Open burning

Even though society has moved toward centralized industries and utilities, we still have many personal sources of air pollution for which we alone can answer—(1) automobiles, (2) home furnaces, (3) home fireplaces and stoves, (4) backyard barbecue grills, and (5) open burning of refuse and leaves. Figure 6-4 illustrates the personal emissions of a typical U.S. family.  [c.77]

Coal Oil Gas Open burning Multiple chamber Gasoline Diesel  [c.82]

To develop an emission inventory for an area, one must (1) list the types of sources for the area, such as cupolas, automobiles, and home fireplaces (2) determine the type of air pollutant emission from each of the listed sources, such as particulates and SO2 (3) examine the literature (9) to find valid emission factors for each of the pollutants of concern (e.g., "particulate emissions for open burning of tree limbs and brush are 10 kg per ton of residue consumed") (4) through an actual count, or by means of some estimating technique, determine the number and size of specific sources in the area (the number of steelmaking furnaces can be counted, but the number of home fireplaces will probably have to be estimated) and (5) multiply the appropriate numbers from (3) and (4) to obtain the total emissions and then sum the similar emissions to obtain the total for the area.  [c.93]

A major source of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons is open burning of agricultural residue. Over 2.5 million metric tons of particulate matter per year are added to the atmosphere over the United States from burning rice, grass straw and stubble, wheat straw and stubble.  [c.509]

The major effect of such open burning is the nuisance caused by the smoke, but health effects are noticed by sensitive individuals downwind from the bum. Table 30-18 lists the pollutant emissions from grass field burning (15).  [c.510]

If the open burning of agricultural residue is permitted, it should be scheduled to minimize the effect on populated areas. This requires burning when the wind is blowing away from the population centers, not burning during inversion periods, burning dry residue to establish a strong convection column rather than a smoldering fire, and burning only a certain number of acres at a time, so that the atmosphere does not become overloaded.  [c.510]

Fig. 30-4. Open burning of a field after a grass seed harvest. Fig. 30-4. Open burning of a field after a grass seed harvest.
Documented efforts at cokemaking date from 1584 (34), and have seen various adaptations of conventional wood-charring methods to the production of coke including the eventual evolution of the beehive oven, which by the mid-nineteenth century had become the most common vessel for the coking of coal (2). The heat for the process was suppHed by burning the volatile matter released from the coal and, consequently, the carbonization would progress from the top of the bed to the base of the bed and the coke was retrieved from the side of the oven at process completion.  [c.64]

Furnaces are either cooled (water- or air-cooled chamber) or not cooled (refractory-lined chamber). In general, the basic stmcture roughly resembles either a rectangular box or a cylinder with variations for generally good reasons (6). For example, if the material being processed is a Hquid, the furnace bottom must provide a bath. Hence, the open-hearth furnace is used for steel melting and refining, the reverbatory furnace for copper, and glass tanks for various materials. If the material tends to be lumpy, as ia smelting, cupola melting, or lime burning, the furnace is constmcted vertically to make gravity feeding possible.  [c.141]

When burning hazardous vapors requiring destmction of the molecular species to less than 5—10 ppmv, an open flare may not maintain the combustible gases at a sufficiently high temperature for a sufficient period of time to meet such requirements. Either pretesting of flares should be made, or the flare should be enclosed in an open-ended refractory chamber to maintain combustion temperatures. For occasional emergency releases, an enclosure built of refractory brick gives inadequate destmction until the refractory is heated to high temperatures. Maintaining a refractory lining at operating temperature with an auxiHary fuel over a long period of time can be very energy consuming.  [c.59]

Dead-burned dolomite is a specially sintered or double-burned form of dolomitic quicklime which is further stabilized by the addition of iron oxides. Historically, it was used as a refractory for lining steel furnaces, particularly open hearths, but as of this writing is used primarily in making dolomite refractory brick (see Refractories).  [c.164]

In Germany and Japan, pulverized quicklime is used in making self-fluxing sinters, partially replacing limestone. Granular dead-burned dolomite is stiU used to protect the refractory lining of open-hearth and electric furnaces, but not the basic oxygen furnace. Refractory time has declined with the  [c.177]

