Costs equipment

Equipment Costs. Equipment costs include the purchased cost of process and materials handling equipment, storage faciUties, waste treatment equipment, stmctures, and site service faciUties. Installation costs such as insulation, piping, painting and finishing, foundations, process stmctures, instmmentation, and electrical service connections are estimated or factored separately. Actual quoted prices from suppHers are the best data, but these are not usually available when estimates are made. The quick, inexpensive cost estimates are based largely on personal cost files, internal company cost data, or pubUshed cost correlations.  [c.441]

Product Plastic pellets, Vn-in (3.2-mm) cubes, 30-lh/ft (481-kg/nd) hulk density equivalent length of system, 600 ft (183 m) f 1995 costs. Equipment includes motor and blower package, cyclone receivers, railcar-unloading connections, high-level interlocks for stopping the motor and blower combination when the silos reach a full level, and all necessary piping. Installation is not included.  [c.1928]

Incineration of sludge has gained popularity throughout the world, especially at large plants. It has the advantages of economy, freedom of odor, independence of weather and the great reduction in the volume and weight of end product to be disposed of. There is a minimum size of sewage treatment plant below which incineration is not economical. There must be enough sludge to necessitate reasonable use of costly equipment. One of the difficulties in operating an incinerator is variations in tonnage and moisture of sludge handled.  [c.551]

In manufacturing activities, the cost of poor quality is obvious off-specification material, rework costs, scrap, wasted raw material, energy costs, equipment downtime and so on. Although some aspects of poor ESH management are obvious (injuries, business intermption, litigation costs, fines, clean-up costs, waste disposal) others are less visible. These less visible costs include inefficient use of PSM and ESH manpower, time spent investigating and explaining incidents, lost stock value following a major incident, cost of installing end-of-pipe solutions rather than designing-in solutions.  [c.2]

The increasing mechanization of industrial installations has resulted in the use of more complex and costly equipment and this has greatly increased the responsibilities of the plant engineer. In today s environment, the plant engineer must have a practical, well-rounded knowledge of the fundamentals of civil, mechanical, electrical, process and environmental engineering. In addition, plant engineers must have a basic knowledge of business management, statistical analysis, communications and effective supervision skills.  [c.14]

High frequency stress waves are generated when stress-corrosion cracks propagate in some materials, especially the high-strength steels when these undergo hydrogen-induced cracking. The detection of these acoustic signals, which are filtered from lower amplitude background noise, affords a means of studying crack propagation. Whilst the technique involves the use of sophisticated and relatively costly equipment if it is to be correctly practised, it has been suggested that it may also offer a means of distinguishing between active paths and hydrogen-embrittlement mechanisms of cracking. However, that is not universally accepted and the data from acoustic signals need treating with caution .  [c.1374]

There can be an element of maintenance costs that is fixed and an element which is variable. Fixed maintenance costs cover routine maintenance such as regular maintenance on safety valves which must be carried out irrespective of the rate of production. There also can be an element of maintenance costs which is variable. This arises from the fact that certain items of equipment can need more maintenance as the production rate increases. Also, royalties which cover the cost of purchasing another company s process technology may have different bases. Royalties may be a variable cost, since they can sometimes be paid in proportion to the rate of production. Alternatively, the royalty might be a single-sum payment at the beginning of the project. In this case, the single-sum payment will become part of the project s capital investment. As such, it will be included in the annual capital repayment, and this becomes part of the fixed cost.  [c.406]

Equipment costs may be obtained from equipment vendors or published cost data. Published cost data are usually presented as cost versus capacity charts or expressed as a power law of capacity  [c.416]

It should be emphasized that capital cost estimates using installation factors are at best crude and at worst highly misleading. When preparing such an estimate, the designer spends most of the time on the equipment costs, which represent typically 20 to 40 percent of the total installed cost. The bulk costs (civil engineering, labor, etc.) are factored costs which lack definition. At best, this type of estimate can be expected to be accurate to 30 percent.  [c.417]

Crude oil and gas from offshore platforms are evacuated by pipeline or alternatively, in the case of oil, by tanker. Pipeline transport is the most common means of evacuating hydrocarbons, particularly where large volumes are concerned. Although a pipeline may seem a fairly basic piece of equipment, failure to design a line for the appropriate capacity, or to withstand operating conditions over the field life time, can prove very costly in terms of deferred oil production.  [c.272]

