Ozone health

Work with asbestos insulating board (superseded by EH 71j Ozone health hazards and precautionary measures Occupational exposure limits (annual)  [c.573]

The Clean Air Act of 1970 was the first federal environmental legislation to affect significantly the electric power industry. It was in that year that the Environmental Protection Agency was empowered to set enforceable air quaUty standards. However, Congress had previously passed the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1963 in response to growing concerns about airborne power plant exhaust emissions of sulfur dioxide, SO2, which is a precursor of acid rain containing sulfuric acid, and oxides of nitrogen, NO, which is a principal contributor to low level ozone, ie, smog, and a lesser contributor to acid rain containing nitric acid (4). Prior to 1970, SO2 regulations were focused on reducing ground-level SO2 emissions to prevent associated impacts to human health. This is one of the reasons for using tall exhaust gas stacks, which help disperse airborne emissions high into the atmosphere to minimize terrestrial impacts.  [c.89]

The demand for trichloroethylene grew steadily until 1970. Since that time trichloroethylene has been a less desirable solvent because of restrictions on emissions under air pollution legislation and the passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Whereas previously the principal use of trichloroethylene was for vapor degreasing, currentiy 1,1,1-trichloroethane is the most used solvent for vapor degreasing. The restrictions on production of 1,1,1-trichloroethane [71-55-6] from the 1990 Amendments to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the stratospheric ozone and the U.S.  [c.22]

The Montreal Protocol of July 1987 resulted in an international treaty in which the industrialized nations agreed to halt the production of most ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons by the year 2000. This deadline was hastily changed to 1996, in February 1992, after a U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite and high-altitude sampling aircraft found levels of chlorine monoxide over North America that were 5i % greater than that measured over Antarctica.  [c.16]

Title IX of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 addresses air poUution research areas including monitoring and modeling, health effects, ecological effects, accidental releases, pollution prevention and emissions control, acid rain, and alternative motor vehicle fuels. The provisions require ecosystem studies on the effects of air pollutants on water quality, forests, biological diversity, and other terrestrial and aquatic systems exposed to air pollutants mandate the development of technologies and strategies for air pollution prevention from stationary and area sources and call for several major studies. The EPA must improve methods and techniques for measuring individual air pollutants and complex mixtures and conduct research on long- and short-term health effects, including the requirement for a new interagency task force to coordinate these research programs. Finally, the Agency must develop improved monitoring and modeling methods to increase the understanding of tropospheric ozone formation and control.  [c.405]

With air quality issues gaining prominence around the world, the use of natural gas as a vehicular fuel has become a more attractive alternative to gasoline and diesel fuels because of its inherent clean burning charactenstics. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have the potential to lower polluting emissions, especially m urban areas, where air quality has become a major public health concern. The most important environmental benefit of using natural gas is lower ozone levels in urban areas because of lower reactive hydrocarbon emissions. NGVs also have lower emission levels of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, known to cause "acid rain". Estimates of the greenhouse impact by NGVs vary widely, but it is generally agreed that the global warming potential of an NGV will be less than that of a liquid hydrocarbon-fuelled vehicle [1].  [c.269]

Although the original Clean Air Act of 1977 brought about significant improvements in air quality, the urban air pollution problems of ozone (known as smog), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM,o) persist. Currently, over 100 million Americans live in cities which are out of attaimnent with the public health standards for ozone. The most widespread and persistent urban  [c.2]

Under Title I, the Federal government must develop the technical guidance that states need to control stationary sources. The law addresses the urban air pollution problems of ozone (smog), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM,o). Specifically, it clarifies how areas are designated and redesignated "attainment". It also allows EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to define the boundaries of nonattainment" areas geographical areas whose air quality does not meet Federal air quality standards designed to protect public health. The law also establishes provisions defining when and how the federal government can impose sanctions on areas of the country that have not met certain conditions.  [c.3]

The first priority in designing a strategy to control nitrogen oxides is to protect human health. Human health impacts appear to be related to peak exposures to nitrogen oxides (NO,). In addition to potentially damaging human health, nitrogen oxides are precursors to ozone (O3) formation, which can harm human health and vegetation. Finally, nitrogen oxides contribute to acid deposition, which damages vegetation and aquatic ecosystems. The extent to which NO, emissions harm human health depends on ground-level concentrations and the number of people exposed. Source location can affect these parameters. Gases emitted in areas with meteorological, climatological, and topographical features that favor dispersion will  [c.25]

