Capture velocity

Typical minimum transport velocities are given in Table 12.13 and capture velocities for various applications in Table 12.12.  [c.108]

Table 12.12 Range of capture velocities Table 12.12 Range of capture velocities
Condition of dispersion of contaminant Examples Capture velocity (m/s)  [c.408]

Local exhausts arc designed to capture air pollutants and heat at the source, and thus their location and the exhausted airflow rate should ensure sufficient capture velocity.  [c.442]

Conditions Examples Capture velocity, m/s  [c.544]

Note-. In each category above, a range of capture velocities is shown. The proper choice of value depends on several factors  [c.544]

Numerical simulation of hood performance is complex, and results depend on hood design, flow restriction by surrounding surfaces, source strength, and other boundary conditions. Thus, most currently used method.s of hood design are based on experimental studies and analytical models. According to these models, the exhaust airflow rate is calculated based on the desired capture velocity at a particular location in front of the hood. It is easier  [c.544]

Realistic exhausts used to capture contaminants are complex, varying in their geometry and size. In many cases, the airflow rate ensuring a desired capture velocity at a particular location can be obtained only from empirical studies. Air velocities in front of the hood suction opening depend on the exhaust airflow rate, the geometry of the hood, and the surfaces comprising the suction zone. Studies have established the principle of similarity of velocity contours (expressed as a percentage of the hood face velocity) for zones with similar geometry.  [c.546]

Many different measures of local ventilation performance exist. These measures can be divided into three main categories capture velocities, capture efficiencies, and containment efficiencies. Table 10.1 shows the connections between hood types and different efficiency measurements. Section 10.5 describes procedures for measuring each of these performance measures.  [c.816]

Capture velocity is usually defined as the air velocity generated by the exhaust opening necessary to capture a contaminant outside the opening and transport it into the opening. See Fig. 10.5.  [c.816]

The advantage of using capture velocity is that it is possible to calculate the necessary flow rate into the adjacent opening. Its disadvantages are that it  [c.816]

FIGURE 10.5 Illustration of capture velocity.  [c.818]

Cross-draft velocity/capture velocity  [c.824]

B Lise ot capture velocity and centerline velocity.  [c.832]

Equations (10.23) and (10.7) have been used as the basis for centerline velocity estimates. Usually these equations are modified empirically depending on the shape of the exhaust. The results are specific equations for circular openings, square openings, rectangular openings with different side relations, slots, etc. Further modifications are made when the hoods are operated with flanges. The modifications fot flanges result in lower flow rates for the same capture velocity or higher capture velocities with the same flow rate.  [c.844]

TABLE 10.2 Capture Velocities for Various Industrial Processes  [c.847]

In each category below a range of capture velocities is shown. The proper choice of values depends on several factors. Lower end of range, I. Room air currents minimal or favorable to capture,  [c.847]

Condition of dispersion of contaminant Examples Capture velocities (m s- )  [c.847]

Capture efficiency measurements may be used to evaluate the function of a canopy hood (see Section 10.5). Capture velocity is not a feasible evaluation tool, since a canopy hood does not generate an air velocity close to the source. It is also possible to use exposure measurements for workers outside the plume area. Since most hot processes generate visible contaminants, visual inspection of the flow, especially around hood edges, might provide a qualitative evaluation. Many contaminants could however be invisible when diluted and smoke generators (Section 10.5) may be necessary to find leakages (temporary or permanent) around the hood edges.  [c.873]

For evaluation the velocity distribution and capture velocity could be used. Since the worker is quite close to the contaminant-generating place, occupational hygiene efficiency is possible (Section 10.5).  [c.877]

Capture Velocity Criterion  [c.951]

From the ACGIH recommendations, we can say that the system is operating safely if a fluid velocity greater than or equal to the capture velocity is induced across the whole of the tank surface, and the exhaust flow rate is sufficient to capture all the fluid in the jet. Since the maximum velocity at any  [c.951]

TABLE 10.12 Recommended Capture Velocities for Different Operating Conditions, Based on Table 3.1 (ACGIH )  [c.952]

