FCC typical schematic


Fig. 10. Schematic arrangement of (a) typical plate and (b) tube precipitators (172). Fig. 10. Schematic arrangement of (a) typical plate and (b) tube precipitators (172).
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of a typical ft-Raman spectrometer. Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of a typical ft-Raman spectrometer.
Fig. 17. Schematic flow sheet for a typical spent battery breaking operation. Fig. 17. Schematic flow sheet for a typical spent battery breaking operation.
Fig. 1. Schematic showing typical wear modes on a cutting tool. Fig. 1. Schematic showing typical wear modes on a cutting tool.
Fig. 7. Schematic of an organic layered photoreceptor, where the — signs represent the corona-deposited charge, which is typically negative D, the CTL Fig. 7. Schematic of an organic layered photoreceptor, where the — signs represent the corona-deposited charge, which is typically negative D, the CTL
Fig. 19. Schematic representation of a typical sol-gel thin film coating. Diagram adapted from Ref. 95. Fig. 19. Schematic representation of a typical sol-gel thin film coating. Diagram adapted from Ref. 95.
The blowout preventers are a series of powerful sealing elements designed to close off the annular space between the pipe and the hole through which the mud normally returns to the surface. By closing off this route, the well can be shut in and the mud and/or formation fluids are forced to flow through a controllable choke, or adjustable valve. This choke allows the drilling crew to control the pressure that reaches the surface and to follow the necessary steps for killing the well, i.e. restoring a balanced system. Fig. 3.12 shows a schematic of a typical set of blowout preventers. The annular preventer has a rubber sealing element that is hydraulically inflated to fit tightly around any size of pipe in the hole. Ram type preventers either grip the pipe with rubber lined steel pipe rams, block the hole with blind rams when no pipe is in place, or cut the pipe with powerful hydraulic shear rams to seal off the hole.  [c.40]

As noted at the beginning of this section, extrapolation of Rq to 0 = 0° is one way to correct light-scattering data for interference effects. Interference becomes troublesome for particles whose dimensions are larger than about X/20, because light scattered from one portion of the molecule interferes with that scattered by another portion. This situation is shown schematically in Fig. 10.10, which shows the incident light in phase as it passes the surface AA, but shows different phase relationships in the scattered light at the (distant) surface BB. It is typical of interference phenomena (think of the colors displayed by a soap film) to show different intensities depending on the angle of observation. Thus in Fig. 10.10 the light scattered at the smaller value of 6 remains more nearly in phase than that scattered at the larger angle, where significant destructive interference occurs. This situation is generally true and constitutes the basis for extrapolating to 0 = 0° to eliminate interference effects. The data in Fig. 10.8b were corrected in this way.  [c.693]

Fig. 1. A cut-away schematic of a typical a-c open-arc, steelmaking, eccentric bottom tapping (EBT) furnace. Fig. 1. A cut-away schematic of a typical a-c open-arc, steelmaking, eccentric bottom tapping (EBT) furnace.
The typical (directed beam) ion implanter normally consists of (/) an ion source, (2) an electrostatic accelerator, (3) a mass analysis section (normally a magnet), (4) a means of scanning the ion beam over the target, and (5) a target chamber to hold the substrate to be implanted along with a means of monitoring the ion dose deflvered to the substrate. The footprint of a typical medium current (500—1000 ]lA current level) ion implanter is shown schematically in Figure 2. Broad beam implanters are of similar constmction, but consist only of an ion source and a target chamber (Fig. 3).  [c.399]

Fig. 6. Simplified schematic flow diagiam of a typical 4-effect veitical-tube multi-effect (VTE) desalination plant, where (—) represents brine, (- -) Fig. 6. Simplified schematic flow diagiam of a typical 4-effect veitical-tube multi-effect (VTE) desalination plant, where (—) represents brine, (- -)
Rietz Extruder This extruder, shown schematically in Fig. 18-49, has orifice plates and baffles along the vessel. The rotor carries nmlti-ple blades with a forward pitch, generating the head for extrusion through the orifice plates as well as battering the material to break up agglomerates between the baffles. Typical applications include wet  [c.1648]

