Costs air pollution

In small volume transition phases, methanol caimot compete directiy in price with gasoline unless oil prices become very high, with the possible exception of a few scenarios in which low cost methanol is available from expansions to existing methanol plants currentiy serving the chemical markets for methanol. Energy diversification benefits have not been quantified but the potential air quaUty benefits have been studied in the work of the California Advisory Board on Air Quahty and Euels. The investment required to introduce methanol might well be justified on air quahty grounds, at least in those areas such as California where air pollution programs involve substantial costs. However, the relative advantage of methanol depends on the emissions levels from future vehicles and on the costs of cleaner gasolines that might be able to offer environmental benefits that compete at least to some extent with the environmental benefits of methanol.  [c.423]

Raw materials are selected according to purity, supply, pollution potential, ease of melting, and cost. Sand is the most common iagredient. In the United States, approximately 90% of the quaUty sand produced is consumed by the glass iadustry. Both purity and grain size are important. Iron oxide, titania, and zirconia are the primary contaminants, but high concentration of feldspars from sands ia the western United States account for large amounts of alumina and potash ia glasses from that area. Acid-washed varieties offer the lowest iroa coaceatratioa. Coataiaer-glass manufacturers generally use sand between 590 and 840 p.m (20—30 mesh) for the best compromise between the high cost of produciag fine sand and melting efficiency. Fiber glass manufacturers, however, use a fine grain sand, <70 fim (200 mesh). Both agglomerated fine sand grains and undissolved coarse sand grains may cause melting problems. Shipping costs are often 3—4 times the original cost of the sand, and therefore the plant should be near the sources of raw materials.  [c.303]

The most common method of converting iron ore to metallic iron utilizes a blast furnace wherein the material is melted to form hot metal (pig iron). Approximately 96% of the world s iron is produced this way (see Iron). However, in the blast furnace process energy costs are relatively high, pollution problems of associated equipment are quite severe, and capital investment requirements are often prohibitively expensive. In comparison to the blast furnace method, direct reduction permits a wider choice of fuels, is environmentally clean, and requires a much lower capital investment.  [c.424]

The indirect hydration, also called the sulfuric acid process, practiced by the three U.S. domestic producers, was the only process used worldwide until ICI started up the first commercial direct hydration process in 1951. Both processes use propylene and water as raw materials. Early problems of high corrosion, high energy costs, and air pollution using the indirect process led to the development of the direct hydration process in Europe. However, a high purity propylene feedstock is required. In the indirect hydration process, C -feedstock streams from refinery off-gases containing only 40—60 wt % propylene are often used in the United States.  [c.107]

The use of scrap mbber for fuel offers the best alternative for reusing mbber, as fuel costs increase and tine disposal problems become more serious. There are four main markets for scrap mbber fuel, including fuel for cement kilns, electric utiUties, pulp and paper mills, and dedicated tine-to-energy plants. Scrap tines used as supplemental fuel by these industries reduce soHd waste and air pollution (4). Shredding is not expensive, therefore tines reduced to 2.50-cm chips are most economical. Tines contain more than 90% organic materials and have a heat value of ca 32.6 MJ/kg (ca 14,000 Btu/lb), compared with coal values of 18.6—27.9 MJ /kg (ca 8,000—12,000 Btu/lb). A cyclonic, rotary hearth boiler fined with whole tines was operated by the Goodyear Tine and Rubber Company from 1975 to 1977. It was designed to bum 1400 kg/h and generated 11,300 kg/h of steam (5,8).  [c.12]

Because zinc-based alloys have low melting points, energy savings in the melting operation are substantial and the foundry operation is essentially free of fume. With the current trend of increasing energy costs and pollution control, cost benefits can be considerable (114).  [c.413]

Of great interest is the use of chemically active air quahty models for studying and controlling urban air pollution. This is because of the high costs of controls, the complexity of the system, and the historic lack of success in reducing ozone levels in urban areas. Interest in extending the apphcation of chemically active models to the regional scale has heightened because the ozone problem has been recognized as extending well beyond urban areas.  [c.385]

In mechanical pulping (stone grinding of wood billets) and in mechanical and thermochemical wood chip refining, most of the wood s substance is retained, including the lignin. Thus the yield is high and the amount of waste, which causes pollution, is relatively small. To Hberate the cellulose fibers more hilly without substantial mechanical defibration, chemical methods are used. In modem chemical pulping it is an economic necessity to recover the chemicals and to dispose of the organic waste Hquor substances by combustion with adequate heat recovery. The related equipment costs are a large part of the total mill investment. In designing new mills, energy efficiency, chemical recovery, and measures to avoid water pollution are very important.  [c.238]