For central station power generation the open cycle system using electrically conducting coal combustion products as the working fluid is employed. The fuel typically is pulverized coal burned directly in the MHD combustor, although in some plant designs cleaner fuels made from coal by gasification or by beneficiation have been considered (8—10) (see Fuels, synthetic).  [c.411]

Health and Safety. Remover formulas that are nonflammable may be used in any area that provides adequate ventilation. Most manufacturers recommend a use environment of 50—100 parts per million (ppm) time weighted average (TWA). The environment can be monitored with passive detection badges or by active air sampling and charcoal absorption tube analysis. The vapor of methylene chloride produces hydrogen chloride and phosgene gas when burned. Methylene chloride-type removers should not be used in the presence of an open flame or other heat sources such as kerosene heaters (8).  [c.551]

Many pyrotechnic reactions develop a gas-phase reaction component as they bum. A flame plume is present above the burning reaction surface as the reaction continues in the vapor phase, and the heat return from this vapor-phase reaction is another critical component of the bum rate of a pyrotechnic mixture. External pressure plays a significant role in determining the bum rate when a vapor-phase reaction component is present. High pressure tends to hold the hot gases near the burning surface, increasing the bum rate. This is the principle behind confining propellants in a chamber as they bum, leading to a high pressure and high bum rate for the propellant. In the open, propellants often are quite calm in burning performance. Not all pyrotechnic reactions, however, depend on a gas phase. Certain reactions, such as between kon powder and barium peroxide, are soHd-phase reactions (3).  [c.348]

Coconut oil [8001-31-8] is one of the primary vegetable oils used in the manufacture of soap products. Coconut oil is obtained from the dried fmit (copra) of the coconut palm tree. The fmit is dried either in the sun or over open fires from burning the husks of the fmit, with the oil pressed out of the dried fmit.  [c.151]

The Abderhalden design, employed at some French distilleries and used in the United Kingdom for distilling tar to a base-tar residue, is probably the simplest single-pass, atmospheric-pressure design (7). After straining and the addition of alkaU as a corrosion inhibitor, the cmde tar is heat-exchanged with the distillation side-streams and the hot pitch and then passed through an economizer coil in the convection section of the furnace. This furnace is essentially a rectangular chamber lined with refractory brick divided into two sections by a curtain wall, which has apertures to enable the hot flue gases to pass from one compartment to the other. The first section serves as the combustion and radiant-heating section in which coke-oven gas, fuel oil, or creosote-pitch fuel is burned at specially designed nozzles projecting into the chamber. The products of combustion are drawn by a fan from the combustion chamber into the second, or convection, chamber before exhaustion to a chimney stack via a waste-heat coil. The coils through which the tar is pumped are, in some designs, set in the walls of the convection chamber only. In other designs, the main heating coil is partly set in the combustion chamber where it is heated by direct radiation.  [c.336]

The physical piopeities of methyl chloiide aie hsted in Table 1. Values foi vapoi pressure, density of hquid and saturated vapor, and enthalpy of hquid methyl chloride are given in Table 2 (1). Methyl chloride is the simplest chlorinated hydrocarbon. Dry methyl chloride in the absence of air does not decompose at an appreciable rate at temperatures approaching 400°C, even in contact with many metals. Thermal dissociation is virtually complete at 1400°C. Oxidative breakdown of the gas requires temperatures of several hundred degrees. Methyl chloride is decomposed by an open flame to give hydrogen chloride and carbon dioxide, with possible formation of small amounts of carbon monoxide and phosgene. The burning velocity of the simple chloroparaffins is inversely proportional to chlorine content (2). Methyl chloride has a burning velocity of 10.9 cm/s, whereas butyl chloride bums at 31.6 cm/s.  [c.512]

