In order to maintain high energy efficiency and ensure a long service life of the materials of construction in the combustion chamber, turbine and jet nozzle, a clean burning flame must be obtained that minimizes the heat exchange by radiation and limits the formation of carbon deposits. These qualities are determined by two procedures that determine respectively the smoke point and the luminometer index.  [c.226]

The density of heavy fuels is greater than 0.920 kg/1 at 15°C. The marine diesel consumers focus close attention on the fuel density because of having to centrifuge water out of the fuel. Beyond 0.991 kg/1, the density difference between the two phases —aqueous and hydrocarbon— becomes too small for correct operation of conventional centrifuges technical improvements are possible but costly. In extreme cases of fuels being too heavy, it is possible to rely on water-fuel emulsions, which can have some advantages of better atomization in the injection nozzle and a reduction of pollutant emissions such as smoke and nitrogen oxides.  [c.236]

For passenger prechamber diesel engines, carbonaceous deposits can form in the pintle nozzle injectors. The deposits come from thermal cracking of the diesel fuel, either accompanied or not by slow oxidation (Montagne et al., 1987). This phenomenon is shown by removing the injectors and measuring the air flow likely to pass through as a function of needle lift as shown in Figure 5.18.  [c.247]

To lessen the risk of pumping sludges or slurries into a unit, the practice is to leave a safety margin of 50 cm (heel) below the outlet nozzle or install a strainer on the pump suction line. The deposits accumulate with time and the tanks are periodically emptied and cleaned.  [c.327]

Arrangement of Cones and Nozzles  [c.36]

On a rock bit, the three cones are rotated and the attached teeth break the rock underneath into small chips ( cuttings ). The cutting action is supported by powerful jets of drilling fluid which are discharged under high pressure through nozzles located at the side of the bit. After some hours of drilling (between 5 and 25 hours depending on the formation and bit type), the teeth will become dull and the bearings wear out. Later on we will see how a new bit can be fitted to the drill string. The PDC bit is fitted with industrial diamond cutters instead of hardened metal teeth. This type of bit is becoming increasingly popular because of its better rate of penetration, longer life time and suitability for drilling with high revolutions per minute (rpm) which makes it the preferred choice for turbine drilling. The bit type selection depends on the composition and hardness of the formation to be drilled and the planned drilling parameters.  [c.37]

Having been cleaned, the mud is transferred into mud tanks, large treatment and storage units. From there a powerful pump brings the mud up through a pipe stand pipe) and through a hose connected to the swivel (rotary hose) forcing it down the hole inside the drill string. Eventually the cleaned mud will exit again through the bit nozzles.  [c.39]

If a shallow kick off in soft formation is required (e.g. to steer the borehole away underneath platforms) a technique using jet bit deflection or badgering is employed (Fig. 3.16). A rock bit is fitted with two small and one large jet. With the bit on bottom and oriented in the desired direction the string is kept stationary and mud is pumped through the nozzles. This causes asymmetric erosion of the borehole beneath the larger jet. Once sufficient hole has been jetted, the drill bit will be rotated again and the new course followed. This process will be repeated until the planned deviation is reached.  [c.46]

The consequences of lost circulation are dependent on the severity of the losses, i.e. how quickly mud is lost and whether the formation pressures in the open hole section are hydrostatic or above hydrostatic, i.e. overpressured (see below). Mud is expensive and losses are undesirable but they can also lead to a potentially hazardous situation. Moderate losses may be controlled by adding lost circulation material (LCM) to the mud system, such as mica flakes or coconut chippings. The LCM will plug the porous interval by forming a sealing layer around the borehole preventing further mud invasion. However, LCM may also plug elements of the mud circulation system e.g. bit nozzles and shale shaker screens and may later on impair productivity or injectivity of the objective intervals. In severe cases the losses can be controlled by squeezing cement slurry into the trouble horizon. This is obviously not a solution if the formation is the reservoir section  [c.59]

The jet pump relies on the same hydraulic power being delivered sub-surface as to the hydraulic reciprocating pump, but there the similarity ends. The high-pressure power fluid is accelerated through a nozzle, after whioh it is mixed with the well stream. The velocity of the well stream is thereby increased and this acquired kinetic energy is converted to pressure in an expander. The pressure is then sufficient to deliver the fluids to surface. The jet pump has no moving parts and can be made very compact.  [c.231]

RCT are designed to successfully solve a whole number of tasks in nuclear power when testing fuel elements, in aviation and space industry when testing construction materials, nozzles and engine units, turbine blades and parts, in electromechanical industry-cables switching elements, electric motors in defense sphere- charges, equipment in prospecting for research of rock distribution and detection of precious stones in samples.  [c.598]

