Costs plant damage


Coal is expected to be the best domestic feedstock alternative to natural gas. Although coal-based ammonia plants have been built elsewhere, there is no such plant in the United States. Pilot-scale projects have demonstrated effective ammonia-from-coal technology (102). The cost of ammonia production can be anticipated to increase, lea ding to increases in the cost of producing nitrogen fertilizers.  [c.243]

Rapid increases in the price of benzene and the recognition of benzene as a hazardous material intensified the search for alternative process technology in the United States. These factors led to the first commercial production of maleic anhydride from butane [106-97-8] at Monsanto s. F. Queeny plant in 1974. By the early 1980s the conversion of the U.S. maleic anhydride manufacturing capacity from benzene to butane feedstocks was well under way using catalysts developed by Monsanto, Denka, and Halcon. One factor that inhibited the conversion of the installed benzene-based capacity was that early butane-based catalysts were not active and selective enough to allow the conversion of benzene-based plant without significant loss of nameplate capacity. In 1983 Monsanto started up the world s first butane-to-maleic anhydride plant, incorporating an energy efficient solvent-based product collection and refining system. This plant was the world s largest maleic anhydride production faciHty in 1983 at 59, 000 t/yr capacity, and through rapid advances in catalyst technology remains the world s largest faciHty with a capacity of 100, 000 t/yr (1994). Advances in catalyst technology, increased regulatory pressures, and continuing cost advantages of butane over benzene have led to a rapid conversion of benzene- to butane-based plants. By the mid-1980s in the United States 100% of maleic anhydride production used butane as the feedstock  [c.453]


See pages that mention the term Costs plant damage : [c.388]   
Fundamentals of air pollution (1994) -- [ c.110 , c.113 , c.114 , c.115 , c.376 ]