Condition of dispersion of contaminant Example Capture velocity (m s" )  [c.952]

Gases, vapors, and fumes usually do not exhibit significant inertial effects. In addition, some fine dusts, 5 to 10 micrometers or less in diameter, will not exhibit significant inertial effects. These contaminants will be transported with the surrounding air motion such as thermal air current, motion of machinery, movement of operators, and/or other room air currents. In such cases, the exterior hood needs to generate an airflow pattern and capture velocity sufficient to control the motion of the contaminants. However, as the airflow pattern created around a suction opening is not effective over a large distance, it is very difficult to control contaminants emitted from a source located at a di,stance from the exhaust outlet. In such a case, a low-momentum airflow is supplied across the contaminant source and toward the exhaust hood. The  [c.966]

For exterior hoods, the measurement of capture velocity provides a quick check of the ideal design conditions. However, it must be remembered that capture velocity is not a direct measure of the ability of an exterior hood to provide personnel protection. Other efficiency measures are required in order to evaluate its performance in practice. The following two efficiency measurements could be useful capture efficiency and occupational hygiene efficiency. These measures complement each other.  [c.1014]

Determination of Capture Velocity  [c.1015]

Comparisons between measurements on the two geometries. Figs. 12.39A and f2.39c show that a rotating flow will be generated in both cases. I he 1-shaped exhaust opening in the middle of the rotating flow in the original design is not the only element that generates the vortex the asymmetry is also important as a source of vortex flow. The T-connection will smooth the capture velocity in the horizontal direction compared with the velocity distribution obtained in the simplified design.  [c.1192]

Canopy hoods A capture hood located above a process, designed to provide a suitable capture velocity to ensure the safe removal of the contaminant produced by the process.  [c.1419]

Capture velocity The air velocity necessary at a point in order to capture and transport to the exhaust opening the contaminants being emitted from a process.  [c.1419]

Range hood An extraction hood positioned above a cooking range to provide the best possible capture velocity of the fumes.  [c.1471]

Zone, capture The area or volume in which a capturing device contains the generated emissions around a process. The capture velocity in this zone must be high enough to ensure the efficient collection of pollutants.  [c.1489]

Equation (Cl.4.35) yields two remarkable predictions first, tliat tire sub-Doppler friction coefficient can be a big number compared to since at far detuning Aj /T is a big number and second, tliat a p is independent of tire applied field intensity. This last result contrasts sharjDly witli tire Doppler friction coefficient which is proportional to field intensity up to saturation (see equation (C1.4.24). However, even tliough a p looks impressive, tire range of atomic velocities over which is can operate are restricted by tire condition tliat T lcv. The ratio of tire capture velocities for Doppler versus sub-Doppler cooling is tlierefore only uipi/uj 2 Figure Cl. 4.6 illustrates  [c.2465]

Figure C 1.4.6. Comparison of capture velocity for Doppler cooling and Tin-periD-lin sub-Doppler cooling. Notice tliat tire slope of tire curves, proportional to tire friction coefficient, is much steeper for tire sub-Doppler mechanism. (After [17].) Figure C 1.4.6. Comparison of capture velocity for Doppler cooling and Tin-periD-lin sub-Doppler cooling. Notice tliat tire slope of tire curves, proportional to tire friction coefficient, is much steeper for tire sub-Doppler mechanism. (After [17].)
The capture velocity is the air velocity at the point of contaminant generation upstream of a hood. The contaminant enters the moving airstream at the point of generation and is conducted along with the air into the hood. The concept of capture velocity is primarily used by cfesigners to select a volumetric flow rate for withdrawing air through a hood in the case of a nonbuoyant contaminant source. Ranges of capture velocities for several industrial operations are listed in Table 7.21.- The values for capture velocities are based on successful experience under ideal conditions. For the given hood, if design velocities anywhere upstream of the hood are known [v = f q, x, y, )], the capture velocity is set equal to at the point (x, y, z) where contaminants are to be captured and is found. To ensure that contaminants enter an inlet, the transport equations between the source and the hood have to be solved.  [c.543]