If the performance of the equipment is monitored on a continuous basis, then abnormal behaviour can be identified, and preventive maintenance can be performed as and when required this is called on-condition preventive maintenance. The condition of equipment may be established by inspection, that is taking it off-line, opening it up and looking for signs of wear, corrosion etc. This obviously takes the equipment out of service, and may be costly.  [c.289]

It is therefore important when collecting the data from the various sources that the range of uncertainty is also requested. In particular, when estimating operating costs it is desirable for the operations and maintenance engineers to estimate the cost of these activities based on the particular facilities and equipment types being proposed in the engineering design. For example, the cost of operating and maintaining an unmanned remote controlled platform will be significantly different to a conventional manned facility.  [c.307]

As solution gas drive reservoirs lose pressure, produced GORs increase and larger volumes of gas require processing. Oil production can become constrained by gas handling capacity, for example by the limited compression facilities. It may be possible to install additional equipment, but the added operating cost towards the end of field life is often unattractive, and may ultimately contribute to increased abandonment costs.  [c.362]

The use of more complex or more costly articles of equipment, such as catalytic hydrogenation apparatus, autoclaves, polari-meters, ultraviolet absorption spectrometers, etc., has not been described, because the type of such apparatus employed indifferent laboratories varies considerably, and students must be taught the use of their own laboratory equipment.  [c.586]

Measurements are made using appropriate equipment or instruments. The array of equipment and instrumentation used in analytical chemistry is impressive, ranging from the simple and inexpensive, to the complex and costly. With two exceptions, we will postpone the discussion of equipment and instrumentation to those chapters where they are used. The instrumentation used to measure mass and much of the equipment used to measure volume are important to all analytical techniques and are therefore discussed in this section.  [c.25]

Time, Cost, and Equipment Automated chemical kinetic methods of analysis provide a rapid means for analyzing samples, with throughputs ranging from several hundred to several thousand determinations per hour. The initial start-up costs, however, may be fairly high because an automated analysis requires a dedicated instrument designed to meet the specific needs of the analysis. When handled manually, chemical kinetic methods can be accomplished using equipment and instrumentation routinely available in most laboratories. Sample throughput, however, is much lower than with automated methods.  [c.642]

In 1994 Stamicarbon introduced a pool condenser in the synthesis section (see Figs. 4 and 5). This allowed a 34% decrease in reactor volume and a 45% decrease in carbamate heat-exchange area, thus reducing costs considerably for equipment, stmctural steel, and constmction.  [c.304]

After development of a new process scheme at laboratory scale, constmction and operation of pilot-plant faciUties to confirm scale-up information often require two or three years. An additional two to three years is commonly required for final design, fabrication of special equipment, and constmction of the plant. Thus, projections of raw material costs and availabiUty five to ten years into the future become important in adopting any new process significantly different from the current technology.  [c.152]

For these reasons, CEC and DOE concluded that the only cost-effective method of getting alcohol fueled vehicles would be from original equipment manufacturers (OEM). Vehicles produced on the assembly line would have lower unit costs. The OEM could design and ensure the success and durabihty of the emission control equipment.  [c.425]

Most of the voltage savings in the air cathode electrolyzer results from the change in the cathode reaction and a reduction in the solution ohmic drop as a result of the absence of the hydrogen bubble gas void fraction in the catholyte. The air cathode electrolyzer operates at 2.1 V at 3 kA/m or approximately 1450 d-c kW-h per ton of NaOH. The air cathode technology has been demonstrated in commercial sized equipment at Occidental Chemical s Muscle Shoals, Alabama plant. However, it is not presentiy being practiced because the technology is too expensive to commercialize at power costs of 20 to 30 mils (1 mil = 0.1 /kW).  [c.500]

The foUowing criteria should be considered when selecting a contactor for a particular appHcation (/) stabiHty and residence time, (2) settling characteristics of the solvent system, (J) number of stages required, (4) capital cost and maintenance, (5) available space and building height, and (6) throughput. The preliminary choice of an extractor for a specific process is primarily based on consideration of the system properties and number of stages required for the extraction. A quaHtative chart of the economic operating range of various classes of extractors is shown in Eigure 10 (101). A useful selection chart is also available (102) (Table 2). The vendor s experience, pilot-testing procedures, scaling-up methods, costs for capital equipment and maintenance, and reHabiHty of operation should be considered and evaluated at an early stage, before the pilot-plant tests are committed. Although cost ought to be a primary balancing consideration, in many cases previous experience and practice are the deciding factors.  [c.70]