Coal carbonization is the process for producing metallurgical coke for use in iron-making blast furnaces and other metal smelting processes. Carbonization of coal (qv) entails heating coal to temperatures as high as 1100°C in the absence of oxygen in order to distill out tars and light oils (see Tar and pitch). A gaseous by-product referred to as coke oven gas (COG) along with ammonia, water, and sulfur compounds are also thermally removed from the coal. The coke that remains after this distillation largely consists of carbon (qv), in various crystallographic forms, but also contains the thermally modified remains of various minerals that were in the original coal. These mineral remains, commonly referred to as coke ash, do not combust and are left as a residue after the coke is burned. Coke also contains a portion of the sulfur from the coal. Coke is principally used as a fuel, reductant, and support for other raw materials in ironmaking blast furnaces (see Furnaces, FUEL-FIRED Iron). A much smaller toimage of coke is similarly used in cupola furnaces in the foundry industry.  [c.242]

If an ethyl ether fire occurs, carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride, and dry chemical fire extinguishers meeting National Eire Prevention Association Code 1 and 2 requirements may be used successhiUy (23). Water may also be effectively appHed (see Plant safety). Hose streams played into open tanks of burning ethyl ether serve only to scatter the Hquid and spread the fire. However, ether fires may be extinguished by a high pressure water spray that cools the burning surface and smothers the fire. Automatic sprinklers and deluge systems are also effective.  [c.428]

Mixtures of ethylene oxide with air are far easier to ignite and bum much faster than the pure vapor. Flames may propagate at low pressures, 1.3—2.6 kPa (10—20 mm Hg), over a wide range of compositions. The burning velocity (or index) is much larger than that of propane, and under the provisions of NFPA 68 (274) there is no design basis for venting an optimum ethylene oxide deflagration in weak enclosures such as buildings. In the open air, partial confinement of vapor clouds may cause significant blast overpressures (190). A TNT equivalence of 10% has been suggested (275).  [c.465]

The choice of fuel for a cogeneration system is determined by the primary heat-engine cycle. Closed-cycle power systems which are extern ly fired—the steam turbine, the indirectly fired open-cycle gas turbine, and closed-cycle gas turbine systems—can use virtually any fuel that can be burned in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner coal, municipal sohd waste, biomass, and industrial wastes are burnable with closed power systems. Internal combustion engines, on the other hand, including open-cycle gas turbines, are restricted to fuels that have combustion charac teristics compatible with the engine type and that yield combustion products clean enough to pass through the engine without damaging it. In addition to natural gas, butane, and the conventional petroleum-derived liquid fuels, refined liquid and gaseous fuels derived from shale, coal, or biomass are in this categoiy. Direct-coal-fired internal combustion engines have been an experimental reality for decades but are not yet a practical reahty technologically or economically.  [c.2405]

A high-pressure reciprocating pump, originally used for pumping heavy hydrocarbons, was put into service to pump propylene in an unventilated building. A leak occurred from the gland due to failure by fatigue of the studs holding the gland in position. The escaping liquid vaporized and was ignited by a furnace 76 meters away. Four men were badly burned and the glass windows on the buildings were broken. The failure was attributed to the fact that plant management had not implemented effective management of change procedures. As a result of the deflagration, gas detectors and remote isolation capability were provided. Also, the pump was moved to an open building where small leaks would be dispersed by natural ventilation (CCPS G-39).  [c.28]

To open the reactor for inspecting or changing the catalyst, extreme caution must be used. A used catalyst is completely reduced and has some methanol and other combustibles adsorbed on the surface. The used catalyst can heat up when exposed to air and even ignite. A catalyst overheated this way is not useful for further studies and a burned-down laboratory is not useful at all.  [c.88]

The forest products industry (as well as governmental agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service) practices open, prescribed, burning of logging residue (slash) as a forest management tool and as an economical means of residue disposal (18). This burning is usually done when meteorological conditions and fuel variables, such as moisture content, can give as clean a burn as possible with a minimum effect on populated areas. On a worldwide basis, it has been estimated that approximately 90 million metric tons of particulate matter from wUd and controlled forest and range fires enter the atmosphere each year. Table 30-20 lists the pollutant emissions from forest burning (16),  [c.513]

