Nyquist contour

Dual- or triple-rinse tanks foUow most process solutions. Additionally, many lines utilize counterflow or cascade rinsing with the multiple tanks plumbed so freshwater flows from one tank to the next counter to the direction of the work. This method of conserving water is recommended procedure for all plating lines. A double counterflow rinse of 70 L/h could give equivalent rinsing to 2250 L/h using a single rinse in reducing a concentrated solution of 2200 g/L to 7.5 g/L. For a triple counterflow rinse, the rate dropped to 30 L/h (34).  [c.150]

Fig. 6.16 s-plane Nyquist contour.  [c.163]

Consider a Nyquist contour for the nominal open-loop system Gm(iLu)C(iuj) with the model uncertainty given by equation (9.119). Let fa( ) be the bound of additive uncertainty and therefore be the radius of a disk superimposed upon the nominal Nyquist contour. This means that G(iuj) lies within a family of plants 7r(C(ja ) e tt) described by the disk, defined mathematically as  [c.306]

Let us consider a closed path L defined in terms of a continuous parameter X so that the starting point sg of the contour is at 1 = 0. Next, P is defined as the value attained by X once the contour completes a full cycle and returns to its starting point. For example, in the case of a circle, X is an angle and P = 2tu.  [c.646]

The D matrix plays an important role in the forthcoming theory because it contains all topological features of an electronic manifold in a region surrounded by a contour F as will be explained next.  [c.648]

The proof is based on Eq. (87). Let us assume that a certain closed contour yields a set of a,j angles that produce a number K. Next, we consider a slightly different closed contour, along which one of these a,j parameters, say changed its value from zero to n. From Eq. (87), it can be seen that only two D matrix elements contain cos (a ), namely, and D . Now, if these two matrix elements were positive following the first contour, then changing otj, from 0 7t would produce two additional (— 1) terms, thus increasing K to K + 2-, if these two matrix elements were negative, this change would cause K to decrease to A — 2 and if one of these elements was positive and the other negative, then  [c.666]

An important step in learning from individual reactions is the grouping of reaction instances into reaction types, the classification of reactions. In this chapter we first show different approaches that have been made in chemistry to classify reactions into reaction types (Section 3.2). We then emphasize the importance of the reaction center, and the bonds broken and made in a chemical reaction (Section 3.3). Next, we present some of the reasoning that has been put forward by chemists to rationalize the breaking and making of certain bonds in a molecule. In addition, we wiU discuss some simple methods for a more quantitative treatment of chemical reactivity (Section 3.4). Budding on these discussions, in Section 3.5 we present a few approaches to reaction classification that have also been implemented as algorithms. Section 3.6 deals with the stereochemistry of reactions and its handling by permutation groups.  [c.172]

From among the many reaction classification schemes, only a few are mentioned here. The first model concentrates initially on the atoms of the reaction center and the next approach looks first at the bonds involved in the reaction center. These are followed by systems that have actually been implemented, and whose performance is demonstrated.  [c.183]

The next question is how to represent the reacting bonds of the reaction center. We wanted to develop a method for reaction classification that can be used for knowledge extraction from reaction databases for the prediction of the products of a reaction. Thus, we could only use physicochemical values of the reactants, because these should tell us what products we obtain.  [c.194]

Cud added. Insert the claisen head adapter into the flask. Be sure to apply some vac-grease to the joints. Place the addition funnel In the center hole. Add the 500 grams of safrole fo the funnel, but don t start adding it to the stirring solution. Next fill the balloon up with O2. She said that she filled it up pretty tight, but don t blow it up. Carefully attach the balloon to the remaining open hole on the claisen adapter and then TAPE or wire it to prevent any leakage. For those of you that don t have access to various pieces of glassware, placing the balloon on the addition funnel will woik as well. This was described in the book, Total Synthesis, pages 52 to 55.  [c.67]

Next translate the Fischer projection of l serine to a three dimensional represen tation and orient it so that the lowest ranked substituent at the chirality center IS directed away from you  [c.1116]

The addition polymerization of a vinyl monomer CH2=CHX involves three distinctly different steps. First, the reactive center must be initiated by a suitable reaction to produce a free radical or an anion or cation reaction site. Next, this reactive entity adds consecutive monomer units to propagate the polymer chain. Finally, the active site is capped off, terminating the polymer formation. If one assumes that the polymer produced is truly a high molecular weight substance, the lack of uniformity at the two ends of the chain—arising in one case from the initiation, and in the other from the termination-can be neglected. Accordingly, the overall reaction can be written  [c.14]