The cost of chromium ore is determined by operating, ie, mining and beneficiation, and transportation costs, whereas the price of the ore is affected by chromium and carbon contents and particle size. Lumpy or coarse grades usually command a premium price. The average 1989 values on the basis of contained chromium, were 347/1 for chromium ore, 2058/t for ferrochromium, and 8294/1 for chromium metal. The added value, particularly for the step from the ore to ferrochromium, is quite large. There is considerable incentive for countries to market ferrochromium rather than ore. However, smelting of ferrochromium is a relatively energy intensive process requiring about 2800 kW/t of alloy. In the United States, stringent air pollution controls have also added to the smelting cost (see Exhaust CONTROL, INDUSTRIAL). Imports of chromite ore dropped from a Httie over two million tons in 1979 to just under 237,000 tons in 1989. This decline was compensated for by increases in ferrochromium imports. The world price of all chromium materials has increased by 10 to 15% per year since 1963. In general demand for stainless steel has driven the price of ferrochromium, which in turn affects the price of the ore, even when ore costs are relatively constant.  [c.120]

W. M. Vatavuk, Estimating Costs of Air Pollution Control, Lewis Pubhshers / CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ela., 1990.  [c.452]

For the foreseeable future, the plating industry has to expect tighter restrictions and more regulation of recovery and recycling operations (see also Regulatory agencies). Sohd wastes, the sludge from waste treatment processes, have to pass stringent leaching tests to be allowed in landfills, and costs for the disposal of soHd wastes are increasing dramatically. More recent legislation, the Clean Air Act of 1990, is concerned with air pollutants. This act restricts chromium in air exhausts from chromium-plating and chromic acid anodising plants to 0.01—0.03 mg/m. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 stresses reduction of chemicals that could enter the waste stream before treatment.  [c.153]

Just as it costs money to control pollution, it also costs the public money not to control pollution. All the adverse Air Pollution Effects represent economic burdens on the public for which an attempt can be made to assign dollar values, i.e., the cost to the public of damage to vegetation, materials.  [c.66]

Explain why soiling and corrosion are hidden costs of air pollution.  [c.135]

A jurisdiction may base part of its decision making regarding vegetation and animal damage on aesthetics. Its citizens may wish to grow certain ornamentals or raise certain species of pet birds or animals and allow these wishes to override the agricultural, forestry, and husbandry economics of the situation. Usually, however, economic considerations predominate in decision making. Costs of air pollution effects on agriculture are the sum of the loss in income from the sale of crops or livestock and the added cost necessary to raise the crops or livestock for sale. To these costs must be added the loss in value of agricultural land as its income potential decreases  [c.376]

In addition, the new program will provide a ready vehicle for states to assume administration, subject to federal oversight, of significant parts of the air toxics program and the acid rain program. Through the permit fee provisions discussed later, the program will greatly augment a state s resources to administer pollution control programs by requiring sources of pollution to pay their fair share of the costs of a state s air pollution program.  [c.402]

The best organizational pattern for an air pollution control agency is that which most effectively and efficiently performs all its functions. There are many functions a control agency or industrial organization could conceivably perform. The desired budget and staff for the agency or organization are determined by listing the costs of performing all desired functions. The actual functions performed by the agency or organization are determined by limitations on staff, facilities, and services imposed by its budget.  [c.428]

An industrial organization must decide whether to charge off air pollution control costs as a corporate charge, so that the plant manager does not include them in the accounts or the reverse, so that the plant manager must show a profit for the plant as a cost center, after including costs of air pollution control.  [c.435]

Discuss the alternatives mentioned in last paragraph of Section II1,B regarding allocation of costs of air pollution control in an industrial organization.  [c.443]

The 1977 Clean Air laws also requires a construction permit for certain pollution sources, and about 35 states have their own laws requiring operating permits. The program clarifies and makes more enforceable a source s pollution control requirements. Currently, a source s pollution control obligations may be scattered throughout numerous hard-to-fmd provisions of state and federal regulations, and in many cases, the source is not required under the applicable SIP to submit periodic compliance reports to EPA or the states. The permit program ensures that all of a source s obligations with respect to its pollutants are contained in one permit document, and that the source files periodic reports identifying the extent to which it has complied with those obligations. Both of these requirements greatly enhance the ability of Federal and state agencies to evaluate its air quality situation. In addition, the program provides a ready vehicle for states to assume administration, subject to federal oversight, of significant parts of the air toxics program and the acid rain program. And, through the permit fee provisions, discussed below, the program greatly augments a state s resources to administer pollution control programs by requiring sources of pollution to pay their fair share of the costs of a state s air pollution program.  [c.7]

