Voting Uip system


Viscometers of the falling ball type can be used over an extremely wide viscosity range, but are usually employed for fairly viscous materials because small balls and small differences in density are needed to obtain a suitably slow rate of fall in a low viscosity fluid. The devices are limited to measurements of Newtonian fluids because no practical formula has been developed for non-Newtonian materials. They had been considered as instmments for routine viscosity measurements rather than highly accurate work, but more recent designs (185—187) have changed this. The technique has proved to be useful in the study of suspensions, including those that are opaque and concentrated. The cylinder is jacketed for temperature control to within 0.1°C. Optical techniques are used for clear solutions and x-rays for opaque suspensions. A high speed video system is used for recording data.  [c.190]

The facility costs are based on the concept of a mobile remote repair facility. The advantages of this concept are low-cost, minimal shielding requirements, and flexible use of the overall repair facility. The main components for a remote repair are the electron accelerator, the power supply, and the robotic control system including the remote video system. Table 14 shows the estimated costs for these main components.  [c.1034]

The cost of the vehicle to move the accelerator, and temporary shielding, if needed, have not been included in Table 14. The vehicle houses the control console, video system, and robotic controls. A trailer would carry the main robotic system, the electronic accelerator, magnetron, and the supplies. The cost for such a vehicle and trailer is estimated at 100,000.  [c.1034]

It is a good practice to try and predict what level of information is expected to be extracted from the data before conducting sessions relying on observation. For instance, problems posed by movement and interaction among individuals, and the inability of a video system to capture extremely detailed events, must all be considered in advance. If certain aspects of the task are videotaped, the recording process itself should be as unobtrusive as possible. The minimum requirement is that it does not get in the way. Also, some people may react negatively to being observed and recorded. For this reason, the workers should be briefed about the objectives of the observational study in advance.  [c.156]

It will be shown that a more elegant and more easily applicable solution of the problem is given by choosing another reference system. Both the dilute alloy and the unperturbed host can be described with respect to a common reference system, which consists of the unperturbed part of the alloy system and for obvious reasons is called void system. This void system allows for a single-site evaluation of the matrix element describing the wind force in electromigration and the t-matrix element required for the calculation of the residual resistivity due to a saddle-point defect.  [c.467]

THE MATRIX ELEMENTS VIA THE VOID SYSTEM  [c.471]

This problem has been solved without using a cluster description of the perturbed region in the dilute alloy [27], which in practice appears to be rather heavy [22]. It has been achieved by taking advantage of an intermediate reference system, the so-called void system, which is built up out of all unperturbed atoms in the alloy. In the void system the defect region is just empty. Both the host syr sm and the alloy are described with respect to the void system. By giving the expression for the matrix element required for the wind force all problems in describing substitutional electromigration are solved. The formalism is applied to electromigration in aluminum. The influence of a Gu atom near a migrating A1 atom is also shown.  [c.476]

Do not confuse NPSH vdth suction head, as suction head refers to pressure above atmospheric [17]. If this consideration of NPSH is ignored the pump may well be inoperative in the system, or it may be on the border-line and become troublesome or cavitating. The significance of NPSH is to ensure sufficient head of liquid at the entrance of the pump impeller to overcome the internal flow losses of the pump. This allows the pump impeller to operate wfith a full bite of liquid essentially free of flashing bubbles of vapor due to boiling action of the fluid.  [c.188]

Because of reasons of radiation protection the filling of the test child mold which is placed between the microfocus X-ray tube and the image identifyer was realized with a remote controled casting system. In the first partial step the image values generated by the image identifyer were recorded with a conventional CCD video and sent to the image processing system for digitizing, integration and storage.  [c.13]

The eombination in a compact system of an infrared sensor and a laser as excitation source is called a photothermal camera. The surface heating is aehieved by the absorption of the focused beam of a laser. This localisation of the heating permits a three-dimensional heat diffusion in the sample to be examined. The infrared (IR) emission of the surface in the neighbourhood of the heating spot is measured by an infrared detector. A full surface inspection is possible through a video scanning of the excitation and detection spots on the piece to test (figure 1).  [c.393]