Next we recognize that any one of the repeat units can lie at the center of mass of the coil. To incorporate this last consideration, we sum Eq. (1.53) for all values of j and then divided by = n  [c.53]

Next, suppose we consider the tangential velocity v of segment i in a polymer molecule. The segment is located a distance r from the center of mass of the molecule and possesses an average angular velocity co. The situation is sketched in Fig. 2.12a. Since v = rco, it follows that the x and y components of the velocity are given by  [c.108]

The active-center chain end is open to front or rear attack in general hence the configuration of a repeat unit is not fixed until the next unit attaches to the growing chain.  [c.473]

The next step in the development of molecular orbital theories involved aH-valence-electron methods wherein the concept of zero differential overlap (ZDO) of two-center integrals involved in the wave functions are refined. In these techniques, which introduced drastically reduced numbers of integrals requiring evaluation, investigators found they could incrementally move toward a more complete set of SCF equations without thek being computationally intractable. In 1965, the fkst group of a series of important papers detailing the Complete Neglect of Differential Overlap (CNDO) and Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap (NDDO) methods were pubHshed (47). Full computational details of these methods are also available (21,22). The CNDO and NDDO techniques enabled computation of a broad spectmm of geometric features, such as bond lengths, angles, and related properties, including dipole moments, which could be predicted for singly bonded systems for the fkst time. The methods continue to be used today (ca 1997), although the relatively poor accuracy of the CNDO technique in determining stmctural and charge distribution properties has led to its being used principally in spectroscopy (48).  [c.162]

The feed is normally introduced to the top hearth where the rabble arms and teeth attached to the central shaft rotate and spiral soflds across the hearth to the center, where an opening is provided and the soflds drop to the next hearth. The teeth of the rabble arms on the hearth spiral the soflds toward the outside to ports that let the soflds drop down to the next hearth. Soflds continue downward, traversing each hearth until they reach the bottom and the ash is discharged. The primary advantage of this system is the long residence time in the furnace controlled by the speed of the central shaft and pitch of the teeth.  [c.46]

Chiral Smectic. In much the same way as a chiral compound forms the chiral nematic phase instead of the nematic phase, a compound with a chiral center forms a chiral smectic C phase rather than a smectic C phase. In a chiral smectic CHquid crystal, the angle the director is tilted away from the normal to the layers is constant, but the direction of the tilt rotates around the layer normal in going from one layer to the next. This is shown in Figure 10. The distance over which the director rotates completely around the layer normal is called the pitch, and can be as small as 250 nm and as large as desired. If the molecule contains a permanent dipole moment transverse to the long molecular axis, then the chiral smectic phase is ferroelectric. Therefore a device utilizing this phase can be intrinsically bistable, paving the way for important appHcations.  [c.194]

An ESI ion source produces multiply charged ions from biomolecules with high sensitivity. The analyte solution is sprayed at atmospheric pressure from a needle floated at a few kV above ground potential, and sampling cones select the center of the spray to enter the mass spectrometer via a differentially pumped transfer region. The resulting spectra contain a series of multiply charged ions each having one charge more than the next highest mass ion, and because a mass spectrometer measures the mass-to-charge ratio of an ion, ESI produces ions from large molecules which can be analyzed by such mass spectrometers as quadmpoles and ion traps. Figure 9b, an electrospray spectmm of lysozyme, shows that the most abundant ion in this case is the +9 charge state. Analysis conditions such as the pH of the analyte solution influence which charge state is the most abundant. For bovine albuinin which has a molecular mass of 66,625, the ESI mass spectmm typically contains ions having between 20 and 45 charges, ie, m/ of 3331—1481. The mass of the analyte may be calculated using the following formula  [c.547]

The valence theory (4) includes both types of three-center bonds shown as well as normal two-center, B—B and B—H, bonds. For example, one resonance stmcture of pentaborane(9) is given in projection in Figure 6. An octet of electrons about each boron atom is attained only if three-center bonds are used in addition to two-center bonds. In many cases involving boron hydrides the valence stmcture can be deduced. First, the total number of orbitals and valence electrons available for bonding are determined. Next, the B—H and B—H—B bonds are accounted for. Finally, the remaining orbitals and valence electrons are used in framework bonding. Alternative placements of hydrogen atoms require different valence stmctures.  [c.233]

