# Initial

To illustrate the criterion for parameter estimation, let 1, 2, and 3 represent the three components in a mixture. Components 1 and 2 are only partially miscible components 1 and 3, as well as components 2 and 3 are totally miscible. The two binary parameters for the 1-2 binary are determined from mutual-solubility data and remain fixed. Initial estimates of the four binary parameters for the two completely miscible binaries, 1-3 and 2-3, are determined from sets of binary vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data. The final values of these parameters are then obtained by fitting both sets of binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data simultaneously with the limited ternary tie-line data. [c.67]

Using the ternary tie-line data and the binary VLE data for the miscible binary pairs, the optimum binary parameters are obtained for each ternary of the type 1-2-i for i = 3. .. m. This results in multiple sets of the parameters for the 1-2 binary, since this binary occurs in each of the ternaries containing two liquid phases. To determine a single set of parameters to represent the 1-2 binary system, the values obtained from initial data reduction of each of the ternary systems are plotted with their approximate confidence ellipses. We choose a single optimum set from the intersection of the confidence ellipses. Finally, with the parameters for the 1-2 binary set at their optimum value, the parameters are adjusted for the remaining miscible binary in each ternary, i.e. the parameters for the 2-i binary system in each ternary of the type 1-2-i for i = 3. .. m. This adjustment is made, again, using the ternary tie-line data and binary VLE data. [c.74]

Equations (7-8) and (7-9) are then used to calculate the compositions, which are normalized and used in the thermodynamic subroutines to find new equilibrium ratios,. These values are then used in the next Newton-Raphson iteration. The iterative process continues until the magnitude of the objective function 1g is less than a convergence criterion, e. If initial estimates of x, y, and a are not provided externally (for instance from previous calculations of the same separation under slightly different conditions), they are taken to be [c.121]

Convergence of the iteration requires the norm of the objective vector 1g to be less than the convergence criterion, e. The initial estimates used, if not provided externally, are, in addition to Equation (7-28) [c.122]

Both vapor-liquid flash calculations are implemented by the FORTRAN IV subroutine FLASH, which is described and listed in Appendix F. This subroutine can accept vapor and liquid feed streams simultaneously. It provides for input of estimates of vaporization, vapor and liquid compositions, and, for the adiabatic calculation, temperature, but makes its own initial estimates as specified above in the absence (0 values) of the external estimates. No cases have been encountered in which convergence is not achieved from internal initial estimates. [c.122]

The convergence rate depends somewhat on the problem and on the initial estimates used. For mixtures that are not extremely wide-boiling, convergence is usually accomplished in three or four iterations,t even in the presence of relatively strong liquid-phase nonidealities. For example, cases 1 through 4 in Table 1 are typical of relatively close-boiling mixtures the latter three exhibit significant liquid-phase nonidealities. [c.122]

In the highly nonlinear equilibrium situations characteristic of liquid separations, the use of priori initial estimates of phase compositions that are not very close to the true compositions of these phases can lead to divergence of iterative computations or to spurious convergence upon feed composition. [c.128]

These initial estimates are used in the iteration function. Equation (37), to obtain values of the 2 s that do not change significantly from one iteration to the next. These true mole fractions, with Equation (3-13), yield the desired fugacity [c.135]

I. The next card gives the initial parameter estimates. [c.227]

P(I) cols 1-50 initial parameters for 1=1,LL LL is determined by the liquid-phase model used. [c.227]

INITIAL ESTIMATES OF PARAMETERS [c.235]

READ IN AND DOCUMENT INITIAL PARAMETER ESTIMATES [c.237]

INITIALIZE INTERNAL PARAMETERS. [c.241]

INITIAL ESTIMATES OF TRUE VALUES OF THE VARIABLES ARE SET EQUAL TO THE MEASURED VALUES. [c.241]

A - INITIALLY CONTAINS THE MATRIX TO BE INVERTED WHICH [c.248]

INITIAL CALL TO THIS SUBROUTINE MUST BE MADE WITH KEY.EQ.O [c.262]

KEY integer for initialization control. [c.290]

Initial calculation with new system [c.290]

DATA ARE INVOLVED IT RETURNS ERR=1 ANO IF NO SOLUTION IS FOUND IT RETURNS ERR=2. KEY SHOULD BE 1 ON INITIAL CALL FOR A SYSTEM, 2 ON [c.291]

Vector of indices for the components (I = 1, N) integer initialization control variable (KEY = [c.295]