The main health concern of exposure to ambient ground-level ozone is its effect on the respiratory system, especially on lung function. Several factors influence these health impacts, including the concentrations of ground-level ozone in the atmosphere, the duration of exposure, average volume of air breathed per minute (ventilation rate), and the length of intervals between short-term exposures. Most of the evidence on the health impacts of ground-level ozone comes from animal studies and controlled clinical studies of humans focusing on short-term acute exposure. Clinical studies have documented an association between short-term exposure to ground-level ozone at concentrations of 200 to 500 /tg/m and mild temporary eye and respiratory irritation as indicated by symptoms such as coughing, throat dryness, eye and chest discomfort, thoracic pain, and headache. Temporary decrements in pulmonary function have been found in children at hourly average ground-level ozone concentrations of 160 to 300 /tg/m Similar impacts have been observed after 2.5-hour exposure of heavily exercising adults and children to concentrations of 240 /tg/m Lung function losses, however, have been reversible and relatively mild even at concentrations of 360 /tg/m with a great variety of personal responses. Full recovery of respiratory functions normally occurs within 24 to 48 hours after exposure.  [c.30]

Ozone applications in the United States for drinking water are far fewer than in Europe. However, the potential market is large, if environmental or health needs ever conclude that an alternate disinfectant to chlorine should be required. Although energy costs of ozonation are higher than those for chlorination, they may be comparable to combined costs of chlorination dechlorination-reaeration, which is a more equivalent technique. One of ozone s greatest potential uses is for municipal wastewater disinfection.  [c.483]

Atmosphere The gaseous envelope of air that surrounds the earth, held together by gravitational attraction. It consists of 79.1% nitrogen and 20.9% oxygen by volume, with approximately 0.03% CO, traces of the noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon, neon, and helium), water vapor, organic matter, ammonia, ozone, various salts, and suspended solid particulates.  [c.1415]

By including electron correlation in the wave function the UHF method introduces more biradical character into the wave function than RHF. The spin contamination part is also purely biradical in nature, i.e. a UHF treatment in general will overestimate the biradical character. Most singlet states are well described by a closed-shell wave function near the equilibrium geometry, and in those cases it is not possible to generate a UHF solution which has a lower energy than the RHF. There are systems, however, for which this does not hold. An example is the ozone molecule, where two types of resonance structure can be drawn. Figure 4.8.  [c.115]

The pollutants most strongly damaging to human, animal, and sometimes plant health include ozone, fine particulate matter, lead, nitrogen oxides (NO ), sulfur oxides (SOJ, and carbon monoxide. Many other chemicals found in polluted air can cause lesser health impacts (such as eye irritation). VOC compounds comprise the bulk of such chemicals. Formaldehyde is one commonly mentioned pollutant of this sort, as is PAN (peroxyacyl nitrate). Such  [c.48]

The NAAQS are the allowable ambient (outdoor) concentrations that must be maintained in order to protect public health and welfare. Limits have been set for carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nHrogen dioxide (NOJ, ozone (Oj), sulfur dioxide (SOJ, and particulate matter (PM j. EPA is currently reviewing the adequacy of the ozone and PM,g standards.  [c.50]

Burning fossil fuels can release air pollutants such as carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and particulate matter. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rain ozone is a component of urban smog, and particulate matter affects respiratory health. In fact, several studies have documented a disturbing correlation between suspended particulate levels and human mortality. It is estimated that air pollution may help cause 500,000 premature deaths and millions of new respiratory illnesses each year.  [c.187]

Various colorimetric methods have been employed for measuring ozone residuals, although most of these ate susceptible to significant interferences (142). The indigo trisulfonate method (143), however, has been approved by the Standard Methods Committee of the American Pubfle Health Association (141) and the International Ozone Association for ozone residual measurement.  [c.503]

The most significant environmental and health issues affecting the paint and coatings industry in the 1990s are regulations to lower the VOC content for virtually all types of paints and to restrict the use of certain solvents known as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) under the federal Clean Air Act. Except for the water in a latex paint or in other water-based coatings, solvents used in house paints are mosdy all VOCs. Several states, along with the U.S. EPA, have implemented environmental regulations to restrict the VOC content of paints, as mandated by the Clean Air Act. These regulations are aimed at minimizing the emission of organic compounds from paints that contribute to the formation of air pollution in the form of smog or ground-level ozone.  [c.547]

It is common practice to chlorinate wastewater effluents for bacterial control. Regulations vary from state to state, but all require chlorination to specified residual concentrations. Regulations change with the season and the most stringent are in effect during the swimming season. A phenomenon not fliUy understood is aftergrowth. Immediately after discharge to the receiving water, the bacterial count is low, but then suddenly rises. Questions have been raised concerning the benefit of effluent chlorination. It has been found that some unusual organic industrial chemicals pass unchanged through conventional treatment plants. Chlorination of these substances gives products that are suspected of being carcinogenic. Drinking such waters may be dangerous to health. These considerations have brought about renewed interest in ozone, other halogens, and ultraviolet irradiation as means of bacterial control.  [c.285]

