The beam pump has a sub-surface plunger with check valves at either end. The pump is rocked up and down by the movement of fhe walking beam on surface. The walking beam is driven by an electric or reciprocating motor. The downhole plunger and walking beam are mechanically connected by sucker rods. Different plunger sizes allow for a large range of possible flow rates. For a given plunger size, the flow rate can be further adjusted by altering stroke length and pump speed. Even lower flow rates can easily be accommodated by cycling the pump. Finding the right balance between stroke length and pump speed is the art of beam pump design. Sub-optimal designs lead to poor efficiencies and excessive rod and pump wear. A dynamometer is used to monitor the system. The dynamometer chart , showing the relationship between pump travel and load, is the main diagnostic tool.  [c.230]

Emissions rates for a specific source can be measured directiy by inserting sampling probes into the stack or vent and this has been done for most large point sources. It would be an impossible task to do for every source in an area inventory, however. Instead, emission factors, based on measurements from similar sources or engineering mass-balance calculations, are appHed to most sources. An emission factor is a statistical average or quantitative estimate of the amount of a pollutant emitted from a specific source type as a function of the amount of raw material processed, product produced, or fuel consumed. Emission factors for most sources have been compiled (2). Emission factors for motor vehicles are determined as a function of vehicle model year, speed, temperature, etc. The vehicles are operated using various driving patterns on a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer-based emissions data are used in EPA s MOBILE 4 model (3) to calculate total fleet emissions for a given roadway system.  [c.366]

Power consumption during metal cutting can be estimated from forces acting on a tool during the cutting. This can be measured on a dynamometer. In cutting operations the power consumption, P, at the spindle, in watts, is approximately equal to  [c.238]

Dynamometer and Vehicle Testing. Friction materials are evaluated in the laboratory by a great variety of tests and equipment.  [c.275]

Evaluations of friction and wear characteristics using sample dynamometers such as the Chase machine are on the decline. In the most rehable sample test machines the output torque is controlled so that different materials all do the same amount of work. One disadvantage of sample test machines is that the ratios of friction-material area to rotor area and friction-material mass to rotor mass are quite different from the ratios used on vehicles (35). The heat generation, storage, and rejection conditions are therefore quite different, resulting in unreflable data. A second disadvantage is that only one material is tested, whereas in vehicles having dmm brakes two types of friction materials may be used together and there are interaction effects. The advantage is mainly one of economics more tests at less cost.  [c.275]

The full brake dynamometer, when properly instmmented and controlled, reflects the actual brake performance in a vehicle with reasonable accuracy. High initial investment is recovered through operation independent of the climatic conditions and by a fully automatic operation for extended periods, minimizing personnel costs.  [c.275]

A. E. Anderson and co-workers, "Asbestos Emissions from Brake Dynamometer Tests," SAE PaperNo. 730549, SAE, New York, May 1973.  [c.276]

The test for evaluating individual vehicle emissions, the ETP (4), specifies that a test vehicle be stored in an area where the ambient temperature is between 20 and 29°C for at least 12 hours immediately prior to the emission test. Then, the vehicle is placed on a chassis dynamometer which is calibrated for the vehicle weight and road load. The vehicle is started and driven for 41 min on a prescribed cycle of accelerations, cmises, decelerations, idles, a 10-min shutdown (called the hot soak), and a period of remn.  [c.481]

The EPA regulation prohibits more than 2 grams per test to escape into the atmosphere (114). The test consists of a diurnal cycle of 1 hour where the temperature of the fuel is raised from 15.6 to 28.9°C during a 17 mile mn on a chassis dynamometer. An immediate hot soak in a shed enclosure follows the dynamometer mn.  [c.492]

Dynamometer method (for medium-sized motors, say up to 500 h.p.). The output of an induction motor may be calculated by  [c.256]

Calibrated machine. When brake and pulley or dynamometer methods are not possible, the test motor may be loaded onto a calibrated generator. The efficiency curve of the generator must be available.  [c.256]

Readings of voltage, current and speed should be taken. The torque value is obtained directly by the dynamometer, pony brake and rope and pulley methods and indirectly by the calibrated machine method. Speed-torque and speed-current tests must be conducted at a rated voltage or as near to this as practical. When it is necessary to establish values of current and torque at the rated voltage, based on tests made at reduced voltage, the current may increase by a ratio higher than the first power of the voltage and the torque by a ratio higher than the square of the voltage due to possible saturation of flux leakage paths. See also Figure 27.2(b) and note under serial number 9 Section 7.19 for more clarity. This relationship varies with the design and, as a first approximation, is sometimes taken as the current varying directly with voltage and torque with the square of the voltage.  [c.258]

