Centrifugal separators make use of the common principle that an object whirled about an axis at a constant radial distance from the point is acted on by a force. Use of centrifugal forces increases the force acting on the particles. Particles that do not settle readily in gravity settlers often can be separated from fluids by centrifugal force.  [c.71]

Radial water spray  [c.303]

Keywords coning, cusping, radial flow, productivity index (PI), skin, acidising, routine production testing, bottom hole pressure testing, drill stem testing, horizontal wells, cresting, productivity improvement factor, tubing performance curves, perforating, artificial lift, gas lift, beam pumps, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps, well completion, Christmas tree, sand control, gravel packing.  [c.213]

The pressure drop around the wellbore of a vertical producing well is described in the simplest case by the following profile of fluid pressure against radial distance from the well.  [c.215]

In the simplest case, for a pressure drawdown survey, the radial inflow equation indicates that the bottom hole flowing pressure is proportional to the logarithm of time. From the straight line plot ot pressure against the log (time), the reservoir permeability can be determined, and subsequently the total skin of the well. For a build-up survey, a similar plot (the so-called Horner plot) may be used to determine the same parameters, whose values act as an independent quality check on those derived from the drawdown survey.  [c.223]

Eddy currents and the magnetic flux that is associated to them are proportional to the radial distance of the coil center. The magnetic flux is proportional to the probe induction and consequently to the passing current. The theoretic calculation of this induction is given by the following equation  [c.291]

The cooling air flowing in from the blade root is led over different channels to the complete inner surface of the blade. Due to filmcooling holes in the surface, a protecting cooling film spreads over the outer blade surface. Another cooling variant is shown in illustration 2b. Closely underneath the surface of the solid poured blade, radial cooling boreholes are eroded Channels in the blade root provide a sufficient cooling of the blade surface.  [c.402]

All the cells of the same radial section, containing clinker, are shifted by one angular step  [c.420]

Having known the angle between a line of the greatest angle and a line, limiting clinker in its radial section, one can calculate a value of clinker translation along an axis Z and perform corresponding translation of Dirichlet cells of clinker (under assumptions, that clinker translation along this axis is performed by not an integer number of steps - in this case clinker is distributing over adjacent cells).  [c.420]

There are two kinds of geometric distortion introduced by the image intensifier, radial distortion and S distortion. Radial distortion is due to the curvature of the input surface of the image intensifier. The mapping of electrons from the curved input surface to the flat output screen causes larger object magnification at the image periphery than at the center. In addition, the projection of objects onto the curved input surface contributes to the total radial distortion. S distortion is due to the surrounding magnetic field, for example, the earth magnetic field or nearby man-made magnetic fields. The severity of the S distortion varies with the position of the image intensifier relative to the magnetic field direction [2, 4]. The transverse component of the magnetic field causes the image to he displaced while the longitudinal field tends to rotate the image. Some minor distortions are introduced by the CCD camera.  [c.485]

Use now this equation to describe liquid film flow in conical capillary. Let us pass to spherical coordinate system with the origin coinciding with conical channel s top (fig. 3). It means that instead of longitudinal coordinate z we shall use radial one r. Using (6) we can derive the total flow rate Q, multiplying specific flow rate by the length of cross section  [c.617]

The radial distance between poles.  [c.635]

However, with ultrasonic technique the signal level of the reflected echo pattern is also influenced by the geometrical shape, and misalignment between measuring direction and radial direction. Therefore, the practical demand for guidance must be found by experiments.  [c.896]

Another approach to sampling is to use some sort of scanning manipulator. Here the scanning is under the control of the inspection equipment itself The probe is moved in a simple Cartesian grid or can be moved in a radial fashion as shown in Figure 3. The approach is the same as the manual sampling discussed earlier, the probe is positioned at each point of a predefined grid of points and the signal or signals are collected.  [c.1017]

One of the more notable advantages of using a full eoverage scanning technique is the identification of tube eccentricity and of wastage superimposed upon the eccentricity. The radial location of wastage on tubes that conform to nominal specifications is of interest mainly to identify the source (i.e. soot blower) causing any accelerated wastage. In the case of eccentric tubes, it is important to note the location of the wastage and relate it to the eccentricity of the tube.  [c.1039]

