Utilities, pollution source

Another type of utility that is a serious air pollution source is the one that handles the wastes of modem society. An overloaded, poorly designed  [c.76]

A.jr Quality Model Inputs. Inputs to analytical air quaUty models can be broadly grouped as those dealing with meteorology, emissions, topography, and atmospheric concentrations. Meteorological inputs generally control the transport rate of pollutants and ate used to determine reaction rates and the depositional flux of compounds. Topography influences transport and deposition. Observed compound concentrations ate used to specify both initial and boundary conditions for model simulations. Especially for pollution problems involving organic compounds, emissions ate a key input subject to considerable uncertainty. Although emissions from primary industrial faciUties or utilities may be reasonably well known, emissions from residential or commercial faciUties, mobile sources, and natural sources ate often roughly estimated and difficult to verify.  [c.383]

Estimating Emissions from Sources Knowledge of the types and rates of emissions is fundamental to evaluation of any air pollution problem. A comprehensive material balance on the process can often assist in this assessment. Estimates of the rates at which pollutants are discharged from various processes can also be obtained by utilizing pubhshed emission factors. See Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42), 4th ed., U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, September, 1985, with all succeeding supplements and the EPA Technology Transfer Networks CHIEF. The emission fac tor is a statistical average of the rate at which pollutants are emitted from the  [c.2173]

A fuel cell has no moving parts. It runs quietly does not vibrate, and does not generate gaseous pollutants. The idea of the fuel cell is generally credited to Sir William Grove, who lived in the nineteenth century. It took over 100 years for the first prac tical devices to be built, in the U.S. space program, as the power supply for space capsules and the space shuttle. Commercialization of terrestrial fuel cell systems is beginning only now. Having lower emissions and being more efficient than heat engines, fuel cells may in time become the power source for a broad range of apphcations, beginning with utility power plants, including civihan and military transportation, and reaching into portable electronic devices.  [c.2409]

Now let us consider the system for long-range strategy for air pollution control. The elements in this system that have not yet been discussed include several listed in Fig. 5-1 under Sources and Their Control and all those listed under Strategy for Air Pollution Control. Control of sources is effected in several ways. We can (1) use devices to remove all or part of the pollutant from the gases discharged to the atmosphere, (2) change the raw materials used in the pollution-producing process, or (3) change the operation of the process so as to decrease Pollutants Emitted. These are Control Methods (Table 5-2). Such control methods have a cost associated with them and are the Cost Functions that appear in the system. There is always the option of seeking Alternate Products or Processes which will provide the same utility to the public but with less Pollutants Emitted. Such products and processes have their own Cost Functions.  [c.66]

Even though society has moved toward centralized industries and utilities, we still have many personal sources of air pollution for which we alone can answer—(1) automobiles, (2) home furnaces, (3) home fireplaces and stoves, (4) backyard barbecue grills, and (5) open burning of refuse and leaves. Figure 6-4 illustrates the personal emissions of a typical U.S. family.  [c.77]

The energy release and air pollution emissions from personal sources in the United States are greater than those from industry and utilities combined. In any major city in the United States, the mass of pollutants emitted  [c.77]

Trees are classified as a renewable resource which is being utilized in most portions of the world on a sustained yield basis. A properly managed forest will produce wood for lumber, fiber, and chemicals forever. Harvesting this resource can generate considerable dust and other particulates. Transportation over unpaved roads causes excessive dust generation. The cultural practice of burning the residue left after a timber harvest, called slash burning, is still practiced in some areas and is a major source of smoke, gaseous, and particulate air pollution in the localities downwind from the fire. Visibility reduction from such burning can be a serious problem.  [c.89]

Data regarding emissions are available from many sources. Sometimes the same item may be checked by asking two or more agencies for the same information. An example of this would be to check the liters of gasoline sold in a county by asking both the tax office and the gasoline dealers association. Sources of information for an emission inventory include (1) city, county, and state planning commissions (2) city, county, and state chambers of commerce (3) city, county, and state industrial development commissions (4) census bureaus (5) national associations such as coal associations (6) local associations such as the County Coal Dealers Association (7) individual dealers or distributors of oil, gasoBne, coal, etc. (8) local utility companies (9) local fire and building departments (10) data gathered by air pollution control agencies through surveys, sampling, etc. (11) traffic maps and (12) insurance maps.  [c.94]

Under low-dose conditions, forest ecosystems act as sinks for atmospheric pollutants and in some instances as sources. As indicated in Chapter 7, the atmosphere, lithosphere, and oceans are involved in cycling carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and other elements through each subsystem with different time scales. Under low-dose conditions, forest and other biomass systems have been utilizing chemical compounds present in the atmosphere and releasing others to the atmosphere for thousands of years. Industrialization has increased the concentrations of NO2, SO2, and CO2 in the "clean background" atmosphere, and certain types of interactions with forest systems can be defined.  [c.116]