Most ethylene plants operate continuously with the expanders operating at or near design conditions. If necessary, due to their unique design characteristics, radial inflow turboexpanders can accommodate a wide range of process conditions without significant losses in thermal or mechanical efficiency. Expanders may be loaded with booster compressors, gear-coupled generators, dynamometers, or other in-plant mechanical equipment such as pumps. In ethylene plants, turboexpanders are typically used in eitlier post-boost or pre-boost applications.  [c.58]

The choice of a turboexpander load may be influenced by the desire to optimize refrigeration. In other words, a dynamometer load may be chosen over a generator load due to speed considerations. Additionally, there are other constraints imposed on optimal design. Factors such as impeller peripheral velocity (tip speed), bearing design, axial load balance, material selection, and manufacturing methods (which have greatly improved in the recent decades) all have an influence.  [c.59]

Figure 3-11. Expander-dynamometer cross-section. Figure 3-11. Expander-dynamometer cross-section.
One of the critical measurements is torque or shaft power. A variety of methods is recognized direct methods such as torque meters or reaction mounted drivers (dynamometers) and indirect methods such as electrical power input to drive motors, heat balance, or heat input to a loop cooler. See Part 7, Measurement of Shaft Power, PTC 19.7 1961 [3] for additional information.  [c.425]

If a preference were to be given, it would be listed in the order stated above, recognizing that the dynamometer is limited in size, but works well with the PTC 9 class of equipment.  [c.425]

The EPA urban driving schedule is diagramed in Eigure 3a. Its I 8 start-and-stop cycles cover 7.5 miles in 1,372 seconds, with an average speed of 19.5 mph and a peak speed of 56.7 mph. The federal Test Procedure (FTP) used for measuring exhaust emissions is based on this schedule. It involves operating a car, which has been initially stabilized at room temperature, for the prescribed 7.5 miles, shutting off the engine for 1(1 minutes, then restarting and repeating the first five cycles. The FTP is performed on a chassis dynamometer, with the vehicle stationai y and the drive wheels turning a roller in the floor that is connected to an electric generator. That generator is loaded to simulate the rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag that would be encountered when actually driving the vehicle on the road. The urban fuel economy (MPG ) is determined from this test.  [c.103]

The schedule used to measure highway fuel economy (MPG, ), also driven on a chassis dynamometer, is diagramed in Figure 3b. It covers 10.2 miles in 765 seconds at an average speed of 48.2 mph and a peak speed of 59.9 mph. In contrast to the urban schedule, there  [c.104]

D 2758 1986 Method of testing engine coolants by engine dynamometer  [c.1099]

Many improvements have been made in both combustion and emissions control from the first experimental engine operating at GGTD (54). The new DDC preproduction engines have increased compression, 23 1 compared to 19 1, allowing the glow plugs to function only during starting. The rest of the time the cylinder temperatures are high enough to autoignite methanol. This revision increased the life of glow plugs from an average of 11,900 to 22,100 km between failures. Fuel economy has also improved as have exhaust emissions. Tests performed on an engine dynamometer following the federal test procedure are many times better than California s 1991 bus standard as shown in Table 5.  [c.432]

The Office of Transportation Technologies of the U.S. DOE is supporting programs to develop fuel cells for transportation appfications. As of this writing, the viabifity of a PAFC-powered bus (9-m long) operating on an urban route is being investigated. This program is coordinated by H-Power (BeUeville, N.J.) in collaboration with subcontractors Bus Manufacturing USA, Inc. (bus design and fabrication), Booz Allen Hamilton (bus system integration), Fuji Electric Co. Ltd. (50-kW PAFC hardware), Soleq Corp. (power train and controls), and Transportation Manufacturing Corp. (transit bus industry guidance and 12-m bus conceptual design). The PAFC (0.2 m electrode area, 175 cells) is designed to operate at 240 m A /cm (0.66 V/cell) and 190°C on H2 from steam-reformed CH OH. The overall design efficiency is 38% (based on LHV CH OH). Delivery of the buses for dynamometer testing began in 1993. Demonstration mns are planned for Washington, D.C. and Los Angeles.  [c.583]