J. T. Davies and E. K. Rideal, Interfacial Phenomena, 2nd ed.. Academic, New York, 1963.  [c.43]

Another statistical mechanical approach makes use of the radial distribution function g(r), which gives the probability of finding a molecule at a distance r from a given one. This function may be obtained experimentally from x-ray or neutron scattering on a liquid or from computer simulation or statistical mechanical theories for model potential energies [56]. Kirkwood and Buff [38] showed that for a given potential function, U(r)  [c.62]

To resume the brief historical sketch, the subject of monolayers developed rapidly during the interwar years, with the names of Langmuir, Adam, Harkins, and Rideal perhaps the most prominent the subject became one of precise and  [c.103]

There has been considerable theoretical development in the treatment of interfacial tension and work of adhesion. The approach used is similar to that of Eq. III-44 but using average densities rather than the actual radial distribution functions—these are generally not available for systems such as those of Table IV-2. As illustrated in Fig. IV-2, yab may be regarded as the sum of the work to bring molecules A and B to their respective liquid vapor interfaces less the free energy of interaction across the interface. This is determined through the work of adhesion, w>ab. between two phases given by  [c.108]

The flowrate of oil into the wellbore is also influenced by the reservoir properties of permeability (k) and reservoir thickness (h), by the oil properties viscosity (p) and formation volume factor (BJ and by any change in the resistance to flow near the wellbore which is represented by the dimensionless term called skin (S). For semisteady state f/owbehaviour (when the effect of the producing well is seen at all boundaries of the reservoir) the radial inflow for oil into a vertical wellbore is represented by the equation  [c.216]

When the radial flow of fluid towards the wellbore comes under the localised influence of the well, the shape of the interface between two fluids may be altered. The following diagrams show the phenomena of coning and cuspingoi water, as water is displacing oil towards the well.  [c.217]

A flowing bottom hole pressure survey (FBHP) is useful in determining the pressure drawdown in a well (the difference between the average reservoir pressure and the flowing bottom hole pressure, Pwf) from which the productivity index is calculated. By measuring the FBHP with time for a constant production rate, it is possible to determine the parameters of permeability and skin, and possibly the presence of a nearby fault, by using the radial inflow equation introduced in Section 9.2. Also, by measuring the response of the bottom hole pressure against time when the well is then shut in, these parameters can be calculated.  [c.222]

In general neural networks are good at interpolating data, but may give very big errors on extrapolated data. ANN are very popular because they can learn complex decision surfaces, however they have also disadvantages, like a large number of parameters and slow learning time for the most commonly used backpropagation training algorithm. In these respect radial-basis function networks (RBFN) [Nair et al., 1993] may be a better choice as they are faster to train and many of the parameters can be determined automatically.  [c.99]

Second, by ultrasonic tomography imaging Reflection tomograms were generated from circular B-scan profiles. A relatively fast reconstruction algorithm was applied, based on the straight beam approximation. This approximation was assumed due to broadband, high frequency pulse propagation. The tomograms shown here demonstrates that it is technologically feasible to obtain high resolution images. However, multiple reflections and time consuming alignment could limit the application. Radial holes were difficult to localize.  [c.206]

Grangeat P. Description of a 3-D reconstruction algorithm for diverging X-ray beam., Radiol. Soc. North. America Conf Proc., Nov.1985.  [c.220]

In Fig. 3a,b are shown respectively the modulus of the measured magnetic induction and the computed one. In Fig. 3c,d we compare the modulus and the Lissajous curves on a line j/ = 0. The results show a good agreement between simulated data and experimental data for the modulus. We can see a difference between the two curves in Fig. 3d this one can issue from the Born approximation. These results would be improved if we take into account the angle of inclination of the sensor. This work, which is one of our future developpements, makes necessary to calculate the radial component of the magnetic field due to the presence of flaw. This implies the calculation of a new Green s function.  [c.330]

