In the first class, azeotropic distillation, the extraneous mass-separating agent is relatively volatile and is known as an entrainer. This entrainer forms either a low-boiling binary azeotrope with one of the keys or, more often, a ternary azeotrope containing both keys. The latter kind of operation is feasible only if condensation of the overhead vapor results in two liquid phases, one of which contains the bulk of one of the key components and the other contains the bulk of the entrainer. A t3q)ical scheme is shown in Fig. 3.10. The mixture (A -I- B) is fed to the column, and relatively pure A is taken from the column bottoms. A ternary azeotrope distilled overhead is condensed and separated into two liquid layers in the decanter. One layer contains a mixture of A -I- entrainer which is returned as reflux. The other layer contains relatively pure B. If the B layer contains a significant amount of entrainer, then this layer may need to be fed to an additional column to separate and recycle the entrainer and produce pure B.  [c.81]

The acceptable limits of this kind of analysis are shown in Table 2.2.  [c.29]

These are called high temperature induction furnace methods which differ only as to the kind of furnace used and employ the same ASTM procedure. The sample is heated to over 1300°C in an oxygen stream and transformed to SO2 which is analyzed with an infra-red detector.  [c.32]

In both cases the aerosol is subjected to temperatures exceeding 2300°C. At these temperatures, the molecules or salts are dissociated into their elemental atomic components. The atoms have the capacity to absorb energy carried by the photons provided they have a well-defined frequency that corresponds to the energy needed to cause a peripheral electron to travel from its base energy level to its excited state energy level. This energy level, Ej, is supplied by photons whose frequency, r, is such that = hvj. As each atom has the ability to absorb or emit well-defined frequencies, the right kind of energy will be derived from a source made up of the element to be analyzed hence the terms, nickel or sodium lamps.  [c.35]

It is important to keep these differences in mind because, according o, the characterization methods employed, one speaks in terms of either the percentage of the kind of molecule or the percentage of the kind of atom. A molecule is said to be aromatic if it has at least one benzene ring as in the case of the molecule shown above if not it is considered naphthenic if it has at least one naphthenic ring. Finally, with neither an aromatic ring nor a naphthenic ring, we will have a paraffinic molecule. Thus the above molecule is considered to be 100% aromatic even though the atomic carbon fractions are 6/13 for the aromatic carbons, 3/13 for the naphthenic carbons and 4/13 for the paraffinic carbons.  [c.40]

The first requirement is a source of infrared radiation that emits all frequencies of the spectral range being studied. This polychromatic beam is analyzed by a monochromator, formerly a system of prisms, today diffraction gratings. The movement of the monochromator causes the spectrum from the source to scan across an exit slit onto the detector. This kind of spectrometer in which the range of wavelengths is swept as a function of time and monochromator movement is called the dispersive type.  [c.57]

Knowledge of a crude oil s overall physical and chemical characteristics will determine what kind of initial treatment —associated gas separation and stabilization at the fi ld of production— transport, storage, and of course, price.  [c.315]

This kind of pressure solution / precipitation is active over prolonged periods of time and may almost totally destroy the original porosity. Precipitation of material may also occur in a similar way on the surface of fault planes thus creating an effective seal via a process introduced earlier as diagenetic healing.  [c.87]

Host Government Fiscal system - tax rate - royalty rate - royalty in kind (e.g. oil) - company status (e.g. newcomer) - project status (e.g. ring fenced)  [c.306]

Royalty is normally charged as a percentage of the gross revenues from the sale of hydrocarbons, and may be paid in cash or in kind (e.g. oil). The prevailing oil price is used.  [c.309]

In Austria, as well as all over Europe, the first and repetition tests of all pressure equipments including steam drums are required for security reasons within fixed time intervals. These repetitive inspections are done differently in the most European countries, but most time these inspections include, according to the European Pressure Equipment Directive" and the specific national law any kind of over-pressurisation (e.g. hydrotest) and visual inside inspection.  [c.30]

