The parameters characterizing pure components and their binary interactions are stored in labeled common blocks /PURE/ and /BINARY/ for a maximum of 100 components (see Appendix E).  [c.340]

PARIN loads values of pure component and binary parameters from formatted card images into labeled common blocks /PURE/ and /BINARY/ for a maximum of 100 components.  [c.341]

PARCH changes all parameters for N components in the common storage blocks /PURE/ and /BINARY/ either by replacing a previous component and/or its parameters or by adding components, thus increasing the library of M ( < 100) components.  [c.344]


In oil bearing formations, the presence of polar chemical functions of asphaltenes probably makes the rock wettable to hydrocarbons and limits their production. It also happens that during production, asphaltenes precipitate, blocking the tubing. The asphaltenes are partly responsible for the high viscosity and specific gravity of heavy crudes, leading to transport problems.  [c.13]

This procedure can be easily carried out for a set of reservoirs or separate reservoir blocks. It is especially practical if stacked reservoirs with common contacts are to be evaluated. In cases where parameters vary across the field we could divide the area into sub blocks of equal values which we measure and calculate separately.  [c.156]

Reservoir simulation is a technique in which a computer-based mathematical representation of the reservoir is constructed and then used to predict its dynamic behaviour. The reservoir is gridded up into a number of grid blocks. The reservoir rock properties (porosity, saturation, and permeability), and the fluid properties (viscosity and the PVT properties) are specified for each grid block.  [c.205]

The number and shape of the grid blocks in the model depend upon the objectives of the simulation. A 100 grid block model may be sufficient to confirm rate dependent processes described in the previous section, but a full field simulation to be used to optimise well locations and perforation intervals for a large field may contain up to 100,000 grid blocks. The larger the model, the more time consuming to build, and slower to run on the computer.  [c.205]

The reservoir simulation operates based on the principles of balancing the three main forces acting upon the fluid particles (viscous, gravity and capillary forces), and calculating fluid flow from one grid block to the next, based on Darcy s law. The driving force for fluid flow is the pressure difference between adjacent grid blocks. The calculation of fluid flow is repeatedly performed over short time steps, and at the end of each time step the new fluid saturation and pressure is calculated for every grid block.  [c.205]

Horizontal wells have a large potential to connect laterally discontinuous features in heterogeneous or discontinuous reservoirs. If the reservoir quality is locally poor, the subsequent section of the reservoir may be of better quality, providing a healthy productivity for the well. If the reservoir is faulted or fractured a horizontal well may connect a series of fault blocks or natural fractures In a manner which would require many vertical wells. The ultimate recovery of a horizontal well is likely to be significantly greater than for a single vertical well.  [c.220]

Formation damage is usually caused by pore throat plugging. It may be a result of fine particles such as mud solids, cement particles or corrosion products invading the formation. It can also be caused by emulsion blocking or chemical precipitation. Impairment can sometimes be bypassed by deep perforating or fracturing through the damaged layer, or removed by treatment with acids. Acid treatment can be performed directly through production tubing or by using coiled tubing to place the acid more carefully.  [c.355]

The adaptive estimation of the pseudo-inverse parameters a n) consists of the blocks C and E (Fig. 1) if the transformed noise ( ) has unknown properties. Bloek C performes the restoration of the posterior PDD function w a,n) from the data a (n) + (n). It includes methods and algorithms for the PDD function restoration from empirical data [8] which are based on empirical averaging. Beeause the noise is assumed to be a stationary process with zero mean value and the image parameters are constant, the PDD function w(a,n) converges, at least, to the real distribution. The posterior PDD funetion is used to built a back loop to block B and as a direct input for the estimator E. For the given estimation criteria f(a,d) an optimal estimation a (n) can be found from the expression  [c.123]

Automatic thresholding by dividing the matrix in several blocks to segment B-Scan images.  [c.231]

Cooccurrence matrix is divided into four bloeks delimited by a threshold t (fig.3). In the block Bl, the included coefficients belong to the background of the image. In the block B4, the coefficients correspond to the objects of the image, and finally, the blocks B2 and B3 contain the coefficients linked to the transitions between background and objects.  [c.235]