In some US states, gasoline dispensers known as latch open devices may be found that do not require operator pressure to hold the valve open at the nozzle. In these instances the operator may leave gasoline flowing to a tank without holding down the lever on the grounded nozzle. While ungrounded, the operator may develop a large static charge by walking on carpet in the station, getting in and out of the car or removing an item of clothing. Several fires have occurred due to a spark from the charged operator returning to the grounded nozzle. In one case the victim was seriously burned after withdrawing the nozzle in response to observing a small fire on the filling port, forgetting that gasoline was still flowing.  [c.164]

A coking operation has about 1 million cubic meters per year of excess coke oven gas that it generally sends to flares. (A) Instead of burning this offgas in flares, what else could be done with it (B) What is the value of this gas (assume it to be essentially natural gas or methane)  [c.147]

The procedures commonly used to demilitari2e conventional munitions iaclude munitions disassembly, washout or steamout of explosives from projectiles and warheads, iaciaeration of reclaimed explosives, and open burning or detonation. Open burning and detonation of large quantities of  [c.7]

Toxicity and Environmental Considerations. Prolonged exposure and skin contact with TNT in the workplace may lead to rashes, skin emptions, and more serious consequences such as nose bleeds and hemorrhage of the skin, as well as mucose and blood disorders. Dust inhalation may result in nausea, vomiting, toxic hepatitis, and anemia. Occupational cleanliness is critically important in TNT manufacture. Wastewater from TNT contains mostiy dissolved TNT and possible traces of dinitrotoluene and isomers of TNT. The water from loading plants generally contains TNT, HMX, RDX, and wax. The washings initially are colorless but turn pink if neutral or basic and exposed to sunlight. The dissolved products are removed by filtration through diatomaceous earth (see Diatomite) and activated carbon. The disposal of the explosive-contaminated carbon by open burning or as landfill ia hazardous waste sites is increasingly unacceptable. An alternative process possible for future appHcation consists of usiag ozone (qv) ia the presence of uv light to decompose the organics ia the pink water. Red water is produced ia the selliting process, and has been either burned ia rotary kiln separators or sold to the paper iadustry. These options are no longer viable, and alternative approaches are under study including process changes and modifications of current iaciaeration technology (189—204).  [c.18]

Alternatives to Open Burning Open Detonation of Propellants andExplosives, CPIA PubHcation 540, CPIA, Laurel, Md., Mar. 1990.  [c.26]

There is no satisfactory chemical way of distinguishing betn een ethane and methane, both of which burn with an almost non-luminous flame this fact however is quite unimportant at this stage of the investigation. Hydrogen also burns with a non-luminous flame and w hen the open end of a test-tube full of the gas is placed in a Bunsen flame, a mild explosion with a very characteristic report takes place.  [c.329]

There is no satisfactory chemical way of distinguishing betr een ethane and methane, both of which burn with an almost non-luminous fiame this fact however is quite unimportant at this stage of the investigation. Hydrogen also burns with a non-luminous fiame and when the open end of a test-tube fuU of the gas is placed in a Bunsen fiame, a mild explosion with a very characteristic report takes place.  [c.329]

Using the microwave Just decreased the reaction time to 3-30minutes. The dudes in the article used a household, 500W Brazilian microwave (Yikesl). They cut a whole in the top of the microwave to allow the condenser apparatus to pass through the oven. They then killed themselves most likely. But not before they were able to scratch down this procedure as they slowly burned to death  [c.42]

J. A. Stein, P. L. Stang, and M. Summerfield, The Burning Mechanism ofMmmonium Perchlorate-Based Composite Propellants, Aerospace and Mechanical Sciences Report 830, Princeton University, N.J., 1969.  [c.54]

There are two principal methods of coal combustion fixed-bed combustion and combustion in suspension. The first fixed beds, eg, open fires, fireplaces, and domestic stoves, were simple in principle. Suspension burning of coal began in the early 1900s with the development of pulverized coal-fired systems, and by the 1920s these systems were in widespread use. Spreader stokers, which were developed in the 1930s, combined both principles by providing for the smaller particles of coal to be burned in suspension and larger particles to be burned on a grate (10).  [c.72]