Enrobing. A preformed center such as nougat, fondant, fudge, cookies, etc, is placed on a conveyor belt and passed through a curtain of Uquid tempered chocolate. The weight and thickness of the coating adhering to the center is controUed by an air curtain and vibration mechanism located immediately after the chocolate curtain. The now chocolate-coated centers pass into a cooling tunnel with a dweU time between 5 and 10 minutes. Upon emergence from the cooling tunnel the chocolate-coated pieces are ready for wrapping and packing.  [c.96]

Light Mixing. Light or additive mixing applies to light beams. White results when any suitable set of three-color beams of the appropriate intensity are mixed. On the chromaticity diagram of Figures 8 and 9, the condition for equal intensity beams is that WHes at the center of gravity of the triangle formed by the three sources. A suitable set of primary light beams is red, blue, and green, each being near a corner of Figures 8 and 9. Red and green by themselves add to give yellow, red and blue give purple and magenta, and blue and green give blue-green and cyan, as can be estabUshed by tie lines on Figure 8. It is important to distinguish magenta from red and cyan from blue to avoid confusing the additive from the subtractive system described next.  [c.414]

From the Nyquist stability criterion, let N k, G(iuj)) be the net number of clockwise encirclements of a point (k, 0) of the Nyquist contour. Assume that all plants in the family tt, expressed in equation (9.132) have the same number ( ) of right-hand plane (RHP) poles.  [c.306]

That the electronic adiabatic manifold can be multivalued is a well-known fact, going back to Longuet-Higgins et al. [14-17], In this section, we just proved that the same applies to the adiabatic-to-diabatic transformation matrix and for this purpose we introduced the diabatic framework. The diabatic manifold is, by definition, a manifold independent of the nuclear coordinates and therefore single-valued in configuration space. Such a manifold always exists for a complete Hilbert space [36b] (see Appendix D). Next, we assume that an approximate (paitial) diabatic manifold like that can be found for the present sub-Hilbert space defined with respect to a certain region in configuration space. This approximate diabatic manifold is, by definition, single valued. Then, we consider Eq. (18), in which the electronic diabatic manifold is presented in terms of the product where is the adiabatic electronic manifold. Since this product is singled valued in configuration space (because it produces a diabatic manifold) it remains single valued while tracing a closed contour. In order for this product to remain single valued, the number of wave functions that flip sign in this process has to be identical to the topological number K. Moreover the positions of the (—l)s in the D matrix have to match the electronic eigenfunctions that flip their sign. Thus, for example, if the third element in the D matrix is (—1) this implies that the electronic eigenfunction that belongs to the third state flips sign.  [c.648]

To obtain the y j angles one usually has to solve the relevant first-order differential equations of the type given in Eq. (82). Next, like before, the a,j angles are defined as the y,j angles at the end of a closed contour. In order to obtain the matrix one has to replace, in Eq. (86), the angles Y,j by the corresponding a,j angles. Since has to be a diagonal matrix with (-1-1) and (—1) terms in the diagonal, this can be achieved if and only if all a,y angles are zero or multiples of tt. It is straightforwaid to show that with this structure the elements of become [9]  [c.662]

Our next task is to derive all possible K values for a given Nj. First, we refer to a few special cases It was shown before that in case of Ay = 1 the D matrix contains two (—1) terms in its diagonal in case the contoui surrounds the conical intersection and no (—1) terms when the contour does not surround the conical intersection. Thus the allowed values of K aie either 2 or 0. The value A = 1 is not allowed. A similar inspection of the case Nj = 2 reveals that K, as before, is equal either to 2 or to 0 (see Section V.B). Thus the values K = or 3 are not allowed. From here, we continue to the general case and prove the following statement  [c.666]

To prove this, we eonsider the following three regions (see Fig. 3) In the first region, designated ai2, is located the main portion of the interaction, t]2, between states 1 and 2 with the point of the conical intersection at Ci2. In the second region, designated as a23, is located the main portion of the interaction, t23, between states 2 and 3 with the point of the conical intersection at C23. In addition, we assume a thud region, ctq, which is located in-between the two and is used as a buffer zone. Next, it is assumed that the intensity of the interactions due to the components of t23 in On and due to ti2 in a23 is 0. This situation can always be achieved by shrinking ai2(cT23) toward its corresponding center Ci2(C23). In cto, the components of both ti2 and I23 may be of arbitrary magnitude but no conical intersection of any pair of states is allowed to be there.  [c.669]