In order to prepare the system for 3D-CT, it is not enough to integrate a second detector array. Besides this special attention has to be paid to the computer hardware, the synchronisation between object movement and the data read out as well as to the collimator of the LINAC. The collimator has been built with 4 tungsten blocks which can be moved individually m order to shape different sht sizes for 2D-CT as well as different cone angles for 3D-CT or digital radiography.  [c.586]

Bone Detection in Frozen Fish Blocks.  [c.587]

Frozen fish fingers and similar products are made from a mixture of different fish that arrive at the processing plant as frozen blocks of the average size 62.7 x 254 x 482 mm (thick x width x length). The frozen blocks are minced and the still frozen minced fish blocks are mixed and pressed into the desired shape, covered with batter and bread crumbs, baked on the outside (still with a frozen core), packed and stored in a deep freezer.  [c.587]

Products of the described type have very high quality requirements as the consumers are typically families with children or restaurants catering to same, where even the smallest bones are unacceptable. Previously, sample tests were conducted on selected blocks. The blocks were thawed and sieved. This was a very slow way of inspection where the production line had to wait for the raw material.  [c.587]

A method that would enable detection and classification of the bone content in 100% of the incoming frozen fish blocks in real time without delaying the production line was desired. An obvious solution to this was the use of X-ray inspection. X-ray inspection however requires the integration of a highly sensitive inspection equipment with the corrosive atmosphere associated with food processing as well as the tough restrictions imposed by the health authorities regarding irradiation of food.  [c.587]

The advantages of using a linear detector array is the possibility of scanning a block in one single sweep with the image digitized and stored on hard disk for later storage on a CD-ROM or similar media. This would allow all relevant information to be gathered in a single scan in one direction, which would minimize the time a frozen block would be in the system and hence the amount of accumulated X-ray doses. This method was however not favored by the end user, as the system was also intended for use as a test and training system where it was considered of importanee that the operators are able to do a more detailed real time inspeetion with manipulation of the blocks, a task for which the linear detector array is not suitable.  [c.588]

The tests concluded that it was possible to use real time X-ray to inspect incoming frozen fish blocks 100% and giving a completely accurate assessment of the quality of the blocks to enable the factory to calculate the correct purchase price as a function of the bone content.  [c.589]

Once the feasibility of using real time X-ray as an inspection method was established, it was decided to proceed with the design of a system equally suited for control of incoming frozen fish blocks and for developing inspection procedures. These inspection procedures are, when completed, to be the basis of the inspection standards for the complete concern.  [c.589]

In both cases, the system must prevent that blocks of fish are irradiated accidentally above the current 10 RAD. The sizes of the standard blocks range from min. size 475 x 245 x 58 mm to max. size 490 x 260 x 70 mm.  [c.589]

All blocks are loaded from the same side, moved through the X-ray cabinet and unloaded on the other side. There is no link between input and output, so there is no way a previously inspected block can by accident be loaded a second time.  [c.591]

The fish blocks are positioned in front of the cabinet on a loading conveyor that will separate and load the first block into the cabinet and move the next block(s) one step forwards. The entrance panel will automatically open and close to admit the blocks in sequence (figure 3, overleaf).  [c.591]

Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria depend on the nature of the components present, on their concentrations in both phases, and on the temperature and pressure of the system. Because of the large number of variables which determine multi-component equilibria, it is essential to utilize an efficient organizational tool which reduces available experimental data to a small number of theoretically significant functions and parameters these functions and parcimeters may then be called upon to form the building blocks upon which to construct the desired equilibria. Such an organizational tool is provided by thermodynamic analysis and synthesis. First, limited pure-component and binary data are analyzed to yield fundamental thermodynamic quantities. Second, these quantities are reduced to obtain parameters in a molecular model. That model, by synthesis, may be used to calculate the phase behavior of multicomponent liquids and vapors. In this way, it is possible to "scale up" data on binary and pure-component systems to obtain good estimates of the properties of multicomponent mixtures of a large variety of components including water, polar organic solvents such as ketones, alcohols, nitriles, etc., and paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons.  [c.2]

The computer storage requirements (floating point machine words) for the Icibeled common storage blocks and, approximately, for the principal computer subroutines are given in Tcible J-1.  [c.352]

C14H30CI2N2O4. White powder prepared from dimethylaminoethanol and succinyl chloride, followed by methylation. Neuromuscular blocking agent used to relax skeletal muscles during certain types of surgical operation.  [c.382]

