Cyclones. Cyclones are also primarily used as prefilters. These also were discussed in Chap. 3 and illustrated in Fig. 3.4. The particle-laden gas enters tangentially and spins downward and inward, ultimately leaving the top of the unit. Particles are thrown radially outward to the wall by the centrifugal force and leave at the bottom.  [c.302]

Scrubbers. Scrubbers are designed to contact a liquid with the particle-laden gas and entrain the particles with the liquid. They offer the obvious advantage that they can be used to remove gaseous as well as particulate pollutants. The gas stream may need to be cooled before entering the scrubber. Some of the more common types of scrubbers are shown in Fig. 11.2.  [c.302]

In Fig. A.l, high-pressure steam is generated and fed to the high-pressure mains. The medium- and low-pressure mains are fed by expansion through steam turbines to generate power. Figure A.l shows three mains with typical mains pressures, but these vary in both number and pressure from site to site. Figure A. 1 also shows the possibility of using a condensing turbine, which is used when there is a desire to generate power but the exhaust steam from a backpressure turbine is not needed. Letdown stations are used to control the mains pressures. Because the letdown from high-pressure to lower-pressure mains creates steam with a large superheat, boiler feedwater is injected directly to reduce the superheat. As discussed in Example A.3.1, although steam for process heating is preferred saturated, if it is fed through the mains saturated, this leads to excessive condensation in the mains due to heat losses, which is undesirable. Hence steam is fed to the mains with some superheat. Another feature shown in Fig. A.l is that when water (blowdown or condensate) is reduced in pressure, flash steam is recovered. Although as much condensate as practicable and economical should be returned to the deaerator, levels of condensate return tend to be on the order of 50 percent but can be significantly higher.  [c.413]

Simplest examples are prepared by the cyclic oligomerization of ethylene oxide. They act as complexing agents which solubilize alkali metal ions in non-polar solvents, complex alkaline earth cations, transition metal cations and ammonium cations, e.g. 12—crown —4 is specific for the lithium cation. Used in phase-transfer chemistry.  [c.116]

CH3)2N]3P0. M.p. 4°C, b.p. 232"C, dielectric constant 30 at 25 C. Can be prepared from dimethylamine and phosphorus oxychloride. Used as an aprotic solvent, similar to liquid ammonia in solvent power but easier to handle. Solvent for organolithium compounds, Grignard reagents and the metals lithium, sodium and potassium (the latter metals give blue solutions).  [c.203]

Lithium chemistry Lithium is an alkali metal, electronic configuration ls 2s forming a  [c.241]

Greases may contain soaps of lithium, calcium, sodium, aluminium, etc., or they may be non-soap greases.  [c.242]

The reaction is carried out in an alkaline medium, usually potassium hydroxide with some lithium hydroxide. On charging, the Fe(OH)2 is reduced to Fe and the Ni(OH)2 oxidized to nickel(III) oxide. Its discharge-voltage is only about 1 -2 V, and as compared with the lead accumulator it has a rather low current efficiency and is rather more expensive. It has some compensating advantages in lower weight and greater mechanical strength, for the electrode materials are compressed into perforated pockets of nickel-plated steel, and the accumulator can therefore withstand mechanical shocks and high rates of charge or discharge.  [c.273]

Soaps of other metals such as aluminium, calcium, cobalt, lithium, lead or zinc - see metallic soaps. European production 1976 toilet soap 307 000 tonnes, household soaps c. 140000 tonnes, soap powders c. 35000 tonnes.  [c.362]

More general forms of the Gibbs-Duhem equation have been derived to allow for variations in temperature or pressure (or both) but these are not useful for our purposes since they are not easily integrated. Equation (16) is satisfied by various simple algebraic forms relating an y to x well-ltnown examples are the Margules and van Laar equations but many others exist. The particular relation used in this work, the UNIQUAC equation, while significantly different from the equations of Margules and van Laar, is also a solution to the Gibbs-Duhem differential equation.  [c.20]

See pages that mention the term Lutamer : [c.34]    [c.72]    [c.304]    [c.14]    [c.21]    [c.27]    [c.45]    [c.45]    [c.57]    [c.64]    [c.72]    [c.210]    [c.227]    [c.235]    [c.239]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.241]    [c.242]    [c.242]    [c.242]    [c.242]    [c.242]    [c.243]    [c.243]    [c.243]    [c.256]    [c.261]    [c.271]    [c.289]    [c.327]    [c.338]    [c.348]    [c.353]   
Plastics materials (1999) -- [ c.887 ]