive environments. The objective of this chapter is to review the principals of surface analysis techniques including attenuated total reflection (ATR) and reflection-absorption (RAIR) infrared spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and to present examples of the application of each technique to important problems in adhesion science.  [c.243]

This is the oldest and in many ways the most fundamental of the coupling agent adhesion mechanism theories. Much of the preceding section (Section 2) was necessarily framed primarily in terms of different chemical bonding possibilities. Almost all coupling agents are deliberately designed to contain chemical functional groups that can react with hydroxylated inorganic surfaces such as glass, producing covalent bond linkages. Additionally, most coupling agents contain at least one other, different functional group that could co-react with the organic polymer phase, usually during cure of that phase. The coupling agent then acts as a bridge to bond the glass to the cross-linked polymer or resin with a chain of primary bonds that, in principle, could be expected to lead to the strongest interfacial bond. Progress in the studies of molecular and microstructure of interfaces in composites, coatings, and adhesive joints was reviewed by Ishida [27] in 1984. He presented considerable evidence of the occurrence of chemical bonding at a variety of coupling agent interfaces. The following discussion is a far from comprehensive selection of both more recent and classic studies, chosen to illustrate the main analytical techniques found to be particularly useful in establishing experimental evidence for bonding at the interface. These have proved to be X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) — particularly time-of-flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS), inelastic tunneling spectroscopy (ITES), FTIR (e.g. FTIR diffusion-reflectance analysis), and solid-state, multi-nuclear, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (for examining  [c.415]

The composition, structure and even thickness of passivating oxide films on metals are in fact extremely difficult to determine, chiefly because these oxide films are so thin, and because they are held together by the compositions of the interfaces (with the metal and with the electrolyte) as well as by the high electric field they carry. Many methods of determination are ex situ techniques, requiring removal of the specimen from the electric field as well as from the electrolyte. These methods include Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) . A range of in situ methods, such as ellipsometry, frequency response analysis and photocurrent spectroscopy are also in use to provide information on the passive film . These techniques however, give more indirect information they do not present compositional or structural information directly, but probe other properties of the passive interface, from which more detailed understanding must be inferred. The new techniques of scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopies, which can be used in situ, may yield some information in the future.  [c.141]

The characterization of LB films by spectroscopic techniques has been quite well developed. Disorder in T-type bilayer assemblies of arachidic acid [141] has been investigated by electron diffraction [142], infrared [143, 144], Raman [145], and infrared optoacoustic [146] spectroscopies. Electron diffraction [147, 148], EELs [149], and infrared spectroscopy [135, 150-152] have all contributed to a molecular picture of LB film structure. Knobloch and Knoll s use of a surface plasmon propagating in a metallic substrate to excite Raman scattering allows some spatial resolution [153, 154] while surface plasmon microscopy [155, 156], optical waveguide microscopy [157] and Brewster angle microscopy [139] all provide 5-10-/im resolution. As with Langmuir films. X-ray diffraction reveds the tilt behavior in LB films [158] while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to determine their chemical profiles [159]. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) has been used to get the molecular weight distribution of LB films of oligomers [160]. Streaming potential measurements (see Section V-6C) in LB-coated rectangular capillaries "shows the dependence of the pH of neutralization on counterion binding [161], and combination with a spectroscopic probe indicates hysteretic neutrdization and reionization [162].  [c.559]

The distinctive chemical and physical properties of surfaces and interfaces typically are dominated by the nature of one or two atomic or molecular layers [2, 3], Consequently, usefiil surface probes require a very high degree of sensitivity. How can this sensitivity be achieved For many of the valuable traditional probes of surfaces, the answer lies in the use of particles that have a short penetration depth through matter. These particles include electrons, atoms and ions, of appropriate energies. Some of the most familiar probes of solid surfaces, such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (FEED), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), exploit massive particles both approaching and leaving the surface. Other teclmiques, such as photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy, rely on electrons for only half of the probing process, with photons serving for the other half These approaches are complemented by those that directly involve the adsorbate of interest, such as molecular beam techniques and temperature progranuned desorption (TPD). While these methods are extremely powerfiil, they are generally restricted to—or perfonn best for—probing materials under high vacuum conditions. This is a significant limitation, since many important systems are intrinsically incompatible with high vacuum (such as the surfaces of most liquids) or involve interfaces between two dense media. Scaiming tuimellmg microscopy (STM) is perhaps the electron-based probe best suited for investigations of a broader class of interfaces. In this approach, the physical proximity of the tip and the probe penuits the method to be applied at certain interfaces between dense media.  [c.1264]

Ion Beam Techniques. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (sims) uses ion beams having high enough energies to penetrate the surface and break surface bonds, ejecting neutral and ionic species from the surface in a process called sputtering. The primary beam is typically 0" 2- The ejected secondary ions are analyzed and identified according to mass. The sensitivities of ejection, or the ratio of ejected ions to atoms present in the substrate varies greatly according to the particular element, the substrate chemistry, or the substrate stmcture. The principal advantage of sims analysis is in its very low detection limits, which are appHed to the analysis of doping profiles and the detection and identification of surface contaminants. Time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (tof-sims) is a new surface-sensitive technique that analyzes both organic and inorganic contaminants in the top monolayer of a surface at ppm detection limits (49). Sims is a destmctive analytical process, and requires a large surface area for analysis (5x5 mm) (51) (see Mass spectrol try).  [c.356]

NIRMS = noble-gas-ion reflection mass spectrometry OSEE = optically stimulated exoelectron emission PES = photoelectron spectroscopy PhD = photoelectron diffraction SIMS = secondary ion mass spectroscopy UPS = ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy  [c.398]