The ability of a tall stack to inject its plume into the upper air and disperse its pollutants widely depends on prevalent meteorological conditions. Some conditions aid dispersion others retard it. Since these conditions are both measurable and predictable, intermittent and supplementary control systems (ICS/SCS) have been developed to utilize these measurements and predictions to determine how much pollution can be released from a stack before ground-level limits are exceeded. If such systems are used primarily to protect close-in receptors by decreasing emissions when local meteorological dispersion conditions are poor, they tend to allow relatively unrestricted release when the upper-air meteorology transports the plume for a long distance from the source. This leads to the same objections to ICS/ SCS as were noted to the use of tall stacks without a high level of pollutant removal before emission. Therefore, here again it is argued that if a high  [c.425]

Recycle refers to the utilization of a pollutant-laden stream (a source) in a process unit (a sink). Each sink has a number of constraints on the characteristics (e g, flowrate and composition) of feed that it can process. If a source satisfies these constraints it may be directly recycled to or reused in the sink. However, if the source violates these constraints segregation, mixing, and/or interception may be used to prepare the stream for recycle.  [c.12]

As mentioned in Chapter One, recycle refers to the utilization of a pollutant-laden stream (a source) in a process unit (a sink). A source may be recycled to a sink  [c.84]

One feature of the new law is an SO, trading allowance program that encourages the use of market-based principles to reduce pollution. Utilities may trade allowances within their system and/or buy or sell allowances to and from other affected sources. For example, plants that emit SO, at a rate below 1.2 Ib/million Btu will be able to increase emissions by 20 percent between a baseline year and the year 2000. Also, bonus allowances will be distributed to accommodate growth by units in states with a statewide average below 0.8 Ib/million Btu.  [c.444]

The most widespread and persistent urban pollution problem is ozone. The causes of this and the lesser problem of CO and PMjq pollution in our urban areas are largely due to the diversity and number of urban air pollution sources. One component of urban smog, hydrocarbons, comes from automobile emissions, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, dry cleaners, gasoline stations, house painting, and printing shops. Another key component, nitrogen oxides, comes from the combustion of fuel for transportation, utilities, and industries.  [c.397]

As of 1995, the cost for fuel ceU-based power plants was prohibitive when compared to conventional options. This cost may come down ia the latter 1990s if manufacturers of these devices receive enough orders to achieve economies of scale. Fuel cells have many potential advantages compared to conventional power cycles. For example, fuel cells generate very Httie pollution either ia emissions or noise. Thus these cells are ideal for siting ia populated areas close to loads where it may be difficult to site conventional power sources because of permitting issues. In addition, small fuel cell power plants can potentially mn as unstaffed faciUties. FiaaHy, fuel cells do generate significant levels of waste heat that can be captured and utilized to improve overall plant efficiency (see Process energy conservation).  [c.18]

Adoption of air quality standards by a jurisdiction produces no air pollution control. Control is produced by the limitation of emission from sources, which, in turn, is achieved by the adoption and enforcement of Emission Standards. However, before emission standards are adopted, the jurisdiction must make some social and political decisions on which of several philosophies of emission standard clevelopment are to be utilized and which of the several responsible groups in the jurisdiction should bear the brunt of the control effort—its homeowners, landlords, industries, or institutions. This latter type of decision making is called Emission Allocation. It will be seen in Fig. 5-1 that the system for strategic control is closed by the line connecting Emission Standards and Sources, which means that long-range pollution control strategy consists of applying emission limifation to sources.  [c.68]

Gaussian techniques, discussed in Chapter 19, are reasonable for estimates of concentrations of nonreative pollutants within 20 km of point sources. It is preferable to utilize on-site wind fluctuation measurements to estimate the horizontal and vertical spreading of a pollutant plume released from a point source.  [c.324]

For structures and equipment, the utility should be located where it cannot be affected by natural and climatic conditions. This includes (1) corrosive pollution that may be airborne, (2) prevalent winds, and (3) surface water currents from near or remote sources.  [c.42]

When questioned by electric utilities, a majority of residential customers show a willingness to consider paying a modest amount more per month for electricity powered from nonpolluting renewable energy sources, despite not knowing much about them. How many would actually choose to pay a premium for renewable energy is very uncertain. For those who are skeptical or ambivalent about the possibility of fossil fuel resources exhaustion, air pollution and global warming, the primary interest is the lowest price and best service. Early green-energy marketing efforts have shown promise in reaching those who are concerned about environmental issues. In 1999, Mountain Energy of Vermont signed up over 100,000 Pennsylvanians and Californians who will pay a 5 to. 35 percent premium for electricity generation not involving nuclear power or coal. It is a surprisingly good start for Mountain Energy, who cannot actually get green power to the home, but instead must sell the concept—the green power the  [c.139]

See pages that mention the term Utilities, pollution source : [c.76]   
Fundamentals of air pollution (1994) -- [ c.75 , c.76 ]