Carbon disulfide for manufacture of carbon tetrachloride increased in the 1950s and 1960s to supply the key raw material for chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants and aerosol propellants. Because of ecological and health concerns, carbon tetrachloride consumption began to decline in the mid-1970s. That use for carbon disulfide will suffer under a United Nations proposal to phase out carbon tetrachloride and chlorofluorocarbons to protect the earth s ozone layer (133). During 1991 the only remaining carbon tetrachloride plant in the United States that employed the carbon disulfide route was permanently shut down. Consumption of carbon disulfide in mbber, agriculture, mining, and specialty industrial appHcations is anticipated to remain close to 1991 levels for the next several years.  [c.32]

A separate set of processibility issues involves health, safety, and environmental concerns. Ozone-depleting compounds (ODCs), such as trichloroethane and  [c.956]

Ozone has proven to be effeetive against viruses. Franee has adopted a standard for the use of ozone to inaetivate viruses. When an ozone residual of 0.4 mg/I ean be measured 4 minutes after the initial ozone demand has been met, viral inaetivation is satisfied. This property plus ozone s freedom from residual formation are important eonsiderations in the publie health aspects of ozonation. When ozonation is eombined with aetivated earbon filtration, a high degree of organie removal ean be aehieved. Coneerning the toxieity of oxidation produets of ozone and the removal of speeifie eompounds via ozonation, available evidenee does not indieate any major health hazards assoeiated with the use of ozone in wastewater treatment.  [c.489]

The new 0.08 standard is much stronger and more protective than Uie old standtird of 0.12. It will extend new health protections to 35 million people, bringing to 113 million tlie number of Americans protected by the air quality standard for ozone  [c.36]

By mo ing from a one-hour to an eight-hour measurement, the standtird will better reflect the real-world effects of ozone on human health  [c.36]

By focusing on concentration of ozone, the new standard w ill do more Uian merely designate high-pollution areas as out of compliimce - for the first time, it w ill also respond to health concerns based on how much an area is out of compliance  [c.36]

Air pollution affects plant health as well. Acid rain and ozone can directly damage a plant s leaves and bark, interfering with photosynthesis and plant growth. More serious effects can occur if soil nutrients are leached away and heavy metals are mobilized in the soils upon which plants depend. Without proper nutrients, plants become susceptible to a variety of diseases. The overall result is a decrease in the amount of energy produced by plants. Acid rain affects over 345,960 square miles (900,000 sq. km) of Eastertr Europe, where it has taken a significant toll on cities, forest, lakes, and streams (Kaufman and Franz, 1993). Moreover, air pollution is reducing U..S. food production by 5 to 10 percent, costing an estimated 2 billion to 5 billion per year (Smith, 1992).  [c.187]

The legislation most responsible for addressing power plant emissions is the Clean Air Act. Initially established in 1970 with major amendments m 1977 and 1990, it provides for federal authorities to control impacts on human health and the enviromnent resulting from air emissions from industry, transportation, and space heating and cooling. In the original 1970 progi ams, National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were established for six criteria air pollutants—SO, NO, particulate matter, ozone, lead, and carbon monoxide—at a level to protect human health and welfare and the cnvironnicnt with a margin of safety. New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) were set for major new facilities projected to emit any pollutant in significant amounts. To receive an operating permit, a new unit must meet or exceed control standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In the 1977 Amendments, permits required control levels for new plants that were not only as stringent as NSPS but also reflected the best available technologies.  [c.444]

The ozone layer in our upper atmosphere provides a filter for ultraviolet radiation, which can be harmful to our health. Research has found that the ozone layer is thinning, due to emissions into the atmosphere of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons and bromides. The Montreal Protocol in 1987 agreed that the production of these chemicals would be phased out by 1995 and alternative fluids developed. From Table 3.1, Rll, R12, R114 and R502 are all CFCs used as refrigerants, while R13B1 is a halon. They have all ceased production within those countries which are signatories to the Montreal Protocol. The situation is not so clear-cut, because there are countries like Russia, India, China etc. who are not signatories and who could still be producing these harmful chemicals. Table 3.2 shows a comparison between old and new refrigerants.  [c.29]

See pages that mention the term Ozone health : [c.891]    [c.503]    [c.31]    [c.7]    [c.35]    [c.36]    [c.793]    [c.28]   
Fundamentals of air pollution (1994) -- [ c.108 ]