An alternative mechanism of substitution is unimolecular and involves ionization of the leaving group to give a carbenium ion which reacts rapidly with the reagent. The lifetime of this carbenium ion determines the stereochemical course of the reaction - inversion if it is short, racemization if it is long. In the examples quoted above the Ag20 reaction invi)lves the formation of a carbenium ion, but the carboxyl group forms a weak bond with the developing centre of positive charge so that the approach of the reagent from this side is blocked and must occur from the side of the leaving group. The original optical configuration is thus retained because of neighbouring group participation in the reaction.  [c.424]

Faults may extend over several hundreds of kilometres or may be restricted to the deformation of individual grains. They create vast potential traps for the accumulation of oil and gas. Flowever, they often dissect reservoirs and seal fluid and pressures in numerous individual compartments. Each of these isolated blocks may require individual dedicated wells for production and injection. Reservoir compartmentalisation through small scale faulting can thus severely downgrade the profitability of a field under development. In the worst case faulting is not detected until development is in an advanced stage. Early 3D seismic surveys will help to obtain a realistic assessment of fault density and possibly indicate the sealing potential of individual faults. Flowever, small scale faults with a displacement throw) of less than some 8m are not detectable using seismic alone. Geostatistical techniques can then be used to predict their frequency and direction.  [c.83]

In the case of attic/cellar oil, and isolated fault blocks or layers it is clearJhat hydrocarbon reserves will not be recovered unless accessed by a well. The economics of the incremental infill well may be very straightforward a simple comparison of well costs (including maintenance) against income from the incremental reserves. Reserves which have been bypassed by a flood front are more difficult to recover. Water will take the easiest route it can find through a reservoir. In an inhomogeneous sand, injected water or gas may reach producing wells via high permeability layers without sweeping poorer sections. In time, a proportion of the oil in the bypassed sections may be recovered, though inefficiently in terms of barrels produced per barrel injected. Drilling an infill well to recover bypassed oil will usually generate extra reserves as well as some accelerated production (of reserves that would eventually have been recovered anyway). To decide whether to drill additional wells it is necessary to estimate both the extra reserves recovered, as well as the value of accelerating existing reserves (Fig. 15.2).  [c.352]

To evaluate the VIGRAL method, we scanned steel blocks with simulated flaws using a Flexilrak and a upi-50 instrument. This system allows for rapid and accurate acquisition of the desired data, including the A-scan, B-scan, and C-scan data, and serves to evaluate, offline, the V-scan image (Figure 8).  [c.168]

These images cannot be studied with classical approach. The analysis of the matrix based on the blocks Bl and B4 cannot be exploited. The objects can even be present in the bloek B2 andB3.  [c.235]

Realization of the USCT method for restoring of SD of PMF of material in thick-sheet products with plane parallel surfaces under the unilateral access required special designs of US blocks, in which taken into account particularities of the NDTO, of the method and of the  [c.250]

USCT IT. The US block forms beam data by the mirror-shadow method and ensures simultaneously precise measurement of coordinates of sensors. It consists of two multichannel blocks, namely tomographic (USTB) for multiangle collection of projection data and coordinate (USCB) on surfaces waves for coordinates measurement of US sensors.  [c.251]

Blocks have been prepared of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy 20 mm thick, with electrical conductivity of 1.89x10 S/m. The discontinuity has been machined by milling at a width of 0.2 mm.  [c.377]

Structure problems either by blocked cooling ducts or incorrect drilled holes will be able to identify by transmission thermography. Illustration 5 shows a hollowpoured blade with a typical error. A core break during pouring causes a bar, which obstructs the air supply. In the  [c.404]

Tests were therefore concluded using a 12 (300 mm) high resolution image intensifier with an optical coupling that featured a motorized iris for optimizing the contrast. The tests were conducted using blocks of different types of frozen fish such as halibut, cod, coalfish and others which were prepared with different arrays of bone. The easiest sample was a block containing a complete back-bone section (figure 1).  [c.588]

See pages that mention the term Blocking : [c.340]    [c.343]    [c.103]    [c.119]    [c.197]    [c.218]    [c.351]    [c.106]    [c.143]    [c.171]    [c.445]    [c.493]   
Encyclopedia of materials characterization (1992) -- [ c.502 ]

Plastics materials (1999) -- [ c.229 , c.235 ]