SKIP SYSTEM INITIALIZATION ON SUBSEQUENT CALCULATIONS 100 GO TO(110,120, 120, 130, 130, 120,130, 120,I 10,120),KEY [c.311]

T temperature (K) of isothermal flash for adiabatic flash, estimate of flash temperature if known, otherwise set to 0 to activate default initial estimate. [c.320]

IF ESTIMATES ARE AVAILABLE FOR A,X,Y,(ANO T) THEY CAN BE ENTERED IN THESE VARIABLES - OTHERWISE THESE VARIABLES SHOULD BE SET TO ZERO. KEY SHOULD BE 1 ON INITIAL CALL FOR A NEW SYSTEM AND 2 OTHERWISE. [c.322]

INITIALIZE LIQUID ANO VAPOR ORODUCT COMPOSITIONS 120 DO 121 1=1,N [c.322]

Such step-limiting is often helpful because the direction of correction provided by the Newton-Raphson procedure, that is, the relative magnitudes of the elements of the vector J G, is very frequently more reliable than the magnitude of the correction (Naphtali, 1964). In application, t is initially set to 1, and remains at this value as long as the Newton-Raphson correotions serve to decrease the norm (magnitude) of G, that is, for [c.116]

The bubble and dew-point temperature calculations have been implemented by the FORTRAN IV subroutine BUDET and the pressure calculations by subroutine BUDEP, which are described and listed in Appendix F. These subroutines calculate the unknown temperature or pressure, given feed composition and the fixed pressure or temperature. They provide for input of initial estimates of the temperature or pressure sought, but converge quickly from any estimates within the range of validity of the thermodynamic framework. Standard initial estimates are provided by the subroutines. [c.119]

Convergence is usually accomplished in 2 to 4 iterations. For example, an average of 2.6 iterations was required for 9 bubble-point-temperature calculations over the complete composition range for the azeotropic system ehtanol-ethyl acetate. Standard initial estimates were used. Figure 1 shows results for the incipient vapor-phase compositions together with the experimental data of Murti and van Winkle (1958). For this case, calculated bubble-point temperatures were never more than 0.4 K from observed values. [c.120]

The calculational procedure employed in BLIPS, when used with the particular initial phase-composition estimated included in the subroutine, has converged satisfactorily for all systems we have encountered (except very near plait points as noted). [c.128]

The subroutine is well suited to the typical problems of liquid-liquid separation calculations wehre good estimates of equilibrium phase compositions are not available. However, if very good initial estimates of conjugate-phase compositions are available h. priori, more effective procedures, with second-order convergence, can probably be developed for special applications such as tracing the entire boundary of a two-phase region. [c.128]

Convergence of this iteration is influenced by initial estimates for the true mole fractions, zThe following rules have been found to lead to rapid convergence in all cases. [c.135]

Subroutine VLDTA2. VLDTA2 loads the binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data to be correlated. If the data are in units other than those used internally, the correct conversions are made here. This subroutine also reads the estimated standard deviations for the measured variables and the initial parameter estimates. All input data are printed for verification. [c.217]

Second card FORMAT(8F10.2), control variables for the regression. This program uses a Newton-Raphson type iteration which is susceptible to convergence problems with poor initial parameter estimates. Therefore, several features are implemented which help control oscillations, prevent divergence, and determine when convergence has been achieved. These features are controlled by the parameters on this card. The default values are the result of considerable experience and are adequate for the majority of situations. However, convergence may be enhanced in some cases with user supplied values. [c.222]

PRCG cols 21-30 the maximum allowable change in any of the parameters when LMP = 1, default value is 1000. Limiting the change in the parameters prevents totally unreasonable values from being attained in the first several iterations when poor initial estimates are used. A value of PRCG equal to the magnitude of that anticipated for the parameters is usually appropriate. [c.223]

LOAD VLE DATA, ESTIMATED STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND INITIAL PARAMETER EST IMATES [c.231]

GIVEN TEMPERATURE T K) AND ESTIMATES OF PHASE COMPOSITIONS XR AND XE (USED WITHOUT CORRECTION TO EVALUATE ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS GAR AND GAE), LILIK NORMALLY RETURNS ERR=0, BUT IF COMPONENT COMBINATIONS LACKING DATA ARE INVOLVED IT RETURNS ERR=l, AND IF A K IS OUT OF RANGE THEN ERR=2 key SHOULD BE 1 ON INITIAL CALL FOR A SYSTEM, 2 (OR 6) [c.294]

See pages that mention the term

**Initial**:

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Advanced control engineering (2001) -- [ c.0 ]