With respect to fuels utilized as heating fuels for industrial furnaces, or as motor fuels for large diesel engines such as those in ships or power generation sets, the characteristics of primary importance are viscosity, sulfur content and the content of extremely heavy materials (asphaltenes) whose combustion can cause high emissions of particulates which are incompatible with antipollution legislation.  [c.178]

This rule is justified by the need to limit the benzene emissions from evaporation (Tims, 1983) Figure 5.25 shows that emissions increase linearly with the benzene content of the fuel. It is noteworthy that current legislation limits the measured evaporation to 2 g per test conducted in accordance with a standard procedure (Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination, or SHED). Yet for a fuel containing 5% benzene, an evaporation of 0.7 g benzene /test is observed.  [c.258]

Refining alone can not, economically, provide a fuel to meet specifications the role of organic lead derivatives has long been to make up the difference between the octane number of the clear fuel and the octane required by legislation.  [c.346]

Management of the environmental impact of projects is of major concern in the oil and gas industry, not only to meet the legislative requirements in host countries, but is also viewed as good business because it is  [c.70]

As well as meeting transport or storage specifications, consideration must also be given to legislation covering levels of emission to the environment. Standards in most countries are becoming increasingly rigorous and upgrading in order to reduce emissions can be much more costly once production has started. Engineering skills should be focused on adding greatest value to the product at least cost, whilst working within a coherent framework of health, safety and environmental policy.  [c.235]

Product quality is not limited to oil and gas quality certain effluent streams will also have to meet a legal specification. For example, in disposal of oil in water, the legislation in many offshore areas demands less than 40 ppm (parts per million) of oil in water for disposal into the sea. In the UK, oil production platforms are allowed to flare gas up to a legal limit.  [c.280]

Flaring and venting policies will often be driven by legislation which states maximum allowable limits for these activities. Such existing regulations must be established at the FDP stage, but it is good practice to anticipate future legislation and to determine whether it is worth designing this into the initial facilities. Even if constant flaring of excess gas is avoided by gas reinjection or export, a flare or vent system will be required to relieve the process facilities in case of shut-down. Flaring can be performed from a fixed flare boom or from a separate, more remote platform. Venting is usually from a separate vent jacket. Venting is more environmentally damaging than flaring, since methane is approximately ten times worse as a contributor to the greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide.  [c.284]

Introduction and Commercial Application During the production phase of the field life, the operator will apply field management techniques aimed at maximising the profitability of the project and realising the economical recovery of the hydrocarbons, while meeting all contractual obligations and working within certain constraints. Physical constraints include the reservoir performance, the well performance, and the capacity and operability of the surface facilities. The company will have to manage internal factors such as manpower, cash supply and the structure of the organisation. In addition, the external factors such as agreements with contractors and the national oil company or government, environmental legislation and market forces must be managed throughout the production lifetime.  [c.331]

Production levels will be influenced by external factors such as agreed production targets, market demand, the level of market demand for a particular product, agreements with contractors, and legislation. These factors are managed by planning of production rates and management of the production operation.  [c.346]

Legislation in the host country will dictate work practices and environmental performance of the oil company, and is one of the constraints which must be managed. This may range from legislation on the allowable concentration of oil in disposal water, to the maximum working hours per week by an employee, to the provision of sickness benefits for employees and their families. The oil company must set up an internal organisation which passes on the current and new legislation to the relevant parts of the company, e.g. to the design engineers, operators, human resources departments. The technology and practices of the company must at least meet legislative requirements, and often the company will try to anticipate future legislation when formulating its development plan.  [c.347]

One particular common piece of legislation worth noting is the requirement for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to be performed prior to any appraisal or development activity. An EIA is used to determine what impact an activity would have on the natural environment (flora, fauna, local population), and will be used to modify the activity plan until no negative impact is foreseen. More details of the EIA are given in Section 4.0.  [c.347]

In such cases the development scheme for the original reserves may have to be modified to make processing capacity available for the new hydrocarbons. The economics of such a scheme can be affected negatively if substantial engineering modifications have to made to meet new safety legislation. For more background to ERD refer to Section 3.  [c.364]

This is simply speculation, but if and when cost can be saved by arranging matters thus, then ways will be found to achieve it. All such things are possible, technology costs but offers savings. This is the one target that NDT has to achieve and does achieve. It can save cost and avoid waste. As environmental awareness develops and governments enact legislation aimed at preventing waste and pollution then ongoing opportunities will be created for NDT to make effective contributions. NDT and eddy currents in particular are green technologies. Dr Foerster anticipated this long ago, his products are coloured green  [c.275]