Evaluation proce- Ciapture efficiency, capture velocity Containment indices  [c.817]

Cross-draft velocity was normalized by dividing the measured cross-draft ve-locit by the capture velocity calculated at the tatik centerline. Capture velocity at the tank centerline was calculated using Silverman s - centerline velocity (Eq. (JO.l)) for unflanged slot hoods. There was considerable scatter in the data, show ing chat cross-draft velocity alone is not responsible for low capture efficiency.  [c.823]

Method B Use of Centerline Velocity Models with Capture Velocity Capture velocity is defined as the velocity outside an exhaust necessary to capture the contaminant farthest away from the opening, when it has released its initial energy, and transport it into the opening. Selection of capture velocity depends on the source generation rate, speed, direction, and spread, as well as the effects of disturbances such as cross-drafts. Some problems with this design procedure are generated contaminants usually do not have one single velocity, and the maximum release velocity is usually not known, nor are the temporal and. spatial velocity distributions of the release. Some very approximate recommended capture velocities for different processes are given in Table 10.2. It must be emphasized that these values have been the same since they were first published in the 1940s. 36 Pew results regatding capture vekvcity have been published. Most of these studies have shown that capture velocity is not a simple tool to use. 08  [c.844]

Rim exhausts, being one type of slot hood, use the same basic principles as given in the section on basic exhaust openings. The recommendation is to use the equations ven in the Basic Exhaust Openings section for unflanged or flanged slot hoods or elliptical openings. The most common design method, howevei uses Method B, capture velocity. The design procedure involves selecting a capture velocity. The selection depends on the generation rate and toxicity of the contaminant as well as some consideration of disturbances near the local exhaust hood. For the case of open surface tanks, the generation rate and toxicity are usually combined to determine the class of contaminant. The class is then used to select an appropriate capture velocity. The ACGIFf gives recommended capture velocities for a number of open-tank processes. F.quation (10.55) is applicable  [c.849]

Welding Operations Efforts have been made to use the LVHV design approach for controlling welding fumes. Sometimes, this can be an effective method. Sometimes, however, there can be serious problems with the high-velocity exhaust stripping away shielding gases and causing poor quality welds. It is also difficult for exhaust nozzles to survive without damage in industrial welding environments, where even relatively slight damage can cause significant changes in the high-velocity airflow patterns and adversely affect welding. Most successful point-exhaust applications for welding establish capture velocities lower than for LVHV dust control, but still higher than for conventional exhaust hoods.  [c.854]

The ACGIHi" gives guidelines for the minimum capture velocity, V p, which must be induced to move a contaminant toward an exhaust. The recommended value depends on the industrial process and the local conditions, and Table 10.12 shows the recommendations for typical open-surface-tank processes.  [c.951]

The capture velocity of a hood is defined as the air velocity created by the hood at the point of contaminant generation. The hood must generate a capture velocity sufficient to overcome opposing air currents and transport the contaminant to the hood. For enclosing hoods, capture velocity is the velocity at the hood opening. In this case, the velocity must be sufficient to keep the contaminant in the hood. In practice, hood shape and the influence of crossdrafts on the measured capture velocity have to be considered. All three velocity components should be measured and used to calculate the magnitude and direction of the total velocity. Other methods used, not as good as the previous one, are to measure the velocity with a directional velocity sensor towards the hood or to measure the net velocity by an omnidirectional velocity sensor. In the last method the main airflow direction should be viewed and evaluated by means of a smoke test (see Sections 10.2.1 and  [c.1015]

See pages that mention the term Capture velocity : [c.2469]    [c.416]    [c.542]    [c.543]    [c.823]    [c.850]    [c.866]   
See chapters in:

Industrial ventilation design guidebook  -> Capture velocity

Hazardous chemicals handbook Изд.2 (2002) -- [ c.408 ]

Industrial ventilation design guidebook (2001) -- [ c.147 , c.543 , c.816 , c.844 , c.845 , c.846 , c.849 , c.865 , c.873 , c.953 , c.1014 , c.1014 , c.1411 , c.1411 , c.1478 ]