In the first part of this study, we were interested in non-adiabatic coupling terms between the A and 2 A and between the 2 A and 3 A electronic states. The calculations were done employing MOLPRO [6], which yield the six relevant non-adiabatic coupling elements as calculated with respect to the Cartesian center-of-mass coordinates of each atom. These coupling terms were then transformed, employing chain rules [12,73], to non-adiabatic coupling elements with respect to the internal coordinates of the C2H molecule, namely, (, 0 j /6ri) (= t ), Ci 0Cj/0r2)(= T,J, and (Ci 0Cj70

(= T,p). Here n and are the C-C and C—H distances, respectively, and tp is the relevant CC- CH angle. The adiabatic-to-diabatic transformation angle, Y([c.704]

Figure 13. The NACT cr((p) (see text) and the ADT matrix diagonal elements A ((p) i = 1,2,3, as calculated for two contours surrounding all three CIs (a) and (c) Results for the C3 contour q = 0.4 A), b) and Results for the C4 contour q = 0.25 A), The upper panels present the geometrical situation for each case The contour C3 has its center at the point of the (2,3) Cl and its radius is q = 0.4 A. The contour C4 has its center (at a distance of 0.2 A) in-between the (2,3) Cl point and the two (3,4) CIs axis and its radius is q = 0.25 A. Figure 13. The NACT cr((p) (see text) and the ADT matrix diagonal elements A ((p) i = 1,2,3, as calculated for two contours surrounding all three CIs (a) and (c) Results for the C3 contour q = 0.4 A), b) and Results for the C4 contour q = 0.25 A), The upper panels present the geometrical situation for each case The contour C3 has its center at the point of the (2,3) Cl and its radius is q = 0.4 A. The contour C4 has its center (at a distance of 0.2 A) in-between the (2,3) Cl point and the two (3,4) CIs axis and its radius is q = 0.25 A.
Next, we are aware of the fact that if the system traces F23 it will be the two lower eigenfunctions that flip signs. If the system traces F34, then no function flips its sign because two such conical intersections cancel each other [12,22,26,74,125]. Now, if the system traces F24 then, from Eq. (194) it follows that again, only the two lowest functions flip their sign, so that the effect due to the single lower Cl will be preserved. In other words, the two-state topological effects are not disturbed along those contours that surround all three CIs. The results will be different once we choose a contour that surrounds, in addition to the lower d, only one of the two upper CIs [see Ref. (117b)].  [c.712]

In order to determine the permutation stereodescriptor of a stereoisomer, the permutation matrix has to be set up and brought into correspondence with the reference isomer by permutation of the ligands. Figure 2-81 shows this for the stereoisomer that is obtained from the reference isomer through rotation by 120 h In the next step, the number of transpositions - the number of interchanges of two ligands - is determined. This is achieved by changing the indices of two ligands until the reference sequence is obtained. In this process, only the interchange of two neighboring ligand indices is allowed. Each interchange is written as a transposition operation on the top left-hand side of the permutation matrix (the matrix in the center of Figure 2-81).  [c.86]

The databases of CAS are accessible through two major tools - STN software and SciFinder. STN Information was formed by the collaboration of CAS with FIZ Karlsruhe, Germany and the Japan Information Center for Science and Technology (jlCST) in order to meet customer needs more effectively for access to the rapidly growing resources of scientific and technical information. For a long time search ing in CA databases had to be performed in alphanumeric form with the Messen gcr language. Because of the complexity of the task searching was mostly per formed by experts. Then, the STN Express software was introduced for searching in CAS files. Next, STN Easy, a browser-based interface for novice users, was devel oped along with STN on the Web, which provided the STN command line capabil itics within a web browser.  [c.242]

Next, the power and the benefits of reaction center or reaction sub.structurc searching (see Section 3.3) will be illustrated. Figure 10.3-26 shows some of the hits obtained in a search for reactions that form a C-C bond. Intentionally, only the names of the starting materials and products of these reactions are given in order to emphasize that the common feature of these reactions cannot be derived from coding chemical compounds by name. Only a search by reaction center can expose the similarity in these reactions. The next logical steps would then be to explore whether these reactions have more in common than just forming a C-C bond.  [c.566]