Spatial resolution is usually described by the modulation transfer function. It specifies the relative frequency response of the imaging, system to a sinusoidal, spatially modulated radiation relief, which represents defects of different sizes. Measurement of MTF can be performed with a sharp edge and additional signal processing or easier with a repeating bar pattern of different spatial frequencies. From the video output signal across the bar-pattern one can determine the modulation depth for each spatial frequency, which gives one point on the MTF curve or the contrast response curve. Empirical solution of the MTF may be performed by the use of a special test object which modulates the transmittance of radiation through it at various frequencies. The relative film response is defined as the contrast at any given frequency divided by the maximum contrast at any frequency. As the frequency of modulation increases, the contrast that can be measured by a densitometer in terms of light transmittance will drop off due to unsharpness, thus  [c.445]

The image processing system contains scanning, digitalizing, and encoding of the video signal into a grey scale matrix with a scale from 0 (black) to 255 (white), which is applicable to a computer. By the image preprocessing it is meant to modify the images. Within this step the illumination of the images is corrected and contrast and brightness are optimized. One effect of the segmentation  [c.545]

Each of the four systems is equipped with a small sliding stage which allows known reference materials and image quality standards to be imaged each time the system is operated. A converging lines-pair gage is first imaged to check the over-all x-ray system performance. Typically over 4-lines pair per millimeter are visible on the display monitors. The system setup and subsequent standards display and adjustment is recorded on video tape and hard copy prints are often produced, the reference materials and the image processor allow the image brightness contrast adjustment to be accurately set to a predetermined level in each of the systems. This ensures consistent x-ray image quality at varying ambient lighting levels and allows images and the physical condition of samples obtained from any of the four systems to be directly compared.  [c.612]

The arrangement consists of a usual video camera and a video-capturing system ("frame grabber") which adopts the video signal to the PC. The image-processing program (under WINDOWS 95) allows a flexible valuation of the scene that means the determination of the visibility level or a proportional value. The key of the program is a contour-following algorithm which surrounds all objects (indications) over a predetermined luminance level The luminances (grey values) of the surrounded object are summed up which presents the light stream of the indication. For the valuation of the indication, the corresponding light stream of the surroundings may be substracted (i.e. the difference of the luminances Lo - Ls).  [c.671]

Radiography provides the only means of reliably detecting voids in pre-stressed cable ducts or of detecting loss of section or fracture of eables inside the duets. The maximum thiekness of eonerete whieh ean be radiographed for confident loeation of voids inside ducts is of course dependant on a number of variables, e g. amount of reinforcing bars, size of void in duet etc  [c.1002]

Nelson et al. [34] determined from void shapes that the ratio 7100/7110 was 1.2, 0.98 and 1.14 for copper at 600°C, aluminum at 550°C, and molybdenum at 2000°C, respectively, and 1.03 for 7100/7111 for aluminum at 450°C. Metal tips in field emission studies (see Section VIII-2C) tend to take on an equilibrium faceting into shapes agreeing fairly well with calculations [133].  [c.280]

The measurement of LEED spot intensities is nowadays mostly accomplished by digitizing the image recorded by a video camera that observes the diffraction pattern, which is visibly displayed on a fluorescent screen withm an ultra-high vacuum system [22]. The digitized image is then processed by computer to give the integrated spot intensity, after removal of the background. This is repeated for different incident electron energies. Thereby, the intensity of each spot is obtained as a fiinction of the incident electron energy, resultmg in an IV cun>e (intensity-voltage curve) for each spot. Computer codes for this purpose are available, and are nonnally packaged together with the required hardware [23]. The resulting IV curves fonu the experimental database to which theory can fit the atomic structure. It typically takes between minutes and an hour to accumulate such a database, once the sample has been prepared.  [c.1770]

It should be noted that the Hartree-Fock equations F ( )i = 8i ([)] possess solutions for the spin-orbitals which appear in F (the so-called occupied spin-orbitals) as well as for orbitals which are not occupied in F (the so-called virtual spin-orbitals). In fact, the F operator is hermitian, so it possesses a complete set of orthonormal eigenfunctions only those which appear in F appear in the coulomb and exchange potentials of the Foek operator. The physical meaning of the occupied and virtual orbitals will be clarified later in this Chapter (Section VITA)  [c.461]

The proton chemical shifts of the protons directly attached to the basic three carbon skeleton are found between 5.0 and 6.8 ppm. The J(H,H) between these protons is about -5 Hz. The shift region is similar to the region for similarly substituted alkenes, although the spread in shifts is smaller and the allene proton resonances are slightly upfield from the alkene resonances. We could not establish a reliable additivity rule for the allene proton shifts as we could for the shifts (vide infra) and therefore we found the proton shifts much less valuable for the structural analysis of the allene moiety than the NMR data on the basic three-carbon system.  [c.253]

