GaAlInAs


Figure 3.8 Separation of a minimum boiling azeotrope by pressure change. (From Holland, Gallun, and Lockett, Chemical Engineering, March 23, 1981, 88 185-200 reproduced by permission.) Figure 3.8 Separation of a minimum boiling azeotrope by pressure change. (From Holland, Gallun, and Lockett, Chemical Engineering, March 23, 1981, 88 185-200 reproduced by permission.)
Figure 3.9 Separation of a maximum boiling azeotrope by pressure change. (From Holland, Gallun, and Lockett, Chemical Engineering, March 23, 1981, 88 185-200 reproduced by permission.) Figure 3.9 Separation of a maximum boiling azeotrope by pressure change. (From Holland, Gallun, and Lockett, Chemical Engineering, March 23, 1981, 88 185-200 reproduced by permission.)
The actual structure at a vapor-liquid interface can be probed with x-rays. Rice and co-workers [72,73,117] use x-ray reflection to determine the composition perpendicular to the surface and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction to study the transverse structure of an interface. In a study of bismuth gallium mixtures.  [c.78]

Scattered data are available on the electrocapillary effect when liquid metal phases other than pure mercury are involved. Frumkin and co-workers [138] have reported on the electrocapillary curves of amalgams with less noble metals than mercury, such as thallium or cadmium. The general effect is to shift the maximum to the right, and Koenig [116] has discussed the thermodynamic treatment for the adsorption of the metal solute at the interface. Liquid gallium give curves similar to those for mercury, again shifted to the right this and other systems such as those involving molten salts as the electrolyte are reviewed by Delahay [139]. Narayan and Hackerman [140] studied adsorption at the In-Hg-electrolyte interface. Electrocapillary behavior may also be studied at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (see Ref. 141).  [c.202]

Gilman [124] and Westwood and Hitch [135] have applied the cleavage technique to a variety of crystals. The salts studied (with cleavage plane and best surface tension value in parentheses) were LiF (100, 340), MgO (100, 1200), CaFa (111, 450), BaFj (111, 280), CaCOa (001, 230), Si (111, 1240), Zn (0001, 105), Fe (3% Si) (100, about 1360), and NaCl (100, 110). Both authors note that their values are in much better agreement with a very simple estimate of surface energy by Bom and Stem in 1919, which used only Coulomb terms and a hard-sphere repulsion. In more recent work, however, Becher and Freiman [126] have reported distinctly higher values of y, the critical fracture energy.  [c.279]

J. J. Gilman, J. Appl. Phys., 31, 2208 (1960).  [c.291]

Glass Mercury Gallium -0 157  [c.366]

Using the data of Table X-2, estimate the contact angle for gallium on glass and the corresponding adhesion tension. The gallium-mercury interfacial tension is 37 mJ/m at 25°C, and the surface tension of gallium is about 700 mJ/m.  [c.381]

When quantum effects are large, the PF can be evaluated by path integral methods [H], Our exposition follows a review article by Gillan [12], Starting with the canonical PF for a system of particles  [c.454]

Gillan M J 1990 Path integral simulations of quantum systems Computer Modeling of Fluids and Polymers ed C R A Catlow et al (Dordrecht Kluwer)  [c.551]

Gillan M 1980 Upper bound on the free energy of the restricted primitive model for ionic liquids Mol. Phys. 41 75  [c.555]

Gillan M J 1987 Quantum simulation of hydrogen in metals Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 563  [c.897]

B1.29.6 HIGH-PRESSURE FORMS OF FAMILIAR OR USEFUL MATERIALS DIAMOND, FLUID METALLIC HYDROGEN, METALLIC OXYGEN, IONIC CARBON DIOXIDE, GALLIUM NITRIDE  [c.1959]

Wallace C H, Rao L, Kim S-H, Heath J R, Nicol M and Kaner R B 1998 Solid-state metathesis reactions under pressure a rapid route to crystalline gallium nitride Appl. Phys. Lett. 72 596  [c.1965]

Alfe D, Gillan M J and Price G D 2000 Constraints on the composition of the Earth s core from ab initio calculations Nature 405 172-5  [c.2233]

Alfe D and Gillan M J 1998 First-principles simulations of liquid Fe-S under Earth s core conditions Phys. Rev. B 58 8248-56  [c.2289]

Holland, C. D., Gallun, S. E. and Lockett, M. J., Modeling Azeotropic and Extractive Distillations, Chem. Engg., 88 185, March 23, 1981.  [c.93]