Quantitative techniques of RCT allow to carry out the analysis of objects, when its matrix from carbonaceous elements has a different degree of impregnation by heavy metals. The given problem is urgent for improvement of technology of manufacturing nozzles of engines of space vehicles, in particular, for determination of distribution of heavy metals on a layer of objects and general contents of it in a product.  [c.600]

Using of a source Cs nozzles with the contents of tungsten up to 75 % were investigated. The distributions received for a product without impregnation and after impregnation by tungsten are shown on fig. 1.  [c.600]

Results of determining a density of a composite material nozzles of the rocket engine before and after impregnation by metal.  [c.600]

MP-suspension by automated ASTM-bulb Magnetization current by Hall-Sensor Magnetization time UV-Light intensity All Liquids (fluorescence, contamination) Process times and temperatures Function of spraying nozzles, Level of tanks Flow rates (e.g. washing, water recycling) UV-Light intensity  [c.629]

Water pressure at spraying nozzles and flow-rates.  [c.630]

An increasing demand for inspection of components with complex geometry, difficult access conditions or location in a hazardous environment causes a need for new and advanced scanner systems for NDE. At the same time new C -marking requirements imposed by European directives (machine-, electrical safety- and EMC-directives) are applied for the scanner systems. To fulfil these requirements and to reduce the cost and time needed for design and manufacture of a specific scanner, FORCE Institute has developed a modular scanner system. The system eonsists of standard mechanical and electronic components that can be assembled together with special parts to realise the needed scarmer. The scarmer control is configured by a special configuration program. Depending on the complexity of the scarmer it is controlled either by a standard program or by a dedicated scarmer control program. The modular scanner system has been used for scarmers ranging from small nozzle and pipe scanners to an extensive core shroud manipulator and a 6 axis articulated robot arm.  [c.799]

Small diameter nozzle weld scanner  [c.803]

For produetion eontrol of small diameter nozzle welds a magnetic wheel scarmer has been build (Figure 4). One standard motor module drives the magnetic wheel and one standard motor module drives the Y-module slide. The two motors are connected to the Master Module. The scanner is controlled from a FORCE Institute PSP-3 ultrasonic acquisition unit with build-in scarmer controller.  [c.803]

AIR-1 nozzle inspection robot.  [c.804]

The AIR-1 (Advanced Inspection Robot) is the most complicated manipulator built from modular scarmer components. It was designed for ultrasonic inspection of large nozzle welds on BWR main circulation systems, but it is useful for general inspection of complex geometry objects. Except for the last three robot axes all motor and electronic modules are standard modules. The control software for the robot is written as a special application package in the RobCad robot simulation program. The program works as a control and monitor interface for the physical robot. Manual control of each robot joint axes and execution of probe-path scanning programs are possible.  [c.804]

Figure 6 AIR-1 articulated robot arm with six degrees of freedom Robot performs ultrasonic inspection of a large nozzle weld on a BWR main circulation pipe. Figure 6 AIR-1 articulated robot arm with six degrees of freedom Robot performs ultrasonic inspection of a large nozzle weld on a BWR main circulation pipe.
The 3D-inspection system can be applied to many complex inspection tasks where ordinary XY scanners can not perform the job, e.g. nozzle welding inspections and nozzle inner radius inspection in nuclear and petrochemical environments.  [c.873]

The tracer solution is made from oil soluble bromobenzene with the radioactive isotope Br-82. The tracer solution is injected through a thin nozzle inserted into the pipeline through the valve previously connected to the injection instrumentation. The injection device provides a very sharp beginning and termination of the fraction of labelled oil.  [c.1060]

For times below about 5 msec a correction must be made to allow for the fact that the surface velocity of the liquid in the nozzle is zero and takes several wavelengths to increase to the jet velocity after emerging from the nozzle. Correction factors have been tabulated [107, 108] see also Ref. 109.  [c.34]

The oscillating jet method is not suitable for the study of liquid-air interfaces whose ages are in the range of tenths of a second, and an alternative method is based on the dependence of the shape of a falling column of liquid on its surface tension. Since the hydrostatic head, and hence the linear velocity, increases with h, the distance away from the nozzle, the cross-sectional area of the column must correspondingly decrease as a material balance requirement. The effect of surface tension is to oppose this shrinkage in cross section. The method is discussed in Refs. 110 and 111. A related method makes use of a falling sheet of liquid [112].  [c.34]