The total silver content discharged may either be expressed as a concentration in tlte water used to rinse the film (mg/1, ppm), or as an amount of silver in the rinsing water per m of film processed (silver freight, mg/m ). Legislation in tenns of amount of silver per unit surface area of film processed is preferable, since it better reflects the actual total amount of silver being discharged and the performance of the photographic processing system. Concentration-based legislation does not necessarily reflect ecological performance, since use of less rinsing water (which is ecologically sound), will, for a given amount of silver being discharged, result in higher and therefore apparently less favorable silver concentrations in the rinsing water (Dilution is no solution for pollution). In what follows, the amount of silver is expressed as  [c.604]

To comply with existing and future legislation with respect to silver content in processor rinsing water, the approach developed by Agfa is threefold.  [c.609]

In addition these directives had to be decided unanimously by the European Council which made their adoption cumbersome and slow. These directives are now referred to as old approach directives. A radical change was needed so that the Community legislation could respond to the needs of both, the completion of the internal market for the products concerned, and the need to offer to industry a flexible legislative environment which would encourage technical progress.  [c.937]

The directive will initially come into force on 29 November 1999. From that date until 28 May 2002 manufacturers have a choice between applying the pressure equipment directive or continuing with the application of the existing national legislation. From 29 May 2002 the pressure equipment directive will be obligatory throughout the European Union.  [c.944]

The introduction of the non - prescriptive legislative regime encourages the inclusion of other performance factors such as  [c.1012]

In order to maintain Class and to comply with international legislation a ship must undergo surveys at prescribed intervals. Ships such as tankers and bulk carriers must comply with International Maritime Organisation resolutions which require a Class Enhanced Survey Programme. This programme includes Special Surveys at five yearly intervals with close-up visual inspection and thickness measurements to be made at specified locations, the number of which increases with the age of the ship.  [c.1045]

Chemical control legislation  [c.190]

These lower prices make it more difficult for recycled plastics to compete with virgin resins in the absence of legislation mandating plastics recycling.  [c.233]

Potential health and safety problems of acryflc polymers occur in their manufacture (159). During manufacture, considerable care is exercised to reduce the potential for violent polymerizations and to reduce exposure to flammable and potentially toxic monomers and solvents. Recent environmental legislation governing air quality has resulted in completely closed ketde processes for most acryflc polymerizations. Acryflc solution polymers are treated as flammable mixtures. Dispersion polymers are nonflammable.  [c.171]

Odors. The 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments directed EPA to study the effects, sources, and control feasibiUty of odors. Although no federal legislation has been estabUshed to regulate odors, individual states have responded to odor complaints by enforcing common nuisance laws. About 50% of all citizen air pollution complaints concern odors (see Odormodification). A disagreeable odor is perceived as an indication of air pollution but many substances can be detected by the human olfactory system at concentrations well below those considered harmhil. Eor example, hydrogen sulfide [7783-06-4], H2S, can be detected by most people at 0.0047 ppm, whereas the occupation health 8-h TLV is 10 ppm. Although exposures to such odors in low concentrations may not in itself cause physical harm, the exposure can lead to nausea, loss of appetite, and other effects.  [c.376]

Guiding Principles of State Air Pollution legislation U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, D.C., 1965.  [c.414]

The American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (AC-GIH) estabUshes TLVs for the airborne concentration of many fillers in workroom air (24). A new manner of occupational and environmental legislation is aimed at the hazards of ultrafine particles, and OSHA regulations effective in 1992 regulate the total workplace, including nonproduction areas (25). In addition, concern for the toxicity of many metals and their compounds is limiting the use of many fillets, eg, Pb, Co, Cr, and Ba compounds, and possibly the use of certain organometaUic surface coatings. SuppHers have information on proper usage and handling of their products. The use of NIOSH—OSHA-approved dust masks or respirators is requited when dust concentrations exceed permissable exposure limits.  [c.372]

Federal regulation of dmgs, food additives, and reagents used ia in vitro diagnostic tests has iucreased markedly (see Medicaldiagnostic tests). With increasing consumer concern about the safety of fine chemicals, especially those used ia foods and dmgs, the United States government has become increasingly sensitive to the manner ia which standards are set. Freedom of information legislation has confirmed the pubHc s right to know, and this has iatroduced the objective of due process iato the development of standards. The USP—NF and the FCC have mechanisms that make possible pubHc participation ia settiag the standards with which these agencies are iavolved. Neither ACS nor SEMI has such a formal mechanism, but iadividuals from iadustry, government, and academia serve on the ACS Reagent Committee, and committee meetings of both the ACS and SEMI are open to the iaterested pubhc upon request.  [c.445]

Device Legislation. Regulations covering medical devices define reagents used in in vitro diagnostic tests as devices (see Medical diagnostic reagents Prosthetic and biot dicaldevices).  [c.447]