FIG. 22-19 Schematic diagram of a typical supercritical fluid-extraction process.  [c.2001]

FIG. 22-55 Typical capital-cost schematic for membrane equipment showing trade-off for membrane area and mechanical equipment. Lines shown are from families for parallel hues showing hmiting costs for membrane and for ancillary equipment. Abscissa Relative membrane area installed in a typical membrane process. Minimum capital cost is at 1.0. Ordinate Relative cost. Line with positive slope is total membrane cost. Line with negative slope is total ancillary equipment cost. Curve is total capital cost. Minimum cost is at 1.0.  [c.2028]

Fig. 26.5. A schematic cross-section through a typical layered bearing shell. Fig. 26.5. A schematic cross-section through a typical layered bearing shell.
Fig. 13.6. Schematic of o typical welding operation. Fig. 13.6. Schematic of o typical welding operation.
Fig. 28.1. Schematic of a typical conveyor system. Because the belt tends to sag between the support rollers it must be kept under a constant tension T. This is done by hanging a large weight on the tension drum. The drive is supplied by coupling a large electric motor to the shaft of the drive drum via a suitable gearbox and overload clutch. Fig. 28.1. Schematic of a typical conveyor system. Because the belt tends to sag between the support rollers it must be kept under a constant tension T. This is done by hanging a large weight on the tension drum. The drive is supplied by coupling a large electric motor to the shaft of the drive drum via a suitable gearbox and overload clutch.
Figure 4-74. Typical startup schematic for turboexpanders in FCC units. Figure 4-74. Typical startup schematic for turboexpanders in FCC units.
The surface to be analyzed is irradiated with a beam of electrons of sufficient energy, typically in the range 2-10 keV, to ionize one or more core levels in surface atoms. After ionization the atom can relax by either of the two processes described in Sect. 2.1.1 for XPS - ejection of a characteristic X-ray photon (fluorescence) or ejection of an Auger electron. Although these are competing processes, for shallow core levels (Eb < 2 keV) the probability of the Auger process is far higher. The Auger process is described schematically in Fig. 2.1 (left side), which points out that the final state of the atom is doubly ionized.  [c.33]

A schematic diagram of the commercially available INA-3 type spectrometer (SPECS, Berlin, Germany) is given in Fig. 3.33. A constant Ar pressure of 0.3 0.1 Pa is maintained by means of a Piezo valve between the high-pressure supply and the cylindrical plasma chamber (volume 1.26 L typically applied values are given). The HF power of 150 30 W is supplied from an HF generator by a single turn coil. Electron cyclotron wave resonance [3.65] is effected, and skin effects of the electron gas are suppressed, by the static magnetic field in the mT range maintained by a constant current of 5 2 A flowing through two parallel, rectangular Helmholtz coils with 184 turns each and 25 cm distance. Delivering primary ion current densities of 0.1-1 mA cm , the plasma can effect sputter rates in the 0.1-1 nm s range. If L/dbm is fitted appropriately (-> L/dbm ) to and % with a given distance between sample surface and plasma sheath edge, sputter erosion happens with perfect lateral  [c.125]

The above discussion has tacitly assumed that it is only molecular interactions which lead to adhesion, and these have been assumed to occur across relatively smooth interfaces between materials in intimate contact. As described in typical textbooks, however, there are a number of disparate mechanisms that may be responsible for adhesion [9-11,32]. The list includes (1) the adsorption mechanism (2) the diffusion mechanism (3) the mechanical interlocking mechanism and (4) the electrostatic mechanism. These are pictured schematically in Fig. 6 and described briefly below, because the various semi-empirical prediction schemes apply differently depending on which mechanisms are relevant in a given case. Any given real case often entails a combination of mechanisms.  [c.11]

Entangled linear polymers form sloppy nets of irregular entanglement lengths whose average length is determined by the familiar entanglement molecular weight. Mg. When a stress rr is applied to the polymer, hot bonds break at molecular stresses, which are typically two orders of magnitude greater than the applied macroscopic stress a. Rupture of the hot bonds occurs randomly in the net and they accumulate and connect in a percolation fashion, as discussed in the last section. As the bonds break (1 per entanglement length), the stored energy U in the net is consumed and approaches zero at the vector percolation threshold. Pc. Macroscopic fracture occurs when the stored energy is released by percolating random microscopic fracture events, implied schematically in Fig. 11.  [c.381]