It should be emphasized, however, that pollution prevention techniques are, nevertheless, often more cost-effective than pollution reduction through end-of-pipe treatment technologies. A case study based on the Amoco/EPA joint study claimed that the same pollution reduction currently realized through end-of-pipe regulatory requirements at the Amoco facility could be achieved at 15% of the current costs using pollution prevention techniques.  [c.109]

Make no mistake about it - air pollution abatement, especially based upon end-of-pipe treatment technologies is expensive. Not too long ago the prevailing attitude among industry stakeholders was that air pollution control was simply a part of the cost of doing business, and that add-on costs associated with compliance simply had to be passed on to the consumer s purchase price for products. With the intensity of international competition in the chemical and allied industries, this philosophy simply does not cut it anymore.  [c.348]

The more that can be done on the prevention side of the formula in managing any pollution problem, not just air pollution, the lower are our operating and hidden costs, and hence, the higher our profit margin. These cost saving categories can represent an enormous motivation for doing pollution prevention.  [c.349]

There are cost savings carried along with this investment. The savings categories include lower direct and O M (operating and maintenance) costs, because the P2 measure eliminates the need for such air pollution control devices like electrostatic precipitators, cyclone separators, baghouses, and NO, and SO, scmbbers savings from not having to treat and dispose of wastewaters and solids wastes from gas scrubbing and coal combustion operations and lower energy costs, because, when considered over its full cycle of use, natural gas is more economical and has a higher bum efficiency than coal.  [c.350]

Step 1.2 Assemble the Audit Team. The members of the P2 auditing team should be identified and assembled. The number of people required on a team will depend on the size and complexity of the processes to be investigated. Select team members on the basis of their expertise. Don t just limit the team members to environmental specialists. Environmental and environmental health and safety (EHS) engineers and specialists will understand what the current costs are for end-of-pipe treatment technologies and for disposal, and well-trained and experienced individuals will also have a good understanding of the subject facility s compliance issues. But these team members will generally not have a keen understanding of the process details and, more importantly, of the specific hardware associated with each unit operation. Further, we must recognize that because environmental engineers traditionally are trained in pollution control technologies, they are not always a source of P2 ideas. As such, the team needs to combine the brainstorming chemistry of different disciplines - for example, between a process engineer, an operator, possibly a chemist, laboratory or product quality personnel, and the EHS personnel.  [c.358]

We should never approach an air pollution problem (or any pollution and waste problem) without first considering other options to end-of-pipe treatment and controls. If the waste or pollution can be prevented or minimized without the use of controls that require long-term O M costs, then that should be the first choice, provided there is sufficient financial justification. But the absolutely wrong reason for selecting pollution prevention (P2) over conventional wisdom is to do P2 for the sake of doing it. Many companies often tout that they rely on P2 practices, but upon closer examination we find that many projects implemented are more costly than putting in a simple piece of hardware. For this reason, it always pays to perform a total cost accounting (TCA) of a proposed project, regardless of how small the project is. Since small savings, especially when it comes to raw materials such as water usage or energy can incrementally add up to sizable savings over time, a TCA analysis should span over the intended life of the operation, and furthermore, it should focus heavily on the ROI. By closely examining the financial attractiveness of a P2 versus end-of-pipe hardware solution, we can develop ample Justification for an investment, and develop recommendations for the optimum solution to the problem. TCA principles are discussed in Chapter 8.  [c.389]

Costs are primarily driven by the waste stream volumetric flow rate and pollutant loading. In general, a small unit controlling a low pollutant loading will not be as cost effective as a large unit controlling a high pollutant loading. Cartridge collectors are currently limited to low flow rate applications. The capital cost for a cartridge collector is significantly lower than for a baghouse. However, the operational and maintenance (O M) cost tends to be higher. The costs presented are for flow rates of 5 m /s (10,000 scfm) and 1.0 m /s (2,000 scfm), respectively, and a pollutant loading of 9 g/m (4.0 gr/ft ).  [c.413]

The following are cost ranges (expressed in third quarter 1995 dollars) for wire-pipe ESPs of conventional design under typical operating conditions, developed using EPA cost estimating spreadsheets for dry wire-pipe ESPs with adjustments made to reflect wet wire-pipe ESPs (EPA, 1996). Costs can be substantially higher than in the ranges shown for pollutants which require an unusually high level of control, or which require the ESP to be constructed of special materials such as titanium. Capital and operating costs are generally higher due to noncorrosive materials requirements, increased water usage, and treatment and disposal of wet effluent. In most cases, smaller units controlling a low concentration waste stream will not be as cost effective as a large unit cleaning a high pollutant load flow (EPA, 1998).  [c.430]