Economics of Extraction. Economic considerations for solvent extraction include both capital and operating costs. Capital cost is made up of the installed cost of equipment and the cost of the inventory of material (including solvent and extractant) held within the plant. Operating costs include the cost of extractor operation, solvent recovery, and solvent losses. Solvent recovery is often the dominant factor because of the high energy consumption involved. Process economy can often be improved by increasing the number of stages, which reduces the solvent recovery despite increasing the capital cost.  [c.77]

Calculations serve as a guide to the analysis of an extraction plant and, as for the analysis of equipment performance in any other sphere of process engineering, these may be supplemented by empirical correlations or process models pertinent to the particular equipment under consideration. Another process which usually deserves special attention is that needed for solvent regeneration and for solute recovery. Solvent recovery (qv) is often energy intensive and a full process energy analysis is recommended to reduce costs. Recovery of organic solvents from the exhausted soflds is also important and can be more troublesome than recovery from a Hquid, and consideration should be given to the use of superheated solvent vapor for this purpose (13) (see Process energy conservation).  [c.89]

Extractors often contribute substantially to the capital and operating costs of a plant, which provides the impetus to seek ways to reduce the extraction load in order to increase extractor capacity and reduce specific solvent requirements. When the feed material is of plant origin and the solute is contained in cells that can be mptured by heat or pressure, pre-treatment frequendy involves removing part of the solute by pressing. The variety of extractors used in Hquid—soHd extraction is diverse, ranging from batchwise dump or heap leaching for the extraction of low grade ores to continuous countercurrent extractors to extract materials such as oilseeds and sugar beets where problems of soHds transport have dominated equipment development.  [c.90]

The tabulation of plant nutrient costs, by product, ia Table 16 shows the principal reasoa for the popularity of anhydrous ammonia as a fertilizer ia the United States. The fob price per ton of nitrogen in the form of ammonia is less than half that for any other nitrogen product. Also, ammonia s relatively high nitrogen content of 82.2% favors low transportation costs, in spite of the need for specialized handling equipment and procedures.  [c.246]

Cartridge filters are used to clean power fluids, lubrication oils, wines, fmit juices, or pharmaceutical Hquids. They are also used to protect other equipment, eg, in reflux control systems or automatic valves. Low capital and installation costs, low maintenance costs, simplicity, and compactness are the main advantages of cartridge filters. Running costs are high, especially when disposable cartridges are used. It is most important, therefore, that a full economical analysis, based on reHable cartridge replacement frequency, is carried out before adopting a cartridge filtration system the low cost of the basic hardware may be deceptive.  [c.403]

Cost Calculation. The main elements determining production cost are identical for fine chemicals and commodities (see Economic evaluation), a breakdown of production cost is given in Table 2. In multipurpose plants, where different fine chemicals occupying the equipment to different extents are produced during the year, a fair allocation of costs is a more difficult task. The allocation of the product-related costs, such as raw material and utiHties, is relatively easy. It is much more difficult to allocate for capital cost, labor, and maintenance. A simplistic approach is to define a daily rent by dividing the total yearly fixed cost of the plant by the number of production days. But that approach penalizes the simple products using only part of the equipment.  [c.440]

Economic Considerations. The principal economic consideration is, of course, total installed system cost, including the initial cost of the flow primary, flow secondary, and related ancillary equipment as well as material and labor required for installation. Other typical considerations are operating costs and the requirements for scheduled maintenance. An economic factor of increasing importance is the cost of disposal at the end of normal flow meter service life. This may involve meter decontamination if hazardous fluids have been measured.  [c.56]

The low density of most ceUular plastics is important because of shipping costs for the cushioning in a package. Foams with densities ranging from 4 to 32 kg/m are used in this appHcation. The inherent moisture resistance of ceUular plastics is of added benefit where packages may be subjected to high humidity or water. Many military appHcations require low moisture susceptibUity. Foamed polystyrene is used as packaging inserts and as containers such as food trays, egg cartons, and drinking cups which require moisture resistance, rigidity, and shock resistance. Foamed polyurethane is also used as specialty packaging materials for expensive and deHcate equipment.  [c.416]

Food packaging assists product preservation for distribution by reducing spoilage, infestation, contamination, and pilferage makes economical use of warehouse space conserves labor in both distribution and marketing and permits distribution of identified products that can be effectively marketed through self-service retailing. Food packagiag deals not only with the materials ia contact with the product but also with secondary and tertiary (unitizing) packages, form, equipment, labor, consumer use, and systems costs.  [c.448]