Before the performance of the loading we have to apply 5 up to 12 sensors, according their size, on the cylindrical part of the drums and after a short check of the required sensitivity and the wave propagation the pneumatic pressure test monitored by AE can be performed. The selection of the sensors and their positions was performed earlier in pre-tests under the postulate, that the complete cylinder can be tested with the same sensitivity, reliability and that furthermore the localisation accuracy of defects in the on-line- and the post analysis is sufficient for the required purpose. For the flat eovers, which will be tested by specific sensors, the geometrical shape is so complicated, that we perform in this case only a defect determination with a kind of zone-location.  [c.32]

It obvious a today s demand on repetitive inspections to predict the safety of pressure equipments during the oncoming service period. The acceptance from the industry for this kind of testing is accessible, if you can fulfil this requirement an enlarge in this way the competitiveness.  [c.34]

Another benefit in using this kind of automatic classifier is that the output data gives an indication of the classification reliability. This information could be used to inform the operator which classifications are less reliable.  [c.112]

To estimate the quality of restoration having both, simulated and reconstructed images, using some kind of quality criterion For this last purpose the following mean square measure was applied  [c.117]

Simulations of that kind result in a wide variety of A-scans and wavefront snapshots. The first screening of this material reveals, that the simulations in which the transducer is coupling partly to the V-butt weld and partly to the steel exhibit quite a number of pulses in the A-scans because the coupling at the interface of the weld results — due to the anisotropic behavior of the weld — in a complicated splitting of the transmitted wavefront. The different parts of the splitted wavefront are reflected and diffracted by the backwall, the interface, and — if present — by the notch and, therefore, many small signals are received by the transducer, which can only be separated and interpreted with great difficultie.s.  [c.149]

The demodulation algorithm is very simple the DSP multiplies the received signal by each carrier, and then filters the result using a FIR filter. This kind of digital filter is phase linear, (constant group delay important for the EC combinations). Other filters may be programmed, other demodulation algorithms may be used.  [c.281]

Secondly, the linearized inverse problem is, as well as known, ill-posed because it involves the solution of a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The solution must be regularized to yield a stable and physically plausible solution. In this apphcation, the classical smoothness constraint on the solution [8], does not allow to recover the discontinuities of the original object function. In our case, we have considered notches at the smface of the half-space conductive media. So, notche shapes involve abrupt contours. This strong local correlation between pixels in each layer of the half conductive media suggests to represent the contrast function (the object function) by a piecewise continuous function. According to previous works that we have aheady presented [14], we 2584  [c.326]

The principle of the detector-tester operation is based on alternate magnetic flow admitting through the area controlled and detecting secondary magnetic field distortions that are both typical for defects. The secondary magnetic field is formed under the operation of eddy currents in non-magnetic kind of metals and in addition, by magnetic dispersion flow over the ferromagnetic objects.  [c.342]

Heat rotor groove has U-type form with dimension of 2x8 mm The formation of longitudinal cracks in the lower part on the heat groove is most possible. It is most reasonable to defect such cracks by eddy-current method. However, defect tests of heat grooves are performed with difficulties because of dross layer of up to 0 2 mm thick on the groove surfaces. The dross creates clearance between metal surface and eddy-current transformer and this fact leads to decreasing the control sensitivity. At the same time, uneven distribution of the dross which is a kind of ferromagnetic material leads to formation of false signals when using known eddy-current transformers.  [c.346]

Nothing but the Cracks A New Kind of Photothermal Camera.  [c.393]

What s new In the new kind of photothermal camera  [c.394]

Neuronal networks are nowadays predominantly applied in classification tasks. Here, three kind of networks are tested First the backpropagation network is used, due to the fact that it is the most robust and common network. The other two networks which are considered within this study have special adapted architectures for classification tasks. The Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) Network consists of a neuronal structure that represents the LVQ learning strategy. The Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy-ART) network is a sophisticated network with a very complex structure but a high performance on classification tasks. Overviews on this extensive subject are given in [2] and [6].  [c.463]