Because particles close to each other are shielded from free gas flow around them, the mass-transfer coefficient for a fluidized-bed system is always less than that for an individual particle in a freely flowing gas. Also, gas entering the bed in a bubble must leave the bubble to react. Interchange with the sobd-rich phase occurs mostly by bubble breakage, and more slowly owing to molecular diffusion and gas reckculation from the bubble to the dense phase. The high degree of gas—void splitting in turbulent beds results in a low gas—soflds mass-transfer resistance. The section of the fluidized bed near the distributor also shows enhanced mass transfer.  [c.76]

It is possible to prepare a system having an initial concentration for each component, and then measure a finite, but small, change in the concentration of one component, A[M] for example, over a known interval of time A/. The experimental velocity A [A] / At and the concentrations can be substituted into a proposed rate law, along with postulated values for the exponents x,j,... to determine an observed rate constant although the rate law may involve more than one If this process is repeated for a reasonable range of concentrations, and the postulated rate law having the same exponents always yields the same then it is asserted that the rate law has been verified and the rate constant has been determined, within some precision, and is vaUd for those concentration ranges. This approach is a reasonable strategy for an initial survey of a totally unknown system. Moreover, it avoids the need to know the endpoint of the reaction. It is, however, tedious and gives imprecise values for It is also wasteful, in that it extracts very Httie data from each set of initial conditions. More often, the integrated form of the rate law is fit to multiple concentration measurements recorded at different times following each set of initial conditions.  [c.508]

The hoUow pipe approach uses a smaU-diameter hoUow pipe through which an image from a carefuUy designed optical system is transmitted. An image is viewed at the end of the pipe external to the body using the appropriate optical eyepiece or video camera. Some devices possess flexible elbows and internal mirrors which aUow the pipe to be bent by smaU angles. Illumination of the object at the end of the pipe is accompUshed by sending light down the pipe.  [c.48]

The chip contains approximately 512 x 512 picture elements (pixels). The tissues being imaged are illuminated with light from a few of the fiber optic strands. Color images are produced by alternately illuminating with red, green, and blue light. Data from the CCD chip is therefore a series of red, green, blue, red, green, blue, etc, images which are processed to produce the color video. Endoscopes of this form typically have a camera system connected to an external TV monitor, a fiber optic light source, a tube for rinsing the camera lens with water, and a small tube for insertion of a needle or forceps device for collecting biopsy samples. This combination of implements fits into a flexible 1-cm tube.  [c.49]

First Burner. The rate of fission must be kept under strict control so as to prevent a mnaway power excursion, ie, an excessive increase in fission rate. Control is carried out in two ways one, intrinsic to the chain reaction, involves a negative coefficient of reactivity the other is external, through use of control rods. The fission rate is dependent upon the temperature of the fuel and the temperature and density of the coolant. Fuel composition and absorber materials, ratio of fuel to coolant, and geometrical arrangement of the fuel and the fuel rods can be designed so that the fission rate decreases as temperature, coolant density, or power increases. This intrinsic feature can be designed into the fuel system, ie, the core, to cause the fission rate to slow down when temperature, steam content, or power increases. This is called a negative temperature, void, or power coefficient of reactivity. Thus, when an incipient transient in temperature or power occurs in a core having a negative coefficient of reactivity, the physical processes governing the fission rate slow the excursion down to prevent a mnaway condition. This basic safety design is a requirement in the United States and the rest of the Western world.  [c.236]

Video camera CCDs have specific camera formats compatible with standard video display systems. In the United States, video displays utilize the RS-170 standard, commonly known as the National Television System Committee (NTSC) 525-line television standard. The RS-170 standard places many constraints on imaging devices. These devices must have a frame time of 1/30 second, with two interlaced image fields of 1/60 second each required during each frame. The standard luminance electrical bandwidth of 4.2 MHz coupled with the 4 3 picture aspect ratio require the pixel count and the pixel size of the commercial CCD array to fit within narrowly defined regimes. Specifically, to meet the electrical bandwidth requirements of the RS-170 standard, monochrome imagers must have a minimum of 240 pixels in the vertical dimension and a minimum of 450 pixels in the horizontal dimension. The distance along the diagonal of the active imaging portion of the CCD must be one of several specific values in the 5.46—25 mm range. The specific  [c.428]