X-ray scattering studies have shown that polymers containing long alkyl side chains typically form alternating layered structures in the bulk, with the polymer backbone forming one layer and the alkyl side chains forming the other layer [95-97], as shown schematically in Fig. 9. Generally, for side chain lengths  [c.551]

Fig. 1. (a) Geometrical relationship between incident electron beams in TEM and CNT, (b) typical TED pattern, (e) schematic illustration of image of CNT and (d) ero.ss-seetional view of CNT. In the TED pattern, the indexes follow those of graphite.  [c.30]

The coordination chemistry of SO2 has been extensively studied during the past two decades and at least 9 different bonding modes have been established.These are illustrated schematically in Fig. 15.26 and typical examples are given in Table 15.17.1 It is clear that nearly all the transition-metal complexes involve the metals in oxidation state zero or -bl. Moreover, SO2 in the pyramidal >7 -dusters tends to be reversibly bound (being eliminated when  [c.701]

Another promising contrivance within the domain of low-pressure RIM appears in Fig. 23a [65]. The premixes are heated and stirred in the hoppers, while they are drawn simultaneously by two pumps into a static mixer assembly. The latter originates from the plastic industry and is shown schematically in Fig. 23b. Flow through the elements is typically three-dimensional. A potential improvement lies in rotating the entire assembly of the elements relative to the confinement to augment the tangential flow component, just like a screw. Sample handling and material preparation are still cited as outstanding problems, but the low-pressure RIM program has shown that new processing methods should, in the future, enable RIM energy composites to be viable for system designers.  [c.722]

Fig. 19. Schematic of dual anode (typically Al and Mg) x-ray source. X-rays produced by electron bombardment of anode face 2 indicated (19). The routine dual-anode x-ray source just described generates nonmonochromatized x-rays in a relatively large spot size (ca 1 cm in diameter). In Fig. 19. Schematic of dual anode (typically Al and Mg) x-ray source. X-rays produced by electron bombardment of anode face 2 indicated (19). The routine dual-anode x-ray source just described generates nonmonochromatized x-rays in a relatively large spot size (ca 1 cm in diameter). In
Fig. 8. Schematic of a typical asbestos milling flowline (SOmesh = 590 fim.) (32). Fig. 8. Schematic of a typical asbestos milling flowline (SOmesh = 590 fim.) (32).
Fig. 4. Schematic of a hemodialyzer. The design of a dialyzer is close to that of a sheU and tube heat exchanger. Blood enters through an inlet manifold, is distributed to a parallel bundle of fibers, and exits into a coUection manifold. Dialysate flows countercurrent in an external chamber the blood and dialysate are separated from the fibers by a polyurethane potting material. Housings are typically prepared from acrylate or polycarbonate. Production volume is Fig. 4. Schematic of a hemodialyzer. The design of a dialyzer is close to that of a sheU and tube heat exchanger. Blood enters through an inlet manifold, is distributed to a parallel bundle of fibers, and exits into a coUection manifold. Dialysate flows countercurrent in an external chamber the blood and dialysate are separated from the fibers by a polyurethane potting material. Housings are typically prepared from acrylate or polycarbonate. Production volume is
Fig. 20. (a) Schematic illustration of the formation of a cascade complex (b) a heterodinuclear cation complex of a diloop crown receptor and (c) a typical  [c.186]

Continuous tunnels are in many cases batch truck or tray compartments, operated in series. Tne solids to be processed are placed in trays or on trucks which move progressively through the tunnel in contact with hot gases. Operation is semieontinuous when the tunnel is filled, one truck is removed from the discharge end as each new truck is fed into the inlet end. In some cases, the trucks move on tracks or monorails, and they are usually conveyed mechanically, employing chain drives connec ting to the bottom of each truck. Schematic diagrams of three typical tunnel arrangements are shown in Fig. 12-54. Belt-conveyor and screen-conveyor tunnels are truly continuous in operation, carrying a layer of solids on an endless conveyor.  [c.1195]