Vatavuk, 1990. W.M. Vatavuk, "Estimating Costs of Air Pollution Control," Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 1990.  [c.489]

The benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio is a benchmark that is determined by taking the total present value of all of the financial benefits of an air pollution control project and dividing it by the total present value of all the costs of the project. If the ratio is greater than unity, then the benefits outweigh the costs, and we may conclude that the project is economically worthwhile.  [c.504]

Many conventional control technologies simply convert an air pollution problem into another form (for example an air scrubber can create a water treatment and sludge disposal issue a baghouse creates a solid waste disposal issue). End-of-pipe technologies generally have environmental tradeoffs, which result in additional costs. These additional costs can be avoided if we can displace the air pollution problem altogether by prevention, or by using a technology that completely destroys or neutralizes the air pollutant.  [c.506]

Glean Air Act. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) mandated significant reductions in refinery air emissions of nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulates (see Air pollution). Fugitive emissions from leaks and ha2ardous air pollutants must also be controlled. Even more stringent air regulations have been issued by the California South Coast Air QuaUty Management District (SCAQMD). The total U.S. costs of refinery air control has been estimated (18) to amount to 7.5 biUion by 2010.  [c.370]

Air Pollution Control Both lime and limestone are increasingly and competitively used for desulfurizing stack gases from utiUty and industrial plants that operate coal-buming boilers (23). This developing technology has resulted in stack gas scmbbing becorning the second largest market for lime, comprising about 1.75 X 10 t in 1992. The use of high purity limestone for scmbbing has also increased considerably, largely owing to its much lower material cost than lime. However, lime has nearly twice the SO2 neutralizing capacity and produces less waste because the stoichiometries of lime use are 100—110% compared to 140—150% for limestone. Lime is also more chemically reactive. Thus capital investment costs for limestone sembbers are considerably higher than for lime sembbers. More and larger treatment equipment would be required for the former, as well as the need for larger waste disposal areas.  [c.178]

Air pollution problems and labor costs have led to the closing of older pyrometaHurgical plants, and to increased electrolytic production. On a worldwide basis, 77% of total 2inc production in 1985 was by the electrolytic process (4). In electrolytic 2inc plants, the calcined material is dissolved in aqueous sulfuric acid, usually spent electrolyte from the electrolytic cells. Residual soHds are generally separated from the leach solution by decantation and the clarified solution is then treated with 2inc dust to remove cadmium and other impurities.  [c.386]

Multimedia Approach to Environmental Regulations in the United States Among the most complex problems to be faced by industiy during the 1990s is the proper control and use of the natur environment. In the 1970s the engineering profession became acutely aware of its responsibihty to society, particularly for the protection of pubhc health and welfare. The decade saw the formation and rapid growth of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the passage of federal and state laws governing virtually eveiy aspect of the environment. The end of the decade, however, brought a reahza-tion that only the more simplistic problems had been addressed. A limited number of large sources had removed substantial percentages of a few readily definable air pollutants from their emissions. The incremental costs to improve the removal percentages would be significant and would involve increasing numbers of smaller sources, and the health hazards of a host of additional toxic pollutants remained to be quantified and control techniques developed.  [c.2154]

Activated Sludge This treatment process is the most widely used aerobic suspended growth reactor svstem. It will consistently produce a high-quahty effluent (BOD5 ancf SS of 20-30 mg/L). Operational costs are higher than for other secondary treatment processes primarily because of the need to supply molecular oxygen using energy-intensive mechanical aerator- or sparger-type equipment. Removal of soluble organics, colloidal, particulates, and inorganics are achieved in this system through a conibination of biological metabolism, adsorption, and entrapment in the biological floe. Indeed, many pollutants that are not biologically degradable are removed during activated sludge treatment by adsorption or entrapment by the floe. For example, most heavy metals form hydroxide or carbonate precipitates under the pH conditions maintained in activated sludge, and most organics are easily adsorbed to the surface of the biological floe. A quahtative guide to the latter is provided by the octanol-water partition coefficient of a compound.  [c.2219]

So, where possible, we need an economic framework to aid decision making about pollution, which would match the scientific and technical framework we already have. This economic framework should include estimates of the way in which the costs of pollution, including disamenity costs, vary with levels of pollution the extent to which different elements contribute to the costs how variations in production and consumption affect the costs and what it would cost to abate pollution in different ways and by different amounts. There may well be cases where most of the costs and benefits of abatement can be assessed in terms of money. Many of the estimates are likely to be speculative, but this is no reason for not making a start. There are other cases where most of the costs and benefits cannot be given a monetary value. In these cases decisions about pollution abatement must not await the results of a full economic calculation they will have to be based largely on subjective judgments anyway. Even so, these subjective judgments should be supported by as much quantitative information as possible, just as decisions about health and education are supported by extensive statistical data. Further, even if decisions to abate pollution are not based on rigorous economic criteria, it is still desirable to find the most economic way of achieving the abatement.  [c.70]