Emission standards have been set for heavy-duty vehicles in much the same manner as they have been set for gasoline engines. Because heavy-duty vehicles are primarily diesels, the focus is on diesel engine emissions. Standards have been written in units of grams per brake-horsepower-hour (g/bhph) = g/kWh X 1.34, which normalise the emissions according to the total energy output of an engine over the specified driving cycle. In contrast to light-duty vehicle testing where testing is carried out on the total vehicle, heavy-duty engines are certified in tests on an engine dynamometer. A series of accelerations is carried out and the emissions are measured. Table 12 shows U.S. emissions standards. Eor heavy-duty engines, the most difficult emissions standards to meet are total particulates and NO. When standards were relatively high, they were met by engine redesign without fuel changes. At 1994 and future levels, fuel changes have also been specified. Many studies have been pubUshed on the interactions between engine design, fuel composition, and emissions, and the conclusions are not always in agreement. It is generally agreed that sulfur contributes to particulate emissions and that lowering sulfur helps to meet the particulate standards. It is also generally agreed that in terms of engine design parameters, there is an inverse relationship between NO and particulates. Rapid, complete combustion reduces particulate emissions but also promotes the formation of NO. Results of a CRC program which measured emissions from nine fuels in a heavy-duty diesel engine showed that higher aromatics produced higher levels of both NO and particulates and that higher levels of cetane number produced lower levels of all four regulated pollutants HC, CO, NO, and particulates (81). Particulate emissions have also been shown to be affected by fuel density (82).  [c.194]

Example 5. There are six dynamometers available for engine testing. The test duration is set at 200 h which is assumed to be equivalent to 20,000 km of customer use. Failed engines are removed from testing for analysis and replaced. The objective of the test is to analy2e the emission-control system. Failure is defined as the time at which certain emission levels are exceeded.  [c.11]

C. W. Brabender Instmments, Inc, has long been a suppHer of rheometers, mixers, extmders, and other instmments to many iadustries, including those manufacturing resins and plastics, mbber, food, building products, pigments, and adhesives. Brabender once suppHed tme Couette viscometers, the Rheotron and Viscotron, but in the 1990s have restricted themselves to production of instmments that combine rotation with mixing and/or extmsion. The Plasti-Corder PL 2000 and Electronic Plasti-Corder torque rheometers are quite different from most of the other commercial rotational viscometers and may fit better with the extmsion rheometers in Table 6. However, many of their appHcations are to mixing rather than extmsion and their use certainly is not restricted to polymer melts. These rheometers detect torque with a dynamometer consisting of a movable gear box coupled to a load cell by a torque arm. The measuring attachment is either a small batch mixer or a miniature extmder. Torque is plotted against working (mixing or extmding) time.  [c.188]

When power levels are low or cannot otherwise be utilized, a dynamometer or an air brake (blower) may be used. Figure 3-11 shows a typical dynamometer-loaded turboexpander cross-section.  [c.58]

In comparisons between the fuel economies of conventional passenger cars and those using series hybrid divelines, the hybrid vehicles have the same weight and road load as the conventional cars. Still, the utilization of the hybrid driveline resulted in about a 50 percent improvement in fuel economy for the FUDS cycle and about a 10 percent improvement oil the FHWDS (highway cycle). The fuel economy of the conventional cars was taken from the EPA Fuel Economy Guide corrected by 10 percent for the EUDS and 22 percent for the highway cycle. These corrections were made, because the actual dynamometer fuel economy test data had been reduced by those factors so that the published fuel economies would be in better agreement with values experienced in the real world.  [c.641]

Work is movement of mass through distance, and power IS work accomplished or energy transferred at a given rate or m a given time. Horsepower is a measure of power—first used, so it is said, by one of the pioneers of steam engine development, James Watt. One horsepower is, approximately, the work a good draft horse could accomplish in a minute—now given as 33,000 foot pounds/minute or 746 watts. A locomotive s power is often rated by the horsepower generated by its prime mover (the engine for converting fuel to power and motion), and the pulling force it can give to the first car in its train (drawbar horsepower). The difference between engine horsepower and drawbar horsepower is power used or lost in the locomotive s transmission, wheel slippage, and auxiliai y functions such as producing air pressure for braking or electric current for lighting and other onboard train devices, plus the power needed to move the locomotive itself. A locomotive s tractive effort (work performed by wheel torque at the rails) is estimated in pounds. Actual tractive effort can be directly measured with the use of a wheel dynamometer. WTiat is most important to a railroad, however, is drawbar pull, which equals tractive effort minus the force necessary to move the locomotive.  [c.723]

These laboratory tests may be followed by engine dynamometer tests (BS5117 Section 2.4 1985(1989)) and finally by road tests in working vehicles (BS 5117 Part 2 Section 2.5 1985 (1989)), thus completing the sequence of laboratory, field, service testing.  [c.1084]

See pages that mention the term Dynamometer : [c.349]    [c.256]    [c.258]    [c.264]    [c.238]    [c.258]   
Turboexpanders and Process Applications (0) -- [ c.58 , c.61 ]