Rendulic K D, Anger G and Winkler A 1989 Wide-range nozzle beam adsorption data for the systems H2/Ni and H2/Pd (100) Surf.Sci. 208 404  [c.918]

Valentin J J, Coggiola M J and Lee Y T 1977 Supersonic atomic and molecular halogen nozzle beam source Rev. Sc/. Instrum 48 58-63  [c.2086]

Sibener S J, Buss R J, Ng C Y and Lee Y T 1980 Development of a supersonic O( Pj), 0( 02) atomic oxygen nozzle beam source Rev. Sc/. Instrum 51 167-82  [c.2086]

Sinha M P, Schulz A and Zare R N 1973 Internal state distribution of alkali dimers in supersonic nozzle beams J. Chem. Phys. 58 549-56  [c.2149]

Supersonic expansion is an indispensable tool in modem chemical physics and physical chemistry [7], It is an effective teclmique to produce weakly bonded clusters from gaseous species. Supersonic expansion of a gas sample tlirough a small orifice cools the gas sample adiabatically to very low temperatures. Cluster growth is initiated tlirough tliree-body collisions. A number of parameters (nozzle size, shape and backing pressure) can be varied to produce cold clusters and to tune cluster size distributions. Clusters with very low rotational and vibrational temperatures (a few kelvins) can be produced using the seeded beam teclmique, where a small amount of condensing gas is seeded in a helium beam to promote cluster fonnation and cooling. Clusters of rare gases and other small molecules are all produced and studied using the supersonic beam teclmique.  [c.2389]

Carbon disulphide is an excellent solvent for fats, oils, rubber, sulphur, bromine and iodine, and is used industrially as a solvent for extraction. It is also used in the production of viscose silk, when added to wood cellulose impregnated with sodium hydroxide solution, a viscous solution of cellulose xanthate is formed, and this can be extruded through a fine nozzle into acid, which decomposes the xanthate to give a glossy thread of cellulose.  [c.202]

Fishing describes the retrieval of a foreign object from the borehole. Fishing operations will be required if the object is expected to hamper further drilling progress either by jamming the string or damaging the drill bit. This junk often consists of small non-drillable objects, e.g. bit nozzles, rock bit cones, or broken off parts of equipment. Other common causes for fishing are  [c.58]

Figure 4 AWS-8D nozzle scarmer for small diameter nozzles (025-2OOmm) Figure 4 AWS-8D nozzle scarmer for small diameter nozzles (025-2OOmm)
The system has recently been used with success for inspection of 11 inclined nozzle welds during the R1 SPRINT project at Vattenfall Ringhals, Sweden during the summer 1997. At the moment a full system and personal qualification is prepared for inspection of the pressurizer spray nozzle weld at Vattenfall Ringhals, block 2 at May, 1998.  [c.873]

Figure 2 AIR-1 robot mounted on incbned inspection nozzle Figure 2 AIR-1 robot mounted on incbned inspection nozzle
LORUS is also used for inspection of piping that has been on supports or sleepers for some time, to see whether corrosion has developed at the contact points. But the technique can also be used for corrosion detection under insulation, inspection of pipelines at dike and road crossings, nozzle reinforcement pads or craek detection in suspension systems for railway cars.  [c.950]

Other examples of government and military applications of laser-based profilometry include the evaluation of rocket thruster nozzles to locate and measure flame erosion remote inspection of hypervelocity test track and the measurement of sludge deposits on tube internal surfaces.  [c.1066]

Several instniments have been developed for measuring kinetics at temperatures below that of liquid nitrogen [81]. Liquid helium cooled drift tubes and ion traps have been employed, but this apparatus is of limited use since most gases freeze at temperatures below about 80 K. Molecules can be maintained in the gas phase at low temperatures in a free jet expansion. The CRESU apparatus (acronym for the French translation of reaction kinetics at supersonic conditions) uses a Laval nozzle expansion to obtain temperatures of 8-160 K. The merged ion beam and molecular beam apparatus are described above. These teclmiques have provided important infonnation on reactions pertinent to interstellar-cloud chemistry as well as the temperature dependence of reactions in a regime not otherwise accessible. In particular, infonnation on ion-molecule collision rates as a ftmction of temperature has proven valuable m refining theoretical calculations.  [c.813]