The magnetic heads contain permanent magnets exciting an axial magnet flow in a rope under test due to steel magnet core. Magnetic field in the rope is strong enough to bring the rope material in state close to magnetic saturation. A sensor unit having Hall generators as magnetic flow sensors, surrounds the rope. The magnetic head can be opened to set it on the rope under test (Fig.4). There are changable pairs of plastic liners inserted into the head to limit possible radial displacement of the rope and to protect the sensor head against wearing by the rope. A  [c.336]

In order to solve the problem of defect control rotor heat groove without dross layer removing the special eddy-current transformer (fig. 2) providing the detection and evaluation of longitudinal cracks depth in lower part of the groove has been designed The particular feature of this transformer is low sensitivity to dross spots that cause considerable signal meaning change in case of using known eddy-current transformers For example, dross spot of 0.2 mm thick on the bottom of the groove leads to forming the eddy-current transformer signal that equivalent to the crack of 0.1 mm deep existence. For comparison, the same spot leads to forming known eddy-current transformers signal that equivalent to the crack of more than 1 mm deep existence One more advantage of the eddy-current transformer designed is its capability to detect the cracks not only on the groove bottom but also on the groove sides at the distance of approximately 3 mm from the bottom The eddy-current transformer is completely designed inside corrosion-resistant steel body that protects sensitive element from grating. There is also an opportunity of selective detecting the cracks of more than 2 mm deep with suppressing influence of radial movement when scanning. This particular feature provides to perform express-control with high value of probability of detecting dangerous cracks. The above-described eddy-current transformer is used together with electronic device of the detector-tester Zond VD - 96 .  [c.348]

It is also necessary to choose the position number and size of sensors to sample the magnetic field with accuracy. As the radial component of this field is null in the median plan of the excitation coil when no flaw is present, it seems obvious to measure this component, so we can use large gain amplifiers, figure 1 shows the typical aspect of the magnetic field for a ponctual flaw when a very long excitation coil is used  [c.358]

The use of interdigital PVDF transducers for the quick inspection of large, plate-like structures is discussed. The transducers are designed to excite a particular Lamb mode in the structure, the region of the structure that is insonified being controlled by the transducer design. An example is given of the monitoring of an aluminium plate by a single, circular transducer operating in pulse-echo mode, the ag Lamb mode at a frequency of about 1 MHz being transmitted and received. The transducer is split into segments so that the angular location of a reflector can be defined, the radial location of the reflector being determined from the time of arrival of the echo.  [c.713]

Fig 5. (a) 60" radial transducer (b) Fluygens model prediction of its acoustic field (c) angular cross section of (b) compared with experimental measurements.  [c.718]

We demagnetized the sample, placed it on the turntable of the HMT Magnetometer System and scanned it at a radius which is equal to the radial component of the segregation. Fig. 7a shows the measuring result over about three cycles. The homogeneous external field, which is distorted by the disk with its matrix material and its segregarion, in this case is die earth magnetic field. Fig. 7a predominantely shows a periodic signal with the period of 360 . This stems from the improperly adjusted turntable. Furthermore the rotation of the turntable was not smooth resulting in a superimposed nearly random signal. The signal, however, which is marked with an arrow is not random and occured directly above the segregation.  [c.990]

Figure 7 IN718 sample with segregation, SQUID-Signal versus rotation angle, scan radius is constant and equal to radial coordinate of segregation. Measurements are performed after demagnetization. Figure 7 IN718 sample with segregation, SQUID-Signal versus rotation angle, scan radius is constant and equal to radial coordinate of segregation. Measurements are performed after demagnetization.
J. T. Davies and E. K. Rideal, Interfacial Phenomerux, Academic Press, New York, 1961.  [c.45]

See pages that mention the term Radel : [c.217]    [c.217]    [c.104]    [c.201]    [c.202]    [c.202]    [c.206]    [c.206]    [c.212]    [c.249]    [c.329]    [c.419]    [c.1036]    [c.1039]    [c.1065]    [c.10]   
Plastics materials (1999) -- [ c.596 ]