Video camera apphcations obligate the CCD imager to have an internal, electronic, image shuttering capabiUty in order to clearly differentiate the data in one image frame from that of the next. The two most common forms of internal shuttering are frame transfer and interline transfer (32). In the frame transfer technique, the image gathered from one data frame is rapidly transferred from the contiguous image collection region to a secondary, optically shielded storage site that resides between the image collection and shift register regions. The image held in the shielded region is then read out during the time interval of the next image formation in the optically active area. In the interline transfer technique, each pixel in the imaging portion of the array is segmented into an optically active portion and a shift register portion. The image gathered from one data frame is quickly transferred from the optically active to the shift register portion of the pixel, and read out during the next image collection interval. Unlike the frame transfer method, no additional image storage section is required for the interline transfer method. However, the frame transfer device is more efficient at photon detection, since there are no optically shielded features in the image collection region.  [c.429]

The requirement of internal shuttering forces the CCD to be illuminated from the front side. Photons impinging upon the front surface of the detector must pass unimpeded through the gate electrode layers in order to be collected in the photon-sensitive siUcon beneath. Typically some loss does occur for photons of wavelengths shorter than about 550 nm due to absorption in the gate electrodes. For standard polysiUcon gate CCDs, photons of wavelength less than 400 nm are absorbed by the gate material. This absorption process affects photons spanning the uv to low energy x-ray spectmm. Photons of wavelengths greater than 650 nm pass easily through the gate electrodes, but owing to the lower value of the absorption cross section of sihcon, a several micrometer path length is required to provide a high probabiUty of absorption. Deeply generated signal charge can produce image smearing due to charge diffusion prior to collection in the potential well of the CCD pixel. Both the photon collection efficiency and image quaUty are strong functions of the particular CCD design. Typically video CCDs provide sensitivities spanning the 50—500 mA/W range and have minimum detectable signal levels of from 40 to 400 photons at the standard 16 ms image integration interval.  [c.429]

CCDs are being actively developed for use in the field of electronic stiU photography to provide a means of electronically gathering high quaUty images. The ideal CCD-based stiU camera would gather an image of comparable quaUty to that of a 35-mm film camera. However, unlike film-based cameras, the image would be stored on electronic media such as a floppy or optical disk (see Information storage systems). The image could then be read into a computer-based system, edited or enhanced as desired, and stored again onto the digital media. Hard copies would be obtained on photographic film by a separate image transfer system. StiU photography places more stringent specifications on a CCD than those required of RS-170 video cameras. StiU-photography CCDs must have very high resolution. To match the image quaUty of 35-mm film, a CCD with a format of greater than 4000 by 4000 pixels is required. For optimum image reproduction the pixels should be square. The device should operate at low light levels and be of a size to operate using standard 35-mm optics.  [c.429]

For a mass flow bin, one of three flow-rate dependent modes of discharge can occur. (/) Steady gravity flow of partially deaerated material controlled by a feeder is most desirable. The limiting condition occurs when compaction in the cylinder section of the bin forces too much gas out through the material top surface. Because a bulk soHd expands while flowing through the converging portion of a bin, a slight vacuum develops in its voids which causes a gas counterflow through the bin outlet that forces the soflds contact pressure to drop to zero and limits the steady soflds flow rate. (2) This mode occurs at flow rates somewhat greater than the limiting rate and is characterized by an erratic, partially fluidized powder discharging from the bin which can be controlled by some types of feeders. Even better, a steady rate can often be achieved by using an air permeation system at an intermediate point in the bin to replace the lost gas, increasing the outlet and corresponding feeder size, adding a standpipe between the bin outlet and feeder, and/or lowering the bin fill level. (J) This mode of flow occurs when the flow rate is too high to allow much, if any, gas to escape from the void spaces. In this extreme, the material may be completely fluidized and flood through the outlet unless the feeder can control fluidized powder.  [c.561]

The system (Illustration 1) integrates two different inspection techniques for multiple applications, the Impuls-Video-Thermography and the Transmission-Thermography. The Impuls-Video-Thermography (Reflectiontest) is used for the inspection of the coating layers of the blades or vanes and the Transmission-Thermography is used for the inspection of the inner cooling structure of the blades and vanes.  [c.401]

A highsophistic infrared system was described, which provides quality assureance for turbine blades and vanes. Two different infrared teehniques are implemented in the system Transmission-Thermography for testing cooling structures of turbine blades and Impulse-Video-Thermography for testing proteetion layers of turbine blades It was depicted that both techniques are leading to reliable results within shortest time and full automatically In addition to the Transmission- and Video-Impulse-Thermography for quality assurance, Video-Impulse-Thermography permits the quantification of wallthicknesses from turbine blades  [c.407]