Regulatory Legislation. In Febmary 1978, the Consumer Products Safety Commission approved changes in the FF-3 and FF-5 standards for children s sleepwear. It eliminated the melt—drip time limit and coverage for sizes below 1 and revised the method of testing the trim. This permits the use of untreated 100% nylon and 100% polyester for children s sleepwear (157—162).  [c.492]

Portugal, South Africa, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. This can cause difficulty when trading with these countries. Although these countries have no codified legislation, they have definite ideas as to what can be used. It is best to consult with the specific agencies in these countries before selling flavors or foods to these countries.  [c.19]

In some countries, eg, Finland, Hungary, Pern, Poland, and Bulgaria, one must petition the appropriate government agency and receive permission to manufacture or seU a flavor or a flavored product. Newly emerging countries, although they have no specific regulations, often accept other countries legislation. This is often the case when dealing with the countries of Africa.  [c.19]

The environmental legislation in the United States, such as the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act, as weU as similar regulations in Europe and Japan have focused considerable attention and a large research effort on flocculation in the first three areas because the way in which both industry and local government agencies use water has changed considerably. The fourth area in extractive metallurgy has been driven primarily by the economic necessity to increase recovery. The fifth appHcation is specific to the paper industry, and the materials used are referred to as retention aids. They are similar in chemistry and mechanism to the flocculants used for other appHcations and are included here for that reason. Research in this area is driven by the goal of improving the quaHty of the paper and the economics of its production, as weU as the necessity to reduce the amount of waste.  [c.31]

Legislation and Regulatory Considerations  [c.481]

There exists Htde specific legislation dealing with natural toxicants in foods. The 1958 VoodA.dditives A.mendment to the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic A.ct stipulates that no substance that has been shown to be carcinogenic to either humans or animals may be added to the food supply. Accordingly, those foods that contain added carcinogens are subject to the Delaney Clause. Maximum tolerances of heavy metals, such as Pb and Hg, have been estabUshed by FDA at 0.5 ppm in the food product. For aflatoxins, there is presently a zero tolerance in effect (based on the Delaney Clause), and screening is generally on a quaUtative basis. With these exceptions, natural toxicants in food products are generally not treated by specific food legislation (122). Naturally occurring toxicants have been reviewed in greater detail elsewhere (22,28,31,60,61).  [c.481]

The environmental performance of companies within the industry is normally subject to the legislative requirements of the host government, but is increasingly becoming scrutinised by the public, as available information and general levels of awareness increase. Major companies see responsible management of the environmental aspects of their operations as crucial to the future of their business. The approval of loans from major banks for project finance is usually conditional on acceptable environmental management.  [c.70]

Gas can be injected into reservoirs to supplement recovery by maintaining reservoir pressure or as a means of disposing of gas which cannot be flared under environmental legislation, and for which no market exists.  [c.259]

Fiscal allowances for investment in capital items (i.e. capex) are made through capital allowances. The method of calculating the capital allowance is set by the fiscal legislation of the host government, but three common methods are discussed below.  [c.310]

Keywords production constraints, production targets, reservoir surveillance, monitoring, reservoir model, history match, production logging, well recompletions, workover planning, infill wells, reporting, availability, maintenance shut-downs, measuring opex, de-bottlenecking, incremental projects, system modelling, audits, contract management, legislation.  [c.331]

An equipment item is designed to certain operating standards and conditions, beyond which it should not be operated. To ensure that the equipment is capable of performing safely at the design limit conditions, it must be periodically /nspectedand/or tested. For example, a water deluge system for fire-fighting would be periodically tested to ensure that it starts when given the appropriate signal, and delivers water at the designed rate. If equipment items have to be shut down to test or inspect them (e.g. inspecting for corrosion on the inside of a pressure vessel) this will make the equipment temporarily unavailable. If the equipment item is a main process system item, such as one of those shown in Figure 14.9, then the complete production train would be shut down. This would also be the case in testing a system that was designed to shut down the process in the case of an emergency. This causes a loss of production. Where possible, inspection and testing is designed to be performed on-line to avoid interrupting production, but otherwise such inspections are scheduled to coincide. The periods between full function testing of process equipment is sometimes set by legislation.  [c.343]

Industrial radiography occupies an enviable position in tlte field of Non Destructive Testing (NDT). Its main assets are a unique image quality, providing the possibility to trace even the smallest defects, a high reliability and permanently archivable results. Nonetheless, the growing environmental awareness, the more rigid ecological legislation and the increasing costs for waste disposal may threat the enviable position of industrial radiography. The main challenge for the manufacturer of industrial radiography consists in meeting the new ecological demands without endangering its acknowledged qualities. Even more, we think that on the longer term, radiography is best served when we manage to combine the ecological needs with an additional progress in terms of user-friendliness and speed. At Agfa, the combination of ecology with a further improvement of the assets of radiography, is one of the main objectives, driving the innovations we introduce in the market of industrial radiography. In the past, a great number of actions have been undertaken by Agfa to minimize the environmental burden Apart from these actions, which have largely been implemented, a number of ecological improvements are planned. In this paper we want to focus on one of these the strategy to tackle the problem of silver in the rinsing water.  [c.604]