PefractoTy lime is synonymous with dead-burned dolomite, an unreactive dolomitic quicklime, stabilized with iron oxides, that is used primarily for lining refractories of steel furnaces, particularly open hearths.  [c.165]

Calcination Products. Tables 3 and 4 summarize the analyses and forms of commercial quicklime in the United States (1). In addition to conventionally calcined dolomitic quicklime, a special refractory lime is made by sintering or dead-burning granules of high quaUty dolomitic limestone in a rotary kiln at 1650°C. Iron oxide (5—8%) is added to the feed to stabilize the product against hydration. The grayish brown dusdess granules produced are used only for lining open-hearth and electric steel furnaces or as raw materials for refractory brick and other products.  [c.173]

Disposal. Disposal of ha2ardous waste must be carried out in accordance with precautions against fire and explosion ha2ards, severe corrosion, severe reactivity with water, toxic effects, and groundwater pollution. Several methods are available, but each has drawbacks. Burning in the open is becoming less acceptable because of the air pollution (qv) that may result from incomplete combustion. Incineration controls the pollution problem somewhat by assuring complete combustion, but care must be taken that the heat release is not so rapid as to damage the incinerator and its auxiUary parts (see Incinerators). Disposal through industrial sewers must be in accordance with good waste-disposal practices, and it must observe the restrictions imposed by the receptor and authorities. Volatile, flammable materials may generate explosive vapors in sewers, causing flashbacks that can damage the plant. Suitable separators or treatment faciUties usually are necessary to treat waste entering a sewer system. Reactive wastes should be treated to make these wastes relatively harmless before disposal (96). For example, sodium can be treated with alcohol, and the resulting alkaline solution can be neutrali2ed. Explosive materials usually are taken to safe areas and burned in controlled quantities (see Waste treatment, hazardous wastes).  [c.101]

The use of carbon black as a pigment dates back to prehistoric times. Cave wad. dwellings and objects from ancient Egypt were decorated with paints and lacquers containing carbon black. The oldest process practiced in China about 3000 BC consisted of the partial combustion of vegetable ods in small lamps with ceramic covers. The smoke impinged on the covers from which the adhering carbon black was carefliUy removed. Another old process is the lampblack process, which is the ancestor of all modem carbon blacks. Untd the 1870s it was the ordy commercial process, and because of this the world lampblack is occasionally used as a generic term for carbon black. In the lampblack process, ods are burned in open, shallow pans in a restricted air supply. The heavy, carbon-laden smoke is passed through a series of settling chambers and filters from which the flocculated carbon deposits are recovered.  [c.539]

The lampblack process has the distinction of being the oldest and most primitive carbon black process stiU being practiced. The ancient Egyptians and Chinese employed techniques similar to modem methods collecting the lampblack by deposition on cool surfaces. Basically, the process consists of burning various Hquid or molten raw materials in large, open, shallow pans 0.5 to 2 m in diameter and 16 cm deep under brick-lined flue enclosures with a restricted air supply. The smoke from the burning pans passes through low velocity settling chambers from which the carbon black is cleared by motor-driven ploughs. In more modem installations the black is separated by cyclones and filters. By varying the size of the burner pans and the amount of combustion air, the particle size and surface area can be controlled within narrow limits. Lampblacks have similar properties to the low area od-fumace blacks. A typical lampblack has an average particle diameter of 65 nm, a surface area of 22 m /g, and a DBPA of 130 mL/100 g. Production is small, mostly in Western and Eastern Europe. Its main use is in paints, as a tinting pigment where blue tone is desired. In the mbber industry lampblack finds some special appHcations.  [c.547]

The Nippon CRI procedure uses enclosed moving-belt calciners (Eig. 2). The catalyst is conveyed on a stainless steel mesh belt through gas-fired heating 2ones in which the catalyst is contacted with the appropriate gas. The independentiy heated 2ones, variable belt speed, inlet and outiet dow dampers, and choice of gas addition of such equipment allows the control of temperature, time, gas dow rate, and gas composition. The initial treatment is intended to volatili2e residual hydrocarbons from the catalyst. These hydrocarbons can be removed without combustion by heating the catalyst in an inert atmosphere, such as nitrogen, or by cautiously heating the catalyst in an oxygen-containing stream while avoiding the initiation of combustion. The subsequent highly exothermic carbon-burning step is controlled by limiting the addition of fresh air to the oven. Temperatures are measured using thermocouples in contact with the moving catalyst bed or suspended closely above it. Complete carbon burning may require more than one pass through the oven if the maximum temperature is to be adequately controlled to avoid damage to the catalyst.  [c.225]