The remainder of the input file gives the basis set. The line, 1 0, specifies the atom center 1 (the only atom in this case) and is terminated by 0. The next line contains a shell type, S for the Is orbital, tells the system that there is 1 primitive Gaussian, and gives the scale factor as 1.0 (unsealed). The next line gives Y = 0.282942 for the Gaussian function and a contiaction coefficient. This is the value of Y, the Gaussian exponential parameter that we found in Computer Project 6-1, Part B. [The precise value for y comes from the closed solution for this problem S/Oir (McWeeny, 1979).] There is only one function, so the contiaction coefficient is 1.0. The line of asterisks tells the system that the input is complete.  [c.244]

The author wishes to acknowledge the unfailing help and constiuctive criticism of Frank Me Lafferty, the computer tips of Nikita Matsunaga and Xeru Li. Some of the research which gave rise to Computer Projects in the latter half of the book were carried out under a grant of computer time from the National Science Foundation through the National Center for Supercomputing Applications both of which are gratefully acknowledged.  [c.363]

Glyceraldehyde can be considered to be the simplest chiral carbohydrate It is an aldotriose and because it contains one chirality center exists in two stereoisomeric forms the D and l enantiomers Moving up the scale m complexity next come the aldotetroses Examining their structures illustrates the application of the Fischer system to compounds that contain more than one chirality center  [c.1029]

Rule 2. When atoms attached directly to a double-bonded carbon have the same priority, the second atoms are considered and so on, if necessary, working outward once again from the double bond or chiral center. For example, in l-chloro-2-methylbutene, in CH3 the second atoms are H, H, H and in CH2CH3 they are C, H, H. Since carbon has a higher atomic number than hydrogen, the ethyl group has the next highest priority after the chlorine atom.  [c.45]

Typical anisotropic sintered materials have a grain size of 1 p.m, ie, somewhat larger than but sufftciendy small to avoid domains down to considerable counter fields. Magnetization reversal proceeds by nucleation and growth of (transient) domains (74). On a macroscale the reversal process is nonuniform, being governed by the initia tion and growth of multicrystal reversed regions (75). On this basis, the next expression for the coercivity has been proposed (75)  [c.193]

JICST/JOIS. The Japan Information Center for Science and Technology (fICST) Mass Spectral Database is accessible to users in Japan through the JICST Eactual Database System (fOlS-E). The database uses the NIST/EPA/ MSCD data collection supplemented by spectra from the Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan (84).  [c.122]

Grid Voltage Support. This appHcation has been the focus of increa sing discussion during the 1990s, precipitated by numerous utihty studies detailing a system planning paradigm shift and concern for the consequences of deregulation in the United States. Specifically, the thinking is based on a detailed evaluation of various low capacity (ie, <1 MW) decentralized generation and distribution options, compared to the previous evaluations based entirely on 200+ MW centralized generation increments. This finely tuned evaluation quantifies some of the commonly accepted but previously subjective benefits of PV systems such as modularity, quick constmction time, and inherent dispatchabiUty, ie, a local match between PV system daily output profile and summer peaking utihty demand contour. Similatly, the relatively high costs associated with regular (eg, noon—7 pm, July—Sept.) overload of end-of-the-grid feeder circuits become visible when analyzed ia greater detail. This type of appHcation was first demonstrated ia 1982 with a 1 MW iastaHation ia the high desert of Southern California next to the Southern California Edison Lugo substation.  [c.475]

Soybeans are stored in concrete silos 6—12 m dia with heights of >46 m. The silos are often arranged in multiple rows, and the resulting interstitial silo areas are likewise used for storage. In bulk storage, seasonal temperature changes cause variations in temperature between the different portions of the grain mass for example, in the winter, soybeans next to the outer walls are colder than those in the center of the silo. Such temperature differences initiate air currents that transfer moisture from warm to cold portions of the seed mass. Thus, bulk soybeans originally at safe moisture concentrations may, after storage, have localized regions of higher moisture that cause growth of microorganisms, which in turn can lead to heating. If these conditions persist, the beans turn black and may eventually ignite. Such seasonal moisture transfer also occurs with other oilseeds. In commercial practice the temperature is carefully monitored and, when it rises, the beans are either remixed or processed. Aflatoxin contamination is not a problem as it is with cottonseed and peanuts. Although fungi invade soybeans stored at high moisture and temperatures, yispergillusflavus does not grow well on soybeans and aflatoxin levels are negligible. Other mycotoxins, eg, zearalenone, zearalenol, diacetoxyschpenol, deoxynivalenol, and T-2 toxin, can be found in soybeans damaged by molds in the field when abnormally warm and humid weather prevails and delays harvesting (39).  [c.296]