The costs of air pollution damage are difficult to estimate. However, estimates indicate crop losses of 1 billion to 5 billion for the United States (6). When compared to the crop losses due to all causes, this percentage is small. However, for parhcular crops in specific locations, the economic loss can be very high. Certain portions of the Los Angeles, California, basin are no longer suitable for lettuce crops because they are subject to photochemical smog. This forces producers either to move to other locations or to plant other crops that are less susceptible to air polluhon damage. Concern has been expressed regarding the future impact of air pollution on the much larger Imperial Valley of California, which produces up to 50% of certain vegetables for the entire United States.  [c.116]

High-voltage electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) have been widely used throughout the world for particulate removal since they were perfected by Fredrick Cottrell early in the twentieth century (5). Most of the original units were used for recovery of process materials, but today gas cleaning for air pollution control is often the main reason for their installation. The ESP has distinct advantages over other aerosol collection devices (1) it can easily handle high-temperature gases, which makes it a likely choice for boilers, steel furnaces, etc. (2) it has an extremely small pressure drop, so that fan costs are minimized (3) it has an extremely high collection efficiency if operated properly on selected aerosols (many cases are on record, however, in which relatively low efficiencies were obtained because of unique or unknown dust properties) (4) it can handle a wide range of particulate sizes and dust concentrations (most precipitators work best on particles smaller than 10 /u,m, so that an inertial precleaner is often used to remove the large particles) and (5) if it is properly designed and constructed, its operating and maintenance costs are lower than those of any other type of particulate collection system. Figure 29-4 shows a large ESP installed on a cement kiln.  [c.466]

V atauk, W. M., "Estimating Costs of Air Pollution Control." Lewis, Chelsea, Ml, 1990.  [c.522]

Although numerous cases have been documented where petroleum refineries have simultaneously reduced pollution outputs and operating costs through pollution prevention techniques, there are often barriers to their im-plementation. The primary barrier to most pollution prevention projects is cost. Many pollution prevention options simply do not pay for themselves, or the economics often appear marginal. Corporate investments typically must earn an adequate return on invested capital for the shareholders and some pollution prevention options at some facilities may not meet the requirements set by company policies.  [c.109]

This chapter provides an overview of indoor air quality issues and ntanagement practices, with emphasis given to industrial operations. Proper indoor air quality management is an integral part of any program dealing with safe industry practices and in the control of air pollution problems. It is an area of concern because improperly designed ventilation systems lead to significant health risk exposures through inhalation hazards, as well as energy inefficiencies which increase the overhead costs of an operation. Therefore, it is an area where control and operational options may present significant pollution prevention opportunities through the capturing of energy credits, in increasing the productivity of workers through improved comfort, reducing loss time from illness and injury, reducing medical costs by minimizing or eliminating inhalation hazards, and reducing facility insurance premiums by providing a safer work environment.  [c.188]

Make no mistake about it - air pollution control, especially based on end-of-pipc treatment technologies, is expensive Not too long ago the attitude among industry stakeholders was that air pollution control was simply a part of the cost of doing business, and that add-on costs associated with compliance simply had to be passed on to the consumer s purchase price for products. Both intense competition as well as ever tightening regulations, have made this approach obsolete. Indeed, there are examples where more progressive companies elected to trim their profits in the short-term, having made investments into less polluting technologies and improved controls in order to meet environmental challenges in the long-term, but less than a decade ago, these were the exception rather than the norm. Today s concept of Responsible Care, as proudly touted by the chemical industry, has had a long and arduous road to get where it is today. And even now with heightened environmental awareness and sensitivities among the public, intense regulatory enforcement, and teams of specialists focusing on compliance issues within companies, we see that environmental litigations built around toxic torts have become a thriving industry unto itself. In so many ways, environmental compliance is a catch 22 situation. It is impossible to operate a business by not complying, and it can be too costly to meet compliance if the wrong decisions and investments into controls are made.  [c.498]

See pages that mention the term Costs air pollution : [c.2186]    [c.90]    [c.374]    [c.376]    [c.377]    [c.528]    [c.408]    [c.506]   
Fundamentals of air pollution (1994) -- [ c.373 , c.374 ]