Figure Bl.4.4. (a) An outline of the Harvard University eleetrie diseharge siipersonie nozzle/Foiirier transfonn mierowave speetroineter. (b) The rotational states of HCj N observed with this apparatus [31], Figure Bl.4.4. (a) An outline of the Harvard University eleetrie diseharge siipersonie nozzle/Foiirier transfonn mierowave speetroineter. (b) The rotational states of HCj N observed with this apparatus [31],
A real advantage of working in the FIR is that both polar and non-polar chains may be searched for. Indeed, the lowest bending frequency of C3 has been studied in tire laboratory [69], and tentatively detected toward the galactic centre source Sgr B2 [70]. Other large molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene, pyrene, perylene, etc) or biomolecules such as glycine or uracil also possess low-frequency FIR vibrations, and can be produced m sizable quantities in supersonic expansions tlirough heated planar nozzles [71]. The shidy of such species is important cosmochemically, but is quite difficult at microwave frequencies where the rotational spectra are weak, and nearly impossible at IR or optical wavelengths due to the extinction present in dense molecular clouds and young stellar objects.  [c.1256]

Figure Bl.7.3. Schematic diagram of a molecular beam generator nozzle (1) expansion region (2) skinmrer (3) and molecular beam (4). Figure Bl.7.3. Schematic diagram of a molecular beam generator nozzle (1) expansion region (2) skinmrer (3) and molecular beam (4).
Atomic and molecular beams of light atoms such as He, H and H2 fomied from supersonic nozzle beam sources typically have kinetic energies of 20 to 100 meV [44]. Scattering of such low-energy light atoms from surfaces is predominantly elastic. Coherently scattered waves from regularly spaced surface atoms can interfere with each other, giving rise to well known diffraction phenomena. Such hyperthenual atoms have classical turning points that are  [c.1823]

A major breaktlirough in the spectroscopy of Van der Waals complexes came in 1972, when Dyke, Howard and Klemperer [9] succeeded in measuring the microwave spectmm of (HF), in a molecular beam. Such experiments are described in detail in the chapter on Jet Spectroscopy. In a typical molecular beam spectroscopy experiment, gas at around 1 bar pressure is expanded into a vacuum tlirough a nozzle of aperture around 50 pm. Under these conditions, the gas molecules undergo many collisions during the expansion, and the collisions equalize the velocities of the different molecules. This is often referred to as a supersonic expansion. At the end of the expansion, nearly all of the random thennal energy of the gas molecules has been converted into ordered translational motion of the beam all the molecules have almost the same velocity, and the relative velocities are very low. The beam itself, beyond the expansion region, is a nearly collision-free environment. The low relative velocities correspond to very low effective translational temperatures temperatures of 1-10 K are common in molecular beam spectroscopy experiments. The populations of rotational and vibrational levels do not relax as fast as translation rotational and vibrational distributions are sometimes characterized by higher temperatures, or may  [c.2439]

An enonnous range of complexes has been observed by MBER spectroscopy. Almost any pair of volatile compounds can be expanded through a nozzle and made to fonn complexes. In spectroscopic experiments, it is common to use around I % of the sample gases in a buffer gas such as Ar, in order to minimize the fonnation of trimers and larger complexes. The restrictions on the teclmique are that the constituent molecules must be volatile and that the complex must have a dipole moment. In addition, for very large complexes, even the temperature of a molecular beam is high enough that a large number of rotational states are populated. The sensitivity of MBER relies on being able to deplete the beam intensity significantly by removing the molecules in a single rotational state. Thus, if the rotational partition hmction is very high, MBER may not be sensitive enough for spectra to be detected.  [c.2440]

In a flow cell tire sample flows tlirough a cuvette by use of a pump, tire most popular kind being a peristaltic pump. A shaking ceU is usually a cell tliat resides on a mount tliat can move laterally in a plane perjDendicular to the laser beam(s). A spinning ceU is a disc-like cell mounted on a motor shaft tliat rotates witli a speed up to tliousands of revolutions per minute. Finally tire flow jet in an assembly in which liquid sample is ejected tlirough tire special jet nozzle to create a unifonn fast stream of sample. The laser beam is focused in tliis stream. The spinning cell is generally tire best choice to achieve tire fastest refreshing rate in anaerobic conditions witliout damaging tire sample molecules.  [c.3030]

See pages that mention the term Nozzle : [c.195]    [c.369]    [c.36]    [c.1062]    [c.1244]   
Turboexpanders and Process Applications (0) -- [ c.0 ]

Gas turbine engineering handbook (2002) -- [ c.0 ]

Industrial ventilation design guidebook (2001) -- [ c.856 , c.857 , c.858 , c.859 , c.860 , c.861 , c.862 , c.863 , c.1160 , c.1161 , c.1462 , c.1495 ]