To understand the milling process, it is necessary to examine the stmcture of the com kernel (Eig. 3) (55). Principal parts of the kernel are the tip cap (0.8%), pericarp or hull (5%), germ or embryo (11%), and the endosperm (82%). The tip cap and pericarp are separated in the fiber fraction in wet-milling, or in the bran fraction in dry-milling. The germ is comprised mainly of protein and Hpids, whereas the endosperm consists of starch granules embedded in a proteinaceous cellular matrix. The principal U.S. com crop, dent com, has two distinct regions of endosperm, floury and horny. Eloury endosperm at the grain center has loosely packed starch in less dense proteinaceous cells, whereas horny endosperm at the grain periphery contains densely packed starch granules in a region of high protein content. Starch granules in the more dense horny endosperm are polygonal as opposed to the more round granules in the floury endosperm. Most dent com has a ratio of floury to horny endosperm of about 1 2. Horny endosperm requires thorough steeping to soften the protein matrix and ensure maximum starch recovery. The germ next to the endosperm is the scuteUum, a repository for enzymes required for hydrolyzing the endosperm during embryonic development during germination to produce a new com plant. Because the scuteUar epithelium is strongly bound to the endosperm, long steeping times are required for separation. The average composition of com grain on a dry basis is 71.3% starch, 9.91% protein, and 4.45% fat (56,57). Normal water content is 10—15%.  [c.342]

Official Properties. The physical properties of steam have long had considerable commercial importance. The expected efficiency of steam turbines depends on them. The first steam tables for practical use were based on Regnault s data (1) and began to appear toward the end of the nineteenth century. A thermodynamically consistent set of equations for fitting data was devised in 1900 by H. L. CaHendar and was adopted by MoUier and others. The hbrary of the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) contains six different steam tables pubUshed between 1897 and 1915. The necessity of international property formulations was recognized as early as 1929, when the First International Steam Table Conference was held in London. As of this writing (1996), 12 international conferences on the properties of steam have been held. In 1972, the International Association for the Properties of Steam (ZAPS) was formed. At the 12th International Conference on Properties of Water and Steam (ICPWS), ZAPS changed its name to the International Association for Properties of Water and Steam (lAPWS), an association of national committees that maintains the official standard properties of steam and water for power cycle use. In the United States, the national committee is sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).  [c.350]

Sugarcane, a sweet reed or grass in its eadiest forms, probably originated in New Guinea. It was found throughout Southeast Asia, China, the South Pacific, the Indian subcontinent (where some cl aim it originated), and the Middle East by the fourth century BC. The soldiers of Alexander the Great (356—323 Bc) brought from India to Macedonia a plant that produced "honey without bees," thereby bringing sugarcane to the European continent. Arabic travelers spread sugarcane throughout the Mediterranean area. By the twelfth century, sugarcane had reached Europe, and Venice was the center of sugar trade and refining. Marco Polo reported advanced sugar refining in China toward the end of the thirteenth century. Columbus brought sugarcane to the new wodd on his second voyage. It spread throughout the Western Hemisphere in the next 200 years, and by about 1750 sugarcane had been introduced throughout the wodd.  [c.12]

A conventional circular-wedge roaster consists of a brick-lined steel shell with hearths arched gendy upward from the periphery to a central shaft. The brick hearths may number from 8 to 16 and are ca 1 m apart. The central steel shaft (ca 1.2 m in diameter) revolves at 1 rpm or less carrying two rabble arms per hearth. These rabbles, cooled with air or water, plow the ore from the outside to the center of the hearth where it is dropped to the next hearth for plowing in the opposite direction. The calcine thus proceeds to the bottom where it is dropped into a conveyor. The sulfide sulfur at this point is ca 3.5% (22).  [c.399]

See pages that mention the term Nyquist contour : [c.124]    [c.122]    [c.121]    [c.445]    [c.112]    [c.458]   
Advanced control engineering (2001) -- [ c.163 ]