Improvement of the technology of such advanced materials requires appropriate methods for surface and depth-profile analysis in the nanometer to micrometer range. Most of the methods used for surface analysis are reviewed in this monograph. For example. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) are widely used for characterization of nanometer-thin layers. Both techniques cannot be directly applied for depth profiling of thicker layers (a few micrometers thick) and can hardly be applied for fast on-line process analysis. Another technique used for depth profiling is dc- or rf-glow discharge (GD) sputtering followed by detection of the sputtered material by optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES) or mass spectrometry (GD-MS) [4.236-4.238]. GD sputtering enables a low sputtering rate and depth resolution of approximately 10 nm. The limitations of GD are poor lateral resolution (at best a few millimeters), specific requirements on the form and dimensions of the sample, and the need for low-pressure conditions for sample sputtering. Laser ablation has been proven to be a reasonable alternative technique for direct solid sampling [4.239-4.244].  [c.235]

Chemical characterization of surfaces plays an important role in various fields of physics and chemistry, e.g. catalysis, polymers, metallurgy and organic chemistry. This section briefly describes the concepts and a few examples of the techniques that are most frequently used for chemical surface characterization, which are x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), temperature progranuned desorption (TPD) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), respectively. We have tried to give examples in a broad range of fields. References to more extensive treatments of these teclmiques and others are given at the end of the section, see Further reading .  [c.1851]

The nature of passive oxide films on many teclmologically important metals and alloys has been the subject of investigation for many years. Ex situ surface analytical teclmiques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) provide useful infonnation on the chemical composition and thickness of the films. Good agreement exists regarding a qualitative description of the chemistry of passive films on many metals. However, due to either different experimental approaches or data analysis, slightly different views can be found on the more detailed nature of the different films. Generally, it is important to note that the passive film, once fonned should not be considered as a rigid layer, but instead as a system in dynamic equilibrium between film dissolution and growth. In other words, the passive film can adjust its composition and thickness to changing environmental factors. Principally, the chemical composition and the thickness of electrochemically fonned passive films depend (apart from the base metal) on the passivation potential, time, electrolyte composition and temperature, i.e., on all passivation parameters and, hence, a detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this chapter. For further relevant literature the reader is referred to e.g. [74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, M, 87, 88 and 89] and references therein.  [c.2725]

Barish E L, Vitkavage D J and Mayer T M 1985 Sputtering of chlorinated silicon surfaces studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and ion scattering spectroscopy J. AppL Phys. 57 1336-42  [c.2941]

Other techniques that give elemental analysis information include the more established optical methods such as Atomic Absorption (AA), Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA), emission spectroscopy. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Newer mass spectrometry based techniques include Spark Source Mass Spectrometry (SSMS), Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Elemental information may also be gained from other techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Of course there are other methods and new ones are being developed continually. Each of these techniques is useful for the purposes they were intended. Some, such as AA, have advantages of cost others, such as XRF, can handle samples with minimal sample handling. ICPMS offers the detection limits of the most sensitive techniques (in many cases greater sensitivity) and easy sample handling for most samples.  [c.625]

Kinning [19] studied the bulk, surface and interfacial structure of copolymers of polyvinyl A-alkyl carbamates and vinyl acetate (1 1 molar ratio), having either 10 or 18 carbons in the alkyl side chains, using thermal analysis. X-ray scattering, contact angle analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS). While both polymers exhibited an overlayer of the alkyl side chains at the polymer surface and a surface energy typical of a monolayer of methyl groups, the release force profiles for the two polymers were quite different. The decyl version was unable to maintain a stable release force against an acidic acrylate PSA at any aging temperature, while the octadecyl version was able to provide stable release at aging temperatures less than about 50°C. The increase in release force was shown to be a result of interfacial restructuring, whereby the concentration of basic urethane and vinyl acetate groups in the release coating increased at the interface with the acidic PSA, leading to increased acid-base interactions and higher adhesion. In the case of  [c.553]

ASTM El078, Standard guide for procedures for specimen preparation, mounting, and analysis in auger electron spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA.  [c.1008]

Oxidation is followed by measuring the gain in weight of the specimen with time. An electrostatic field applied across the growing oxide enhances or reduces the oxidation rate according to the polarity of the field, and the charge on the moving species. The movement, or lack of it, of an inert marker placed on the metal prior to oxidation indicates whether the oxide grows by metal moving outwards, or oxygen moving inwards see Section 1.10). Techniques of modern surface science (Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS), for example) are used to determine the composition, and the thickness of tarnish films. Three examples must suffice. Firstly, ion scattering has been used to analyse air-formed films on Fe-Cr alloys. Incident Ne or He ions with energies in the range l. ikeVscattered at 90°, when energy-analysed, have peaks for each element in the surface of the film, and since the incident beam sputters the surface, a depth profile is also obtained. As expected from the discussion above, at the oxide/air interface the Cr/Fe ratio is low, as is the metal/ oxygen ratio, and the Cr/Fe ratio increases going into the oxide. But an unexpected finding is that the latter ratio peaks a short distance into the oxide. No explanation of this has been given. A second example of the use of surface-sensitive analytical techniques is the investigation using AES, and argon-ion sputtering, of the composition, and thickness of the films formed on Ni in air in various relative humidities. The findings of this work will be mentioned below. Angularly resolved XPS, unlike depth profiling by sputtering, is non-destructive. Photoelectrons from the metal, and from its different oxides, are identified by their chemical shifts. Those originating  [c.265]

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