We show that tlris pattern is related with the statistical parameters which characterize the surface. We obtain these parameters by extending the above mentioned teehniques to this kind of surfaces.  [c.662]

This paper deals with the control of weld depth penetration for cylinders in gold-nickel alloy and tantalum. After introducing the experimental set-up and the samples description, the study and the optimization of the testing are presented for single-sided measurements either in a pulse-echo configuration or when the pump and the probe laser beams are shifted (influence of a thermal phenomenon), and for different kind of laser impact (a line or a circular spot). First, the ultrasonic system is used to detect and to size a flat bottom hole in an aluminium plate. Indeed, when the width of the hole is reduced, its shape is nearly similar to the one of a slot. Then, the optimization is accomplished for  [c.693]

Living things, plants and ices are able to keep the results of environment impact, an information of that kind is recorded, for examples, by trees in a view of year layers (or Greenland ices). This recorded knowledge keeps a various facts about climate changes mechanisms, about solar activity, soil conditions and, in particular, the level of this very region contamination.  [c.913]

The rate of convergence is strongly affected by the distance of the feed composition from any plait-point region. For calculations yielding conjugate phases far removed from the plait point, or where no plait point exists (type-II systems), convergence is usually attained in six to eight iterations. Cases 1 and 5 in Table 2 for type-I ternary systems, and Cases 3 and 4 for a type-II ternary system, represent calculations of this kind. Figure 2 shows the results of separation calculations for the ternary system water-acrylonitrile-acetonitrile compared with the data of Volpicelli (1968). Quarternary (and higher-order) systems, as in Cases 7 through 9, show similar convergence behavior.  [c.125]

Chapter 10 on waste minimization features sections of text that were originally published in The Chemical Engineer (Smith, R., and Petela, E. A., The Chemical Engineer, no. 506, 24-25, 31 Oct. 1991 No. 509/510, 17-23, 12 Dec. 1991 No. 513, 24-28, 13 Feb. 1992 No. 517, 21-23, 9 April 1992 No. 523, 32-35, 16 July 1992). These sections of text are reproduced by kind permission of the Institution of Chemical Engineers.  [c.475]

This unique volume will increase anyone s command of the English language and build up your word power. Fully cross-referenced, it includes synonyms of every kind (formal or colloquial, idiomatic and figurative) for almost 900 headings. It is a must for writers and utterly fascinating for any English speaker.  [c.438]

Today another kind of spectrometer is replacing the dispersive spectrometers. They are called interferometers and are based on the principle of Michelson s interferometer. These instruments allow measurement of the variation of energy as a function of the displacement of a moving mirror, thus with time. By applying a Fourier transform to the interferogram, one obtains the frequency d o ih equivalent, that is, one observes the variation of energy as a function of frequency which makes up the infrared spectrum as in Figure 3 8. This technique has been known for a long time, but only since the expfei idri of computer power and the creation of fast Fourier transform algorithms has the development of interferometry been possible.  [c.58]

Bouquet, M. and A. Bailleul (1986), Routine method for quantitative carbon 13 NMR spectra editing and providing structural patterns. Application to every kind of petroleum fraction including residues and asphaltenes . Fuel, Vol. 65, p. 1240.  [c.454]

Gianatano, J. and Riley, G., (1989), Expert Systems Principles and Programming, PWS-KENT Publishing Company, Boston, 1989.  [c.103]

A presentation of the present status of the computer program UTDefect has been given. The program models ultrasonic nondestructive testing in a homogeneous and isotropic component. The defect in the component can be chosen from a list containing both volumetric defects and cracks, including a surface-breaking crack. The ultrasonic probe is assumed to be of contact type but can otherwise be more or less of any kind, also a phased array or a focused probe.  [c.160]