Of the common commercial resias and films, PVDC has the best water-vapor and oxygen-barrier properties. High crystallinity confers resistance to the permeation of odors and flavors, as weU as to fat and oil. Because of its high chloride content, PVDC tends to corrode processing equipment, which increases manufacturing costs. Unlike other high oxygen-barrier materials, PVDC is almost insensitive to water and water vapor.  [c.452]

Batch process equipment has the advantages of low capital investment and flexibiUty. There is Httle restriction on the form or size of the package and length of heat treatment. Systems are available having fully automated process cycle controls and materials handling for ease of loading and unloading. Disadvantages of batch equipment are slow cycle times, because the system must be heated and cooled for each process cycle, and higher energy and labor costs. Materials handling costs are also higher. In general, batch heat process systems are useful in food processing operations that produce a mix of products, in a number of package sizes, with a limited numbers of cases required for any product style.  [c.459]

Targets also can be set for total heat exchange area, number of units, and number of shells for 1-2 shell-and-tube heat exchangers. These can be combined to establish a targej for capital costs, taking into account mixed materials of construction, pressure rating, and equipment type. Furthermore, the targets for energy and capital cost can be optimized to produce an optimal setting for the capital/energy tradeoff" before any network design is carried out.  [c.401]

Hall, R. S., Matley, J., and McNaughton, K. J., Current Costs of Process Equipment, Chem. Engg., 89 80, 1982.  [c.426]

HaU, R. S., Vatavuk, W. M., and Matley, J., Estimating Process Equipment Costs, Chem. Engg., 95 66, 1988.  [c.426]

Increasingly, maintenance engineers think in terms of the performance and maintenance of equipment over the whole life of the field. This is often at the centre of the decision on capex-opex trade-offs for example spending higher capex on a more reliable piece of equipment in anticipation of less maintenance costs later in the life of the equipment.  [c.286]

Once production commences (possibly 3-8 years after the first capex) gross revenues are received from the sale of the hydrocarbons. These revenues are used to recover the capital expenditure (capex) of the project, to pay for the operating expenditure (opex) of the project (e.g. manpower, maintenance, equipment running costs, support costs), and to provide the host government take which may in the simplest case be in the form of taxes and royalty.  [c.305]

The idea of a catalyst is one of tire most fascinating and significant in science and tire word is one of tire few tliat have carried over broadly from scientific into nonscientific language. A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction witliout being consumed substantially—tire occurrence of a reaction accelerated by a catalyst is called catalysis. At first, one might tliink tliat catalysis seems too good to be tme, but tire principles are well understood a catalyst works by fonning chemical bonds witli reactants, generating intennediates tliat react more readily to give products tlian tire reactants would alone—and giving back tire catalyst. A catalyst affects tire rate of approach to equilibrium of a reaction but not tire position of the equilibrium. Catalysts provide subtle control of chemical conversions a good catalyst increases tire rate of a desired reaction but not tire rates of undesired side reactions. Catalysis is ubiquitous in biology and technology and is tire key to tire efficiency of most chemical conversions. Only temperature provides a comparable means for increasing reaction rates, but high temperatures are often unacceptable—for example, because tliey hann biological organisms high temperatures in chemical teclmology often mean high costs, e.g., because reaction in a liquid at high temperature requires a high pressure to maintain tire liquid state, and high-pressure equipment is expensive.  [c.2696]

Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia) Discovered in 1879 by Cleve. Thulium occurs in small quantities along with other rare earths in a number of minerals. It is obtained commercially from monazite, which contains about 0.007% of the element. Thulium is the least abundant of the rare earth elements, but with new sources recently discovered, it is now considered to be about as rare as silver, gold, or cadmium. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have recently permitted much easier separation of the rare earths, with much lower costs. Only a few years ago, thulium metal was not obtainable at any cost in 1985 the oxide sold for 3400/kg. Thulium metal costs 50/g. Thulium can be isolated by reduction of the oxide with lanthanum metal or by calcium reduction of a closed container. The element is silver-gray, soft, malleable, and ductile, and can be cut with a knife. Twenty five isotopes are known, with atomic masses ranging from 152 to 176. Natural thulium, which is 100% 169Tm, is stable. Because of the relatively high price of the metal, thulium has not yet found many practical applications. 169Tm bombarded in a nuclear reactor can be used as a radiation source in portable X-ray equipment. 171Tm is potentially useful as an energy source. Natural thulium also has possible use in ferrites (ceramic magnetic materials) used in microwave equipment. As with other lanthanides, thulium has a low-to-moderate acute toxic rating. It should be handled with care.  [c.195]