Coke making dates to seventeenth century England where it was discovered that intermpting the burning of coal heaps produced soHd blocks of carbon from the botton of the heap (1). This carbon quickly supplanted wood charcoal as the main blast furnace fuel. The first commercially successhil coal carbonization plant was developed in 1709 (2). Subsequent generations of cokemaking faciUties proceeded to ever more effectively exclude air (oxygen) from contact with the carbonizing coal. These faciUties evolved from the initial coal heaps first to pits, then to masonry-waHed nonroofed ovens. Dome-shaped mud-walled ovens, and then domed refractory brick ovens, commonly called beehive ovens, appeared by 1840 (1). At about this same time, rectangular-shaped ovens having arched roofs and removable doors on one or both ends of the oven appeared. This latter type allowed for pushing the coke out of the oven so that the coke could be quenched with water. Eadier ovens were designed for quenching the coke within the oven, necessitating subsequent reheating of the oven as well as repair of damage caused by thermal shock to the oven stmcture.  [c.242]

Disposal. Small quantities of concentrated hydrogen cyanide can be burned in a hood in an open vessel. Large-scale burning in outdoor pans can be performed, but special safety precautions must be employed. A cyanide solution can be decontaminated by making the solution strongly basic (pH 12) with caustic and pouring it into ferrous sulfate solution. The resulting ferrocyanide is relatively nontoxic. Cyanide solution can be converted to less toxic cyanate by treatment with chlorine, sodium or calcium hypochlorite, or o2one at pH 9 to 11. A solution of 10% hypochlorite maximum should be used.  [c.380]

A large number of diverse solvents are used in exterior and interior coatings in plants for manufacturing both three- and two-piece cans. Most of the organic solvents are found in the cure-oven exhausts at concentrations of 2—16% of the lower explosive limit (LEL). The oven exhaust volumes are usually 1—35 mr /s. When burned, these concentrations of combustibles provide an exotherm of 30 to 220°C. The heat that is released is used for preheating the incoming effluent and/or heating the cure oven by recycling the hot, cleaned gases to the supply blowers or by heating makeup air by heat exchange. A few plants use the heat of the cleaned exhaust to produce hot water for the two-piece can line washers, hot air for dry-off ovens, or building space heating. For example, one large can company utilizes the heat energy contained in the stream, leaving some of their catalytic fume abaters to supply all the heat energy required by the oven s heating zones, which have no burners. The fuel energy suppUed to the catalytic fume abater is less than would be needed to heat the oven if the solvent fumes were exhausted directiy to the atmosphere without use of the fume abater. The exhaust rate of the oven is adjusted to maintain a  [c.514]

Industrial boilers are employed over a wide range of applications, from large power-generating units with sophisticated control systems, which maximize efficiency, to small low-pressure units for space or process heating, which emphasize simplicity and low capital cost. Although their usual primary func tion is to provide energy in the form of steam, in some applications steam generation is incidental to a process objec tive, e.g., a chemical recoveiy unit in the paper industry, a carbon monoxide boiler in an oil refineiy, or a gas-cooling waste-heat boiler in an open-hearth furnace. It is not unusual for an industrial boiler to serve a multiplicity of functions. For example, in a paper-pulp mill, the chemical-recoveiy boiler is used to convert black liquor into useful chemicals and to generate process steam. At the same plant, a bark-burning unit recovers heat from otherwise wasted material and also generates power.  [c.2397]

See pages that mention the term Open burning : [c.7]    [c.509]    [c.513]    [c.157]    [c.287]   
Fundamentals of air pollution (1994) -- [ c.0 ]