When using amplitude-and-phase method of processing, as informative parameters are considered to be the voltage vector projections on the axis of choosen direction perpendicular Un. In this case ratio signal/noise grows in proportion of cosine of the angle between vectors Un and Un. The above method of processing makes it possible to improve considerable selective sensitivity to defects, if voltage Un phase is not agree with voltage Ud phase or at least varies within smaller limits. As pointed out under proper choice of frequency godograph Ud has 8-type form, and this fact provides phase change during interacting defect in wider range than, for example, under surface curvature influence. This effect reveal itself most considerably when interacting under-surface defects like cracks (fig. 5). In this case Ud phase is changing in range from 90° to 120° degrees according to the above comments. At proper choice of working frequency Ud phase is changing to less considerable extent but also significantly when interacting corrosion defects (fig.6). So as to the problem of defecting under-surface cracks and corrosion defects in nonmagnetic materials, we should only choose the frequency providing phase change in more considerable range than under interference factors. This is not a kind of problem as we can see analyzing the godographs Ud and Un. It is more difficult to solve the above problem with surface defects because Ud phase change for surface cracks is taken place in considerably smaller range. In this case it is necessary to choose the frequency providing the highest phase difference between Ud and Un.  [c.288]

The features needed for the training of the neuronal networks are obtained for both kind of ROIs by a very similar procedure. First all local maxima and minima are determined in a y-scan. Afterwards the largest difference between two adjacent local mini- and maxima is determined. Then the corresponding surrounding of one local minimum in the middle and another two local minima on the sides of the local maxima is interpreted as the representation of the crack in the scan. From this representation several features are determined. Starting with the half-power width of the signal, the average depth of the central minimum, the depths and the width of the side minima etc. These features are averaged in y-direction. The denoising effect of the wavelet transform allows to detect the minimum in a scan according to the flaw with a precision of nearly 100% if there is any. Returning with this special information to the non denoised ROI and detecting the flaw in the noise of the original ROI heads to further features.  [c.463]

As a first step in the direction outlined here some manufacturers and BAM last year discussed the problems and the possible procedures of such a system of quality assurance. As a result of this meeting round robin tests for the harmonization of the measurements of film system parameters and a possible procedure of surveillance of the quality of film systems were proposed. Closely related to these the BAM offers to perform the classification of film systems. But as during the production of films variations of the properties of the different batches cannot be avoided, the results of measurements of films of a single batch will be restricted to this charge, while only the measurements and mean of several batches of a film type will give representative values of its properties. This fact is taken into account already in section 4 of the standard EN 584-1 which can be interpreted as a kind of continuous surveillance. In accordance with this standard a film system caimot be certified on the base of measurements of a single emulsion only.  [c.553]

The solid phase diffusion bonding of the produet is used in various industrial fields to make making to high performanee and making to a high funetion Near net shape in addition. However, the unjoint part by defective diffusion and the void occur in the interface in the solid phase diffusion bonding part of the different kind materials in the manufacturing process, and a minute defect such as the exfoliation occurs easily while using the product of the diffusion bonding in addition. Such a defect remarkably decreases the reliability of the product.  [c.833]

The solid phase diffusion bonding of the product is used in various industrial fields to make making to high performance and making to a high function Near net shape in addition. However, the unjoint part by defective diffusion and the void occur in the interface in the solid phase diffusion bonding part of the different kind material in the manufacturing process and a minute defect such as the exfoliation occurs easily while using the diffusion bonding of the product in addition [ 1 ] [2]. Such a defect remarkably decreases the reliability of the product[3].  [c.834]

See pages that mention the term Kematal : [c.17]    [c.17]    [c.105]    [c.121]    [c.202]    [c.403]    [c.34]    [c.484]    [c.270]    [c.299]    [c.465]    [c.475]    [c.921]   
Plastics materials (1999) -- [ c.531 ]