An example of a solid laser is the ruby crystal (AI2O3 containing about 0-05% chromium). Glasses containing neodymium are used for high-output lasers gas lasers using helium-neon mixtures or caesium vapour have also been made. The most efficient lasers are those using semi-conductors, with for example gallium arsenide phosphide as the active crystal.  [c.235]

In Fig. III-7 we show a molecular dynamics computation for the density profile and pressure difference P - p across the interface of an argonlike system [66] (see also Refs. 67, 68 and citations therein). Similar calculations have been made of 5 in Eq. III-20 [69, 70]. Monte Carlo calculations of the density profile of the vapor-liquid interface of magnesium how stratification penetrating about three atomic diameters into the liquid [71]. Experimental measurement of the transverse structure of the vapor-liquid interface of mercury and gallium showed structures that were indistinguishable from that of the bulk fluids [72, 73].  [c.63]

Various chemical tricks are possible. Zinc ores are not well floated with xanthates, but a pretreatment with dilute copper sulfate rectifies the situation by electrodepositing a thin layer of copper on the mineral particles (note Ref. 83 for complexities). Chelating agents such as oximes may be used instead of xanthates [84]. Treatment of an ore containing a mixture of iron, zinc, and lead minerals with dilute cyanide solution will inhibit adsorption of the collector on the first two, but not on the last. In this case, cyanide is called a depressant. Depressants are also used to inhibit the undesired coflotation of talc, sulfate, graphite, and so on organic polymers have been useful [85]. STM and AFM studies of galena (PbS) surfaces show the formation of 0.3-0.6-nm pits during the surface chemical reactions controlling flotation [86].  [c.477]

The conductivity can be calculated for each time step in a simulation and averaged over a long simulation time. This procedure can be used to distinguish the metallic and semiconducting behaviour of the liquid state. As an example, the calculated frequency dependence of the electrical conductivity of gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride are illustrated in figure A1.3.30. In the melt, gallium arsenide is a metal. As the temperature of the liquid is increased, its DC conductivity decreases. For cadmium telluride, the situation is reversed. As the temperature of the liquid is increased, the DC conductivity increases. This is sunilar to the behaviour of a semiconducting solid. As the temperature of the solid is increased, more carriers are thennally excited into the conduction bands and the conductivity increases. The relative conductivity of GaAs versus CdTe as detemiined via theoretical calculations agrees well with experiment.  [c.134]

Yan Y J, Gillilan R E, Whitnell R M, Wilson K R and Mukamel S 1993 Optimal control of molecular dynamics -Liouville space theory J. Chem. Phys. 97 2320  [c.281]

Gillam M J 1987 Quantum-classical crossover of the transition rate in the damped double well J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 20 3621  [c.897]

Dechter J J, Henriksson U, Kowalewski J and Nilsson A-C 1982 Metal nucleus quadrupole coupling constants in aluminum, gallium and indium acetylacetonates J. Magn. Reson. 48 503-11  [c.1518]

Knox R S and Gulen D 1993 Theory of polarized fluorescence from molecular pairs Photochem. Photobiol. 57 40-3  [c.1995]

Figure B3.2.11. Total energy versus lattice constant of gallium arsenide from a VMC calculation including 256 valence electrons [118] the curve is a quadratic fit. The error bars reflect the uncertainties of individual values. The experimental lattice constant is 10.68 au, the QMC result is 10.69 (+ 0.1) an (Figure by Professor W Schattke). Figure B3.2.11. Total energy versus lattice constant of gallium arsenide from a VMC calculation including 256 valence electrons [118] the curve is a quadratic fit. The error bars reflect the uncertainties of individual values. The experimental lattice constant is 10.68 au, the QMC result is 10.69 (+ 0.1) an (Figure by Professor W Schattke).
Alfe D, Kresse G and Glllan M J 2000 Structure and dynamics of liquid Iron under Earth s core conditions Phys. Rev.  [c.2232]

The Car-Parrinello method has found wide applicability, especially for studying systems in which structure and bonding are inseparable, or for materials under extreme conditions for which empirical potential would be uineliable. Examples are the studies by Alfe and Gillan [210] and de Wijs et al [211] of iron in the Earth s core, at temperatures of several thousand Kelvin and pressures sufBcient to compress the metal to about half its nonnal volume. It was concluded that the liquid iron in the core is not exceptionally viscous (as has been suggested by some seismic measurements) and that dissolved snlphnr atoms show no tendency to fonn clusters or chains (which might have a large effect on viscosity). This is shown in figure B3.3.12.  [c.2276]


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Encyclopedia of materials characterization (1992) -- [ c.393 ]