The image processing system consists of a programmable frame grabber, a high resolution video digitalizer, a frame buffer and an image processor. The frame grabber allows processing of the radiograms by use of different filters and manipulation of the image data (contrast,  [c.545]

For both first-order and continuous phase transitions, finite size shifts the transition and rounds it in some way. The shift for first-order transitions arises, crudely, because the chemical potential, like most other properties, has a finite-size correction p(A)-p(oo) C (l/A). An approximate expression for this was derived by Siepmann et al [134]. Therefore, the line of intersection of two chemical potential surfaces Pj(T,P) and pjj T,P) will shift, in general, by an amount 0 IN). The rounding is expected because the partition fiinction only has singularities (and hence produces discontinuous or divergent properties) in tlie limit i—>oo otherwise, it is analytic, so for finite Vthe discontinuities must be smoothed out in some way. The shift for continuous transitions arises because the transition happens when L for the finite system, but when i oo m the infinite system. The rounding happens for the same reason as it does for first-order phase transitions whatever the nature of the divergence in thennodynamic properties (described, typically, by critical exponents) it will be limited by the finite size of the system.  [c.2266]

For many reasons, including the approximate nature of the governing force fields, MD simulations are not intended to animate the life of a biomolecule faithfully, as if by an unbiased video camera rather, our experimental-by-iiature computer snapshots aim at predicting meaningful statistical properties of a complex system in the ultimate goal of relating structure to function. Both conformational sampling algorithms (such as Monte Carlo) and dynamic simulations can be used to generate such molecular ensembles for analysis. While sampling methods are much cheaper computationally, only  [c.229]

Straightforward application of the VOF method in domains that include irregular and curved boundaries is rather complicated. To resolve this problem a more flexible version of the original method has been developed by Thompson (1986). In this technique the free boundary flow regime is treated as a two-phase system. The phases are assumed to consist of the fluid filled and void regions, respectively. The free boundary is regarded as the interface separating these phases. To model the flow field in this manner, voids are assumed to contain a virtual fluid represented by a set of virtual physical properties. Hence, the technique is i-eferred to as the pseudo-density method. In practice, physical coefficients in the governing flow equations are expressed as  [c.102]

Batch internal mixers are used extensively by industry to mix polymers with other material to produce composites with desirable properties. For example, mixing of rubber with carbon black is almost exclusively carried out in partiafiy filled internal mixers. Essentially this process consists of three stages of incorporation, dispersion and distribution. During the incorporation stage pelletized carbon black and rubber are brought together, allowing the diffusion of macro-molecular chains of the polymer into the void spaces inside die filler agglomerates. After this stage, dispersive mixing starts in which, through the imposition of an uneven stress field by the action of rotor blades, carbon black agglomerates are broken into smaller aggregates and dispersed within the matrix. Finally, the compound is distributed within the chamber to achieve uniformity. The described incorporation and dispersion phases mainly take place in the rotor blade cross-sectional plane and are stress dominated. In contrast, distribution of the material inside the mixer is pressure dominated and mainly takes place along the rotor axes (Clarke and Freakley, 1995). Therefore in the analysis of rubber mixing in internal mixers, it is reasonable to develop separate models for each stage of the process. In addition, the stress field that gives rise to the incorporation and dispersion of the phases, is obtainable from the simulation of the two-dimensional flow in the plane of the rotor blades cross-section. Therefore the development of two-dimensional models for this process is explained in the following section.  [c.142]

Whereas in the terf-butyl cation the methyl protons are attached to carbons that are only adjacent to the carbocationic center, in the isopropyl cation a proton is directly attached to the center. When we obtained the proton NMR spectrum of the /-CaHyF-SbF system, the CH proton showed up as an extremely deshielded septet at 13.0 ppm, ruling out a polarized donor-acceptor complex and indicating the formation of the (CH3)2CH ion. The NMR spectrum was also conclusive, showing a very highly deshielded (by AS > 300 ) atom (S C 320.6). The spectrum of the tert-amyl cation showed an additional interesting feature due to the strong long-range H-H coupling of the methyl protons adjacent to the carbocationic center with the methylene protons. If only the donor-acceptor complex were involved, such long-range coupling through an sp" carbon would be small (1-2 Hz). Instead, the observed significant coupling (/h-h =10 Hz) indicated that the species studied indeed had an sp center through which the long-range H-H coupling became effective. Figure 6.1 reproduces the H NMR spectra of the tcrt-butyl, tert-amyl, and isopropyl cations. These original spectra are framed and hang in my office as a memento, as are the ESCA spectra of the ter -butyl and of the norbornyl cation (vide infra).  [c.79]