The separation operation called distillation utihzes vapor and hquid phases at essentially the same temperature and pressure for the coexisting zones. Various lands of devices such as r andom or sti uctui ed packings and plates or tr ays are used to bring the two phases into intimate contact. Trays are stacked one above the other and enclosed in a cyhndrical shell to form a column. Pacldngs are also generally contained in a cyhndrical shell between hold-down and support plates. A typical tray-type distillation column plus major external accessories is shown schematically in Fig. 13-1.  [c.1242]

The synthesis route for ORNL s porous carbon fiber-carbon binder composites is illustrated in Fig. 1. A schematic diagram of the molding arrangement is shown in Figure 2. The selected fibers were mixed in a water slurry with powdered phenolic resin (Durez grade 7716) purchased from the Occidental Chemical Corp., N. Tonawanda, N.Y. 14120, U.S.A. The phenolic resin is a B-stage (insoluble in water or alkaline solutions), two-step, thermosetting resin consisting of a Novalak (C HjOHCHj), powder to which -8 wt% of hexamethylenetetramine (CH2)6N4 is added in powdered form as an activator for polymerization. The average particle size was 9 / m, and the carbon yield after pyrolysis is typically 50%.  [c.170]

Wetting, which is the establishment of molecular contact at the Van der Waals level, can occur in a time-dependent fashion at the interface. This is usually treated in terms of the spreading coefficient F,j = Fj — Fj — Fij, which is used to estimate the wettability of phase i spreading on phase j, with component surface tensions FJ, Fj and interfacial surface energy, Fjj. When F,j is positive, spreading occurs and good molecular contact is achieved between the surfaces. The dynamics of wetting and de-wetting has received considerable attention from Brochard et al and an excellent molecular understanding is developing for many polymer systems. For our purposes, we provide a brief phenomenological description of wetting to illustrate potential problems in evaluating the time-dependence of welding. Fig. 2 shows a schematic region of the plane of contact of a polymer interface [13]. Due to surface roughness, etc., good contact and wetting are not achieved instantaneously at all locations. Typically, wetted pools are nucleated at random locations at the interface and propagate radially until coalescence and complete wetting are obtained. This problem can be treated phenomenologically as a two-dimensional nucleation and growth process such that the fractional wetted area, 0(/), is given as [13]  [c.357]

Polymers containing long alkyl side chains, typically between 16 and 22 carbon atoms in length, have been used extensively as low adhesion backsizes for PSA tape products for many years. The general structure of such polymers is shown schematically in Fig. 8. The alkyl side chains are attached through a bridging group, R, to the polymer backbone, and the backbone may contain comonomers,  [c.550]

The magnetization changes accompanying high pressure shock-compression loading can be measured in a relative sense by the use of magnetic cores on which excitation and receiving inductive coils have been placed [68G03]. Such an arrangement is shown schematically in Fig. 5.14. The magnetic core is typically composed of a commercial, dense wrapping of 0.15-mm-thick ferromagnetic metal foil, 16 mm wide, wrapped into a rectangular cross sec-  [c.122]

The emulsion polymerization process is usually canied out within batch stirred reactors. The polymerization method is also suitable for the continuous operation of the reactor. The schematical representation of a typical laboratory-scale stirred reactor system for emulsion polymerization is given in Fig. 3 [41]. Sealed reactors are usually preferred since the process is usually conducted under nitrogen atmosphere. The nitrogen is supplied from a pressurized cylinder and sent to the reactor with a certain flow rate prior to and during the polymerization. In some cases, the reactor is purged with nitrogen for only a certain period before the initiation of polymerization to remove the dissolved oxygen through the continuous medium. Then, the reactor is sealed and the nitrogen flow is stopped after adding of the initiator. A heating jacket is located around the reactor. Temperature control of the polymerization medium is achieved by circulating a hot fluid (usually water) through the jacket around the reactor. The heating fluid is withdrawn  [c.193]


See pages that mention the term FCC typical schematic : [c.552]    [c.345]    [c.70]    [c.11]   
Turboexpanders and Process Applications (0) -- [ c.261 ]