In the past 6 years, there have been major changes in the method of operation of oil companies in the North Sea and service companies supporting their operations have had to respond to meet the challenges of the new market place. Prominent amongst the drivers of the overall change process has been a new legislative regime for the offshore oil and gas industries and the moves to reduce costs through the Cost Reduction In the New Era (CRINE) initiative. It may be helpful to consider these two factors in more detail to put the impact on inspection companies and the services offered in context.  [c.1010]

In the late 1980s attempts were made in California to shift fuel use to methanol in order to capture the air quaHty benefits of the reduced photochemical reactivity of the emissions from methanol-fueled vehicles. Proposed legislation would mandate that some fraction of the sales of each vehicle manufacturer be capable of using methanol, and that fuel suppHers ensure that methanol was used in these vehicles. The legislation became a study of the California Advisory Board on Air QuaHty and Fuels. The report of the study recommended a broader approach to fuel quaHty and fuel choice that would define environmental objectives and allow the marketplace to determine which vehicle and fuel technologies were adequate to meet environmental objectives at lowest cost and maximum value to consumers. The report directed the California ARB to develop a regulatory approach that would preserve environmental objectives by using emissions standards that reflected the best potential of the cleanest fuels.  [c.434]

Environmental Impact. Federal and State environmental legislation to limit, control, and remove pollutants entering the environment have resulted ia numerous programs relating to propellant and explosive manufacture, storage, use, and disposal. The U.S. Federal Resources Consideration and Recovery Act (1976), the Water Pollution Control Act (1972), the Clean Water QuaUty Act (1972), the Clean Water QuaUty Act (1977), the Clean Air Act (1967), The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (1976), The Federal FaciUties Compliance Act (1992), and their amendments are examples of national legislation to estabUsh controls and standards for numerous contamiaants. The Superfund Act authori2es the federal government to clean up the worst ha2ardous waste sites. The National Environmental PoHcy Act (1969) requires that the environmental impact of federally sponsored programs be acceptable before implementation. These U.S. federal acts have been further reiaforced by strong state and municipal limitations on permissible pollutants (see also Airpollution Airpollution controlp thods).  [c.7]

In the latter twentieth century, technological and pohtical forces have influenced fuel consumption in the United States and throughout the world. Events such as the od embargo of 1973, pohtical unrest in the Middle East, and the coUapse of the Union of the Soviet Sociahst Repubhcs, caused dismptions and shifts in petroleum supply systems. The emergence of the North Sea od field, constmction of the Alyeska Pipeline bringing North Slope, Alaska cmde to U.S. refineries, and other technical developments also occurred. Most recently, the selection of fuels has been influenced by environmental concerns such as the potential of the fuel to form air pollutants, eg, particulates, NO, SO2, and most recently air toxics (3, 7—10) (see Airpollution Air pollution control methods Exhaust control, automotive Exhaust control, industrial). Moreover, there has been the passage of numerous energy and environmental laws within the United States. Legislation has included the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 and the National Energy Pohcy Act of 1992. These laws complement the move toward energy conservation, and the emphasis on materials recycling (qv) for resource management. Eurther, actions by local and state regulatory agencies in the 1990s, including pubHc utdity commissions, have further increased the complexity of fuel supply in the United States.  [c.1]

Whereas the use of petroleum and natural gas is significant in the electricity generating sector, this usage declined from 1970 to 1990, in part owing to the 1977 Euel Use Act (Table 9). The legislation of the 1990s and the growth of independent power producers (IPP) generating electricity for utiHties in combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) faciHties, may mean a reversal in the trend for oil and natural gas utilization for power generation (qv). In any event, total U.S. oil and gas consumption (Table 1) remains high, and these are the fuels of choice for residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation  [c.4]

Ref. 10. Assumes noncrisis conditions, tax incentives and PURPA ia place continued to 2000, no legislative mandates to embark on an off-oil campaign, and total consumption of 91.7 EJ ia 2000.  [c.12]

See pages that mention the term Legislation : [c.278]    [c.331]    [c.365]    [c.938]   
See chapters in:

Hudrocarbon exploration and production  -> Legislation

Health, safety and accident management in the chemical process industries  -> Legislation

Hazardous chemicals handbook Изд.2 (2002) -- [ c.0 ]

Health, safety and accident management in the chemical process industries (2002) -- [ c.31 ]