Ivoride


COMMON /ALL/ NN LLt KK, IPRTt 1ST COMMON /STAT/ C0V(5 5), RH0<5,5), SIGMA(5> COMMON /DATA/ X<50t >t XM(50,5>t EVX(50f5)  [c.238]

Cane sugar production is accomplished ia one or two stages. At sugarcane factories, located ia cane-growiag areas, harvested sugarcane is brought ia, sugar-containing juice is extracted, and sugar crystallised from the concentrated juice. In the siagle-stage process, the juice is purified and bleached for the manufacture of plantation white (mill white, direct white) sugar, usually for local consumption. In the two-stage process, partially purified, unbleached juice is crystallised iato yellow to brown-colored raw sugar this is shipped ia bulk to the countries of principal cane sugar consumption ia North America and northern Europe, where it is refined iato white and colored products for iadustrial and home use. Sugarcane, once cut (harvested), immediately begias to lose sucrose to deterioration by ensyme, or chemical iaversion. The two-stage production system arose because sugarcane caimot be stored. Plantation white sugar, while quite suitable for use within a few weeks after manufacture, caimot be stored for long periods (ie, shipping times) because it contains more water and iavert than does refined sugar, and discolors and becomes hardened and lumpy. There is a trend siace the late 1970s to iacreased refining capacity at factories, near the cane production areas, because (/) energy costs are low and sugarcane residual fiber (bagasse) is burned as fuel ia the factory and (2) an iacrease ia consumption is most rapid ia the tropical and semitropical countries, especially ia processed foods and drinks. As disposable income rises, sweet foods and carbonated beverages are among the first products to show an iacrease ia market strength.  [c.16]

D-Fmctose [57-48-7] (levulose, fmit sugar) is a monosaccharide constituting one-half of the sucrose molecule. It was first isolated from hydroly2ed cane sugar (iavert sugar) ia the late nineteenth century (1,2). Fmctose constitutes 4—8 wt % (dry sugar basis (dsb)) of many fmits, where it primarily occurs with glucose (dextrose) and sucrose (see Carbohydrates Sweeteners). It also makes up 50 wt % (dsb) of honey (3,4).  [c.44]

Reduction of D-mannose with sodium borohydride or electrolysis leads to D-mannitol ia good yield. Pure D-mannose is not yet commercially available but it can be obtained by acid hydrolysis of the mannan of ivory nutmeal ia 35% yield (72) and from spent sulfite Hquor or prehydrolysis extracts from conifers through the sodium bisulfite mannose adduct or methyl a-D-mannoside (73,74). Reduction of fmctose leads to sorbitol and D-mannitol ia equal parts. Sucrose, on reduction under hydrolyzing conditions, also yields the same products ia the ratio of three parts of sorbitol to one of D-mannitol. Commercially, D-mannitol is obtained by the reduction of iavert sugar. In alkaline media, glucose, fmctose, and mannose are iaterconverted (75,76). AH of the mannose formed can be reduced to mannitol. Mannitol can be prepared by hydrogenation of starch hydrolyzates ia alkaline media ia the presence of Raney nickel (77). Mannitol, because of its lower solubiUty, is usually separated from sorbitol by crystalliza tion from aqueous solution. The two hexitols also can be separated chromatographicaHy on a column of calcium poly(styrene-sulfonate), which preferentially retains sorbitol (78). Both the y- and 5-lactones of D-mannonic acid are reduced catalyticaHy to D-mannitol (79).  [c.49]

Sodium Sulfate A single-hearth furnace is used, like that shown in Fig. 23-40g. Sodium chloride and sulfuric acid are charged continuously to the center of the pan and the rotating scrapers gradually work the reacting mass to the periphery, where the sodium sulfate is discharged at 540°C (1,000°F). Pans are 3.3 to 5.5 m (11 to 18 ft) in diameter and can handle 5,500 to 9,000 kg/d (12,000 to 20,000 lbi7i/d) of salt. Rotary Idlns also are used for this purpose. Such a unit 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in diameter by 6.7 m (22 ft) has a capacity of 22,000 kg/d (48,000 IbrTi/d) of salt cake. A pan furnace also is used, for instance, in the Leblanc soda ash process and for making sodium sulfide from sodium sulfate and coaf.  [c.2127]

For reviews of the cyclopropylmethyl cation, see H. G. Richey, Jr., in Carbonium Ions, VoL in, G. A. Olah and P. V. R. Schleyer, eds., Wiley-lnterscience, New Ybik, 1972, Chapter 25 G. A. Olah, V P. Reddy, and G. K. S Prakash, Chem. Rev. 92 69 (1992) G. A. Olah, V. Reddy, and G. K. S. Prakash, Chemistry of the Cyclopropy i Group, Part 2, Z. Rap [c.284]

Pump, valve, diesel failure rates from plant reports - IPRD, EPRl Comprehensive componeni collection  [c.152]

The most iiiiportaiit of the second phase refinery operations is cracking. Cracking breaks down large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller and lighter molecular units. At first performed using high temperatures and pressures only, by the 1930s, catalytic cracking was begun. Catalytic cracking went further than earlier cracking technology to reduce the production of less valuable products such as heavy fuel oil and cutter stock.  [c.988]

Ifoward, W. B., Process Safety Technology and the Responsibility of Industry, Chem. Eng. Prog., V. 84, No. 9, 1988, p. 25.  [c.544]


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Plastics materials (1999) -- [ c.4 ]