You have seen that measurements of heats of reaction such as heats of combustion can pro vide quantitative information concerning the relative stability of constitutional isomers (Section 2 18) and stereoisomers (Section 3 11) The box in Section 2 18 described how heats of reaction can be manipulated arithmetically to generate heats of formation (AH ) for many molecules The following material shows how two different sources of thermo chemical information heats of formation and bond dissociation energies (see Table 4 3) can reveal whether a particular reaction is exothermic or en dothermic and by how much  [c.174]

The principles discussed so far are vaUd for siUcates as well as nonsiUcates, although there are more data available for the former. The alkoxides of transition metals tend to be more reactive than siUcon alkoxides because both hydrolysis and condensation are nucleophilic substitution reactions and their cations have a more positive partial charge than siUcon (3). This difference ia reactivity presents both a challenge and an opportunity ia the preparation of two-component systems. In a two-component system, the minor component can either be a network modifier or a network former. In the latter case, the distribution of the two components, or mixing, at a molecular level is governed by the relative precursor reactivity. QuaUtatively good mixing is achieved when two precursors have similar reactivities. When two precursors have dissimilar reactivities, the sol—gel technique offers several strategies to prepare weU-mixed two-component gels. Two such strategies are prehydrolysis (10), which iavolves prereacting a less reactive precursor with water to give it a head start, and chemical modification (11), which iavolves slowiag down a more reactive precursor by substituting some of its alkoxy groups with bulkier, less reactive groups such as acetate. The abiUty to control microstmcture andcoxsi on.eici. mixing is what sets sol—gel apart from other methods ia preparing multicomponent soHds.  [c.2]

An example that illustrates the exquisite nanoscale complexity of a membrane protein system is the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex found on the surface of human platelets blood-home cell-like protoplasmic disks whose primary function is arresting blood loss (hemostasis). The surface of a platelet is covered with several types of glycoprotein complexes, of which the GP Ib-IX-V is the second most abundant (after GP Ilb-IIIa) typically, approximately 25,000 copies of the complex reside on the platelet plasma membrane. The complex performs several important processes that contribute to the hemostatic functions of platelets vide infra), each of which is vital to the well-being of the human organism. Genetic defects resulting in the nonexpression of the complex result in the most common form of the bleeding disorder, Bemard-SouHer syndrome (64).  [c.200]

Electrical and water trees can grow from the interface of electrode and insulation into the insulation or they can grow from internal voids and contaminant particles radially outward, parallel to the field, and toward the electrodes. These latter are called bow tie trees. Trees which start their growth at surfaces with an unlimited supply of air or water can grow completely through a dielecttic section to btidge the electrodes. These are called vented trees. Trees which start at an internal void or inclusion are called nonvented trees and rarely grow very large.  [c.327]

The electromagnetic problem is one of solving Maxwell s equations under various boundary conditions (21). If the object is small, the appHed EM field may be Htde perturbed and perturbation theory is adequate (26). If the object is large in terms of penetration depth, quasioptical radiation calculations are vaUd. If the object is of the order of a wavelength in dimension, geometric resonance can apply using a moderately enhanced absorption cross section. Many calculations for simple models of biological tissue are available (27). There are also many computer programs, software, or codes for the detailed numerical solution for electromagnetic fields. The capabiUties and pitfalls of modem computer solutions have been reviewed (28,29).  [c.339]

In making hoUow fibers, both precoalescent and post-coalescent spinnerettes and spinning techniques can be used. The former requires iajection of a gas through the capiUary to create the void (141,142), whereas the latter iavolves entrapment of gas (air, nitrogen) by coalescence of the molten polymer spun exiting from a segmented orifice designed to give the desired number of cross section holes, shape, and percentage void (143,144).  [c.256]


See pages that mention the term Voting Uip system : [c.472]    [c.912]    [c.1574]    [c.2523]    [c.10]    [c.71]    [c.502]    [c.519]   
Turboexpanders and Process Applications (0) -- [ c.185 ]