The use of more complex or more costly articles of equipment, such as catalytic hydrogenation apparatus, autoclaves, polari-nieters, ultraviolet absorption spectrometers, etc., has not been described, because thetype of such apparatus employed indifferent laboratories varies considerably, and students must be taught the use of their own laboratory equipment.  [c.592]

Time, Cost, and Equipment Sample throughput with atomic emission is very rapid when using automated systems capable of multielemental analysis. For example, sampling rates of 3000 determinations per hour have been achieved using an ICP with simultaneous analysis, and 300 determinations per hour with a sequential ICP. Flame emission is often accomplished using an atomic absorption spectrometer, which typically costs 10,000-50,000. Sequential ICPs range in price from 55,000 to 150,000, whereas an ICP capable of simultaneous multielemental analysis costs 80,000-200,000. Combination ICPs that are capable of both sequential and simultaneous analysis range in price from 150,000 to 300,000. The cost of Ar, which is consumed in significant quantities, cannot be overlooked when considering the expense of operating an ICP.  [c.441]

Land purchases and many of the costs associated with faciUty development can be accompHshed with long-term loans of 15 to 30 years. Equipment such as pumps and tmcks are usually depreciated over a few years and are funded with shorter-term loans. Operating expenses for such items as feed, chemicals, fuel, utilities, salaries, taxes, and insurance may require periodic short-term loans to keep the business solvent. The projected income should be based on a reaUstic estimate of farmgate value of the product and an accurate assessment of anticipated production. Each business plan should project income and expenses projected over the term of all loans in order to demonstrate to the lending agency or venture capitaUst that there is a high probabiUty the investment will be repaid.  [c.12]

In addition to purification to remove contaminants, accurate analyses of extreme purity gases and selection of storage and dehvery equipment to minimi2e recontamination, ah. the while keeping costs down, pose serious challenges for the manufacturers of high purity gases. One analytical breakthrough in the 1990s was the development of atmospheric pressure ioni2ation mass spectrometers that monitor [c.91]

Coarse bubble aerators have the foUowiag advantages they are nonclogging, maintain the Hquid temperature, and have low maintenance costs. The disadvantages are their high initial cost and low oxygen transfer rate and they may foul. The advantages of fine bubble aerators iaclude their good operational flexibiUty and fairly good mixing abiUty. They also maintain Hquid temperature. Disadvantages are the high initial and maintenance costs because of the required air filter and other auxiHary equipment.  [c.341]

The bulk blending system has provided competition to the mixed fertilizer cogranulation plants because the complexity and high equipment and labor costs of the latter make only relatively large, high investment plants feasible. Annual output of about 100,000 ton pet plant is about the minimum economically feasible. Marketing of the large output from such a plant involves shipment over relatively large distances and often handling (and profit taking) by an intermediate near the point of use. Such handling often is feasible only in bags, which adds another expense. Finally, cogranulation is quite inflexible on a cost basis in regard to custom formulating to meet varying farmer requirements. Changing formulation in a cogranulation plant is a rather difficult operation and can be done economically only for relatively large production mns. Such a formula change also introduces complications in storage, labeling, and marketing of multiple grades. Figure 20 shows also that growth in the production of fluid mixed fertilizers has about paralleled that of bulk blends, although at a lower level. Fluid fertilizer plants also ate usually small local units having many of the same advantages as bulk blend plants.  [c.237]

The percentage costs associated with a multipurpose plant equipped with 6.3 m reactors are as foUows 27% for building, including the warehouse, where the building has a foundation 23% for process equipment, ie, reactors, tanks, feeders, hoppers, heat exchangers, condensors, pumps, including vacuum pumps, centrifuges, suction filters (nutsches), filters, and dryers, sieves, mills 11% for erection, ie, iastallation of equipment, piping, iasulation, and painting 5.5% for electrical materials and iastallation 12% for process control/iastmmentation 16% for engineering, including profit and general overhead and 5.5% for various other costs.  [c.438]

See pages that mention the term Costs equipment : [c.61]    [c.423]    [c.63]    [c.922]    [c.364]   
Fundamentals of air pollution (1994) -- [